Mode of contactless scanning of the form of outer contour of curved surface
FIELD: the invention refers to using of a laser emitter for scanning curved surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: a light of beam from a laser emitter is directed on the scanned surface. The forming of conical light surface is made by rotating of laser emitter for making on the scanned surface an image in the shape of a ring and the form of the surfaces is determined by shifting the ring along the surface with interpolation of points' height which are determined according to stated correlation.
EFFECT: scanning of long-length and large dimension surfaces.
The invention relates to the field of scanning the shape of the surfaces, namely curved surfaces used to create forms in aircraft construction, shipbuilding, automotive, etc.
A known method lies in the fact that the glass is exposed to a beam of light and the offset passed through the glass of the light beam determine the thickness of glass, characterized in that the light beam is formed as a conical surface, additionally sent to the second glass, the same light beam coaxially with the first, with a convergence angle that is different from the first, forming a first converging geocentricity the light beam, the diameter of the light rings formed in the recording plane, located at a point of convergence of the beams perpendicular to their axis, determine the thickness and refractive index, the offset of the axis of the beam determine the clinoid shape of the glass, local distortions of the rings assess the deviation of a surface from the plane. The application for the invention 98101184/28, 6 G 01 B 21/08 from 09.01.1998. However, this method cannot be used for measuring opaque objects.
There is a method of measurement consists in the fact that the light beam of the laser emitter passing through the beam-splitting prism is divided into two beams, one of which, passing without deviations on, gets on the line rotating with the settlement of annoy angular velocity of the mirror prism and rotated in a horizontal plane on the screen Ostroumova of dvuhmatchevogo pulse photosensor horizontal displacements. The second beam is reflected at an angle of 90° in relation to the first, passing through the rotary prism, is also sent to the mirror face of the prism and rotates in a vertical plane on the screen Ostroumova of dvuhmatchevogo pulse photosensor vertical displacement. Beam when passing through the sensors with frequency ω0is formed by a periodic sequence of current pulses. The position of these pulses in time is uniquely associated with a spatial position of the boundary and slotted photosensor and the distance between them. Measuring time intervals between pulses, it is possible to get information about offset
681.586. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree
621.397. doctor of technical Sciences "research and Development of technical control on the basis of the radiation scanning systems". Patent RU 2054626 C1 / MKI 6 G 01 21/00, No. 5050230/28). However, this method has disadvantages, because it also means having contact with the surface to be measured that for some surfaces and processing methods are not possible or desirable.
A known method lies in the fact that on the scanned surface is projected reference laser beam, wherein the reflected light is collected by the lens with circular optical sensor. tranny light is collected on the surface in the form of a circle, the radius of which increases with the distance to the scanned surface. Triangulation calculation of mean radius of the circle allows you to determine the distance to the measured point and eventually digitize scanned surface (CAD and Graphics from 04. 2000 "ModelSim 2000 System 3D - scan II"), adopted for the prototype. However, in the description there is no information revealing the mathematical essence of the method necessary to understand the scanning process. Also not specified how you can apply this method to scan panels and coverings.
The aim of the present invention is to empower scanning method, the mathematical description of the process, adaptation of the method for scanning a lengthy and large surfaces. The aim is achieved in that in the known method introduces a rotation of the laser around the longitudinal axis at an angle with the formation of the conical surface, so that the image sensor removes non-mirrored image of the beam in the form of a ring, and ring directly, which increases the measurement accuracy. Therefore, the proposed method meets the criterion of "novelty."
There is a method that uses a section of the scanned surface by a laser beam based on the laser triangulation lines, where skaniruet the second surface of the projected line, the optical image which is taken at an angle sensor. Thus, altitudinal changes of the surface into the shape change of the optical line image (Gubanov V., "development of the basic volumetric laser scanning for the processing programming on CNC equipment"; the dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of technical Sciences, Department of electronic engineering, Ural state technical University, Ekaterinburg), but do not specify how this method be used to scan large surfaces, and it does not have universal properties. Therefore, the proposed method meets the criterion of "substantial differences" and the criterion of "inventive step".
The proposed method is illustrated in figure 1. On the scanned surface 8 beam 4 of the laser oscillator 2, while rotating around the axis 5 at an angle 6 with the angular speed 3 on the scanned surface 8 is created ring 7. Received the ring removes the image sensor 1, located perpendicular to the normal of the surface 8, the axis of rotation 5 of the laser oscillator 2. Changing the shape of the surface will change the radius of the ring in the appropriate quadrant.
The mathematical description of the proposed method are presented in figure 2. The form definition surface is ti the i-th point based on the determination of the height of the i-th point on the base plane. Laser emitter 2 (figure 1), rotating at an angle α/2, creates the reference plane 1 a ring with radius R. the Scanned item 2 is located on the reference plane 1, therefore, the image sensor 1 (figure 1) comes onto the scanned surface is distorted ring with radius toward the target quadrant r. The height of the measured point Hiis determined by the formula
where Hi is the height of the measured point; R is the radius of the ring on the base surface in the 1st point; riis the radius of the distorted ring on the scanned surface in the i-th point; α/2 - angle laser emitter 2 (figure 1).
The scanning method of the form curved surfaces, namely, that on the scanned surface is exposed to a beam of light from a laser emitter, characterized in that, with the purpose of extending the known method, produce education conical luminous surface by rotating the laser emitter to create on the scanned surface of an image in the form of a ring, and the shape of the surface is determined by moving the ring on the scanned surface by interpolation of heights i-x of the points that define the relationship
where Ni- the height of the measured point;
R is the radius of the ring on the base surface in the i-the point;
riis the radius of the distorted ring on the scanned surface in the i-th point;
α/2 - angle laser emitter.
FIELD: engineering of scanning devices.
SUBSTANCE: scanning device has scanning element, engine, power amplifier, digital-analog converter, adder, generator, and it additionally has frequency splitter, reverse counter, inductive angle counter in form of sinusoidal-cosine rotary transformer, analog-digital converter of sinusoidal-cosine rotary transformer to code, transformer of frequency to voltage, subtracting amplifier, first, second, third and fourth digital comparators, reverse sign trigger, device for setting mirror reverse angles codes, device for setting codes of beginning and end of frame and device for forming synchronization pulses for scanning.
EFFECT: increased linearity and stability of movement of scanning element.
FIELD: engineering of optic-electronic devices, possible use for controlling spatial position of light ray in different optic-electronic devices, for example, heat visors, for visualization of heat field normally invisible to human eye.
SUBSTANCE: method for pressing rotor of scanning device includes forming magnetic field by means of magnet-rotor and control windings, closing aforementioned field on smooth stator, magnetic field is deformed, transversely directed force is generated, applied to magnet-rotor and rotor is pressed in supports to body of scanning device. Particularity of method is that deformation of magnetic field is generated by means of inserting a magnetic-soft body into gap between magnet-rotor and stator, aforementioned body having high magnetic penetrability.
EFFECT: simplified magnetic pressing of rotor, improved manufacturability of scanning device, maintained direction of rotor pressing towards supports.
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: optical deflector can be used in devices with optical-mechanical scanning of image for performing interlaced scanning. Optical deflector has framed mirror mounted onto base due to elastic member, piezoelectric ceramic bimorph member disposed in parallel to plane of mirror and supported as a cantilever onto the base. Free end of piezoelectric bimorph member is connected with peripheral area of mirror. Deflector additionally has restraint unit fastened onto mirror's frame and damping unit which has one end rigidly connected to the base. Free end of damping unit is connected with peripheral area of mirror through restraint unit and with free end of piezoelectric ceramic bimorph member mounted in restraint unit. Elastic member is connected with opposite peripheral area of mirror.
EFFECT: reduced load onto working end; improved vibration stability.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has light radiation source, deflecting device and optical image generation circuit, including optical element for forming an image, position so that when aligned to direction of additional scanning main beam of deflected light beam passes portion excepting optical axis. In first variant optical element has surface with alternating grade of sagittal non-sphericity, which changes along direction of main scanning of said optical element. In range of effective scanning of surface value of displacement of position of falling light beam in direction of additional scanning is made the same. In second variant of scanning device optical element is made so that on surface for scanning position of images of two light beams, falling in a slanting manner on surface, perpendicular to rotation axis of said deflecting device, at angles γ and γ' (0≠γ<γ'), almost coinciding with each other.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.
8 cl, 30 dwg
SUBSTANCE: IR imager has objective, rotating multifaced prism, image transfer device and linear photo-receiving array. Objective has frontal meniscus turned with its convexity to object and afocal meniscus turned with its convexity to image and disposed close to plane of objective intermediate image. Entrance pupil of objective is disposed at front focal plane of frontal meniscus. Prism has skewed faces. Thickness of the prism along optical axis is thinner for smaller angles of skew than for larger angles. Axis of rotation of prism is disposed behind the plane of real intermediate image of objective. Device for transferring image has collimating and focusing components. Radiuses of curvature of frontal R1, R2 and afocal R3, R4 meniscuses along beam path are equal to: R1=(0,9-1,1)f'l, R2<1.5 f'l,R3=(0,95-1,05).((n-1)d3)/(1-β0)n), R4=β0 R3, where f'l is focal length of frontal meniscus, n is refraction factor of material of meniscuses, d3 is longitudinal thickness of afocal meniscus, β0 is linear magnification of afocal meniscus.
EFFECT: improved quality of image; simplified scan drive; improved frequency of frame scan.
4 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: determination of inner surface contour.
SUBSTANCE: the device has a laser, reflectors symmetrically installed on the scanner assembly provided with means for angular scanning of the reflectors relative to the axis of the mentioned assembly, and receiver of the laser beam reflected from the object surface. The scanner assembly is made in the form of a motor, whose shaft is coupled to the reflectors; the means for angular scanning relative to the axis of the scanner assembly are made in the form of a solenoid installed in the axis of the motor shaft, a laser beam splitter is positioned between the laser and deflectors.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of contour measurement.
FIELD: transport engineering; rail vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring facilities and it can be used for checking condition of rail vehicle wheels 1. According to propose method, axle-box of wheel 1 to be checked and rail 3 with contrast mark 9 are exposed to flow of radiation, and image is received by radiation receiver. Radiator and matrix receiver are placed at a distance from rail track. Axle box and rail are irradiated with flow in form of train of short pulses with frequency proportional to wheel speed. Position of maximum of correlation functions obtained at correlation of standard fragment of image of axle box or rail mark with image in current frame is determined and changes in radii and parameters of wheel are judged by changes of vertical coordinates of maxima of correlation functions of axle boxes and rail in image frames.
EFFECT: improved reliability, enlarged functional capabilities.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises light source and light receiver provided with means for processing information. The light source and receiver are made in block that is made of a tube. The scanning unit is provided with two channels optically connected with the tube and system of mirrors, which allow the light to pass from the tube to the outer or inner surface of the article through the channels. The scanning unit is optically connected with the tube so that the optical axis of one of the channels is in coincidence with the optical axis of the tube.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has coherent emission source, first condensing filter, consisting of condensing lens, first and second light-splitting elements, objective, interferometer, consisting of standard and controlled surface, device for measuring optical beam drive length, first projection system, registering block and system for processing interference image, system for projecting auto-collimation images. Also provided is additional condensing filter, mounted in focal plane of objective, device for changing optical length of beam drive is positioned behind the laser, made in form of two transparent diffraction grids, one of which can move in direction, perpendicular to grid rows, first diffraction grid divides emission on two beams, each of which gets on to lenses of condensing filters, while controlled and standard surfaces are deflected relatively to normal line to optical axis.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing that receives electric lamp, toroidal lens, conical mirror of ring vision, lens, and scaling grid arranged in series. The device is additionally provided with aperture with ring and central round recesses positioned in front of the lamp, ring and round color filters mounted in front of the recesses, and second mirror cone positioned behind the aperture. The top of the cone points to the lamp. The semi-transparent mirror, color filter, measuring grid, and first TV camera are arranged along the longitudinal axis of the housing behind the lens. The second color filter, second measuring grid, and second TV camera are arranged in series along the perpendicular to the axis of the housing behind the lens.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be controlled on the movable traverse gear having two extent of freedom, illuminating the surface of the article by light, receiving the light reflected from the surface of the article with the use of a photodetector, moving the article parallel to the X-axis, determining coordinates of the light spots on the photodetectors of the current values of the heights of the article shape, locking the position of the table, scanning the main section of the article shape, comparing it with the reference one , and determining the quality of the article shape. The main section is scanned by moving the article parallel to the Y-axis, when the traverse gear is in a position determined from the formula proposed. The device comprises unmovable horizontal base, vertical cantilever secured to the base, unit for measuring the article shape mounted on the vertical cantilever, two carriages that define a traverse gear and provided with the individual drives controlled by a computer, and pickup of linear movements. The first carriage moves parallel to the X-axis, and the second carriage is mounted on the first one and moves parallel Y-axis.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises directing a coherent light beam at the surface to be tested, producing and recording interferogram of the light path difference, and processing the interferogram. The tested and reference surfaces are exposed to the second coherent light beam, and the second interferogram of the light path difference is created. The second interferogram is provided with the additional light path difference with respect to that of the first interferogram, which is equal to the one fourth of the beam wavelength. The light path difference of the first interferogram is determined at specific points of the surface to be tested from the signal of illumination in one of two interferograms. The device comprises source of coherent light, first filter-condenser, first and second light-splitting units, interferometer composed of tested and reference surfaces, unit for measuring optical length of the beam, first projecting unit, recording unit, observing unit, and unit for processing the interferogram. The device also has two light-splitting units between which two pairs of transparent diffraction lattices are interposed. The filter-condenser, the second light-splitting unit, and λ/4 lattice are arranged in series in the direction of the beam.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device for automatic measuring coordinates of string plummets of hydraulic structures has reflecting screen, illumination source, two optical systems each of which is blocked with corresponding electro-optical array, device for measuring coordinate of string's projection, digital serial communication desk. Device also has resolver that has in turn two input serial communication desks, which have their outputs connected with controller, and indicator.
EFFECT: high precision of measurement of coordinates of string plummets.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method includes lighting object by collimated parallel beam of coherent monochromatic light, directed at angle of raising of screw surface relatively to object axis, as which object with screw surface is used, receiving optical image of its profile and following processing of received profile of image to perform further calculations of its parameters, while lighting of object is performed concurrently on two portions by collimated parallel beams of coherent monochromatic light, directed at raising angle of screw surface relatively to object axis, while these two beams are positioned symmetrically relatively to longitudinal axis of object and two images of said profile are received, mutual position of separate elements in which does not depend on presence of vibrations and shaking.
EFFECT: higher quality.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.
EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; instrument technology.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wear checking system contains optical receiving projection system and converting-and-calculating unit. It includes also car position pickup and car counter whose outputs are connected to inputs to inputs of converting-ands-calculated unit. Optical receiving projection system consists of sets of stereo modules. Rigid structure of each module includes two CCD television cameras and lighting unit. Outputs of stereomodules are connected to corresponding inputs of converting-and-calculating unit. Stereomodules are rigidly installed relative to each other.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
3 cl, 2 dwg