Method for driving of raises with rock breaking by deep-hole charges

FIELD: mining industry, applicable in driving of horizontal workings.

SUBSTANCE: compensation and blast holes are drilled in a rock mass over the entire length of the raise. The blast holes are charges partially or completely, and they are subjected to a short-delay blasting into compensation holes and then the formed compensation cavities. The interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession, depending on the detonation characteristics of the explosive, charge diameter, physico-technical properties of the rock mass, height and diameter of the newly formed compensation cavities should provide for breaking of the rock from the mass and full outburst of the rock mass from the cavity, i.e. to prevent the pressing effect of the rock mass in the contour of the raise.

EFFECT: determined the interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession with prevention of the rock mass pressing in the contour of the raise, which allows to increase the height of the blasted section and enhance the physico-technical properties of the raise driving.

1 dwg, 1 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to methods of tunnelling raise boring mining, and can be used when drilling horizontal mine workings.

There is a method of sinking itself with the breaking of rocks of the borehole charges for replacement wells. The essence of the method consists in drilling compensation and blastholes, the loading blastholes sections and their detonations (see Reference to deterrence. Ed. Binkowska. - M., Nedra, 1988, str-381).

However, this method is not indicated instantly, coredocumentimpl or slow blow well, what intervals deceleration must be applied between the blast holes. Therefore, the height of the thump of hands section, as a rule, does not exceed 4 m (see tab. 12.15) and blasting of rocks is mainly produced by the slaughter of the rebels. The small height of the section, as indicated in the Handbook, leads to multiple repetition of the operations of loading, blasting and ventilation, or deformation wells, rolling rocks, destruction of the rebels.

The closest technical solution is the method of penetration of the rebels breaking the rock borehole explosive charge on the compensation of the wells, including drilling compensation and blastholes, loading blastholes sections and blasting wells with an interval of process plants is placed 0.5-1.0 (see Moines V.N., Pashkov HELL, Latyshev, VA the Destruction of rocks. - M., Nedra, 1975, s-160): the height of the partition in this case, up to 3-5 m, and sometimes 20-25 m, which partly eliminates the disadvantages described above.

However, in the way that the interval of deceleration to charge electric wells, 0.5-1.0, selected experienced when driving against mines Leninogorsk plant, i.e. defined by its physical and technical properties of rocks. In addition, the deceleration interval does not depend on the volume of the compensation chamber, the detonation characteristics of CENTURIES, the diameter of the explosive charge, the height of the thump of hands section.

The method of sinking itself with the breaking of rocks by the downhole explosive charge includes drilling of compensation and blastholes, loading blastholes and their short-delay blasting on the compensation bore or cavity formed, characterized in that the deceleration interval between successively exploding wells is determined taking into account the need to prevent the effect of pressing the rock mass in the path rising from the expression

where τaboutthe time required for blasting rocks from the array;

τInthe time required for the release of the rock mass of the compensation chamber, C.

where W is LENS or the distance between the explosive charge and the wall of the compensation chamber, m;

D - speed detonation of EXPLOSIVES, m/s;

ρinthe density of loading, kg/m3;

dC- the diameter of the explosive charge, m;

μ- the coefficient of friction between the structural units in the array;

ν is the Poisson's ratio separately;

ρ- bulk rocks, kg/m3;

F is the indicator of fracturing;

The p - value of rock pressure in the place of blasting, PA;

C is the speed of longitudinal waves separately, m/s;

Hp- the height of the compensation chamber, which produce breakage, m;

dpthe diameter of the compensation cavity, m;

ρn- bulk fractured rocks in the contour compensation chamber at the time of its release, kg/m3;

π=3,14.

The proposed method can provide the driving itself deep wells with increased height of the section by defining intervals deceleration between successive explosions wells, providing the breaking of rocks from the array and a full release of the rock mass of the newly formed compensation chamber.

The essence of the method is illustrated in the drawing and consists in the following. One of the reasons for the sinking of the rebels blowing wells in small sections (up to 3-4 m) or frequent pressing reset the affected sections of length 10-20 m blasted rock mass is correctly selected deceleration interval between successively exploding wells. The deceleration interval should be such that this time is enough for breaking rocks in the compensation cavity, and then under the action of the gaseous products of detonation on a full release of fragmented rock mass from the cavity. With a smaller amount of space, slow rock, thrown out the previous borehole charge, compacted rock the subsequent explosive charge, then another charge, etc. In the result after the explosion of the whole set of wells coefficient such loosening of the rock mass will be less than 2 and rash it of itself does not occur.

The proposed method is as follows. Initially drilling the set compensation and blastholes the full height of the rebels. The distance between the wells is chosen so that the amount of the compensation space (bore or cavity) was equal to not less than the amount of ejected rocks. The deceleration interval between successive borehole blasting explosive charge is determined by formulas (1)to(3). To calculate the deceleration interval detonation characteristics of CC (D, ρCand the diameter of the explosive charge (dCdetermine, using reference books. Physico-mechanical properties (to, ρ, ν) is usually defined at the stage of exploration by known methods. The values of f, μ depend on natural the th of fracturing and is determined by the average size of the individual d efrom table 1.

Table 1
dem<0,050,05-0,150,15-0,400,40-1,0>1,0
F>1212-1010-88-6<6
μ<0,2of 0.2-0.30,3-0,450,45-0,6>0,6

The amount of rock pressure in the area of the projected itself determine or geophysical methods, or by the well-known formula R=ρgH, where g is the acceleration of gravity, H is the depth from the ground surface). The value of W - LS for each blast hole is determined from geometric constructions (see drawing).

The height of the cavity Hpequal to the height of the rebels or the height of the thump of hands section, the diameter of the cavity dpfor each blast hole is determined from geometric constructions. Substituting the numerical values of the parameters in formula (2), (3)and then in (1), get the required deceleration interval between each of the successively exploding wells.

Next, make the loading wells CENTURIES in them militants with electric detonators or initiation system SINV timing slow and produce short-delay EOI shall ivanie.

Example. In block underground leaching 4D-701 is necessary to pass the cutting itself a total length of 25 feet First from top to bottom drilled downward compensation guide hole 1 diameter 105 mm and expanded its extender PC-220 to a diameter of 220 mm (see drawing). Then upwards along the well, blast hole method were rising length of 10 m and a cross section of 6 m2. Then from top to bottom drilled two countervailing well 2 with a diameter of 220 mm and 6 blast holes 3 with a diameter of 105 mm and a length of 15 meters

Further defined by the formulas (3), (2) and (1) intervals deceleration sufficient to release the rock mass of newly formed cavities.

Physico-technical properties of the array defined earlier by known methods and in accordance with table 1. Rocks in the area presents itself trachydacite,=4,35·103m/s, ρ=2,5·103kg/m3that ν=0,29, the average size of separateness de=0.15 m, f=10, μ=0,3. Blasting produces Grammofon M-21 with D=3,6·103m/s, ρB=0,85·103kg/m3d3=0,11 m the highest mountain of the pressure defined by the above formula and is equal to the depth H=400 m, which produced the blasting 9,8·106PA. The value of W and the average diameter of the formed cavity dpfor each explosive wells was determined according to the drawing performed in masstube:20, where 4 is the zone boundaries blasting from each well. The results of the measurements of W and dpare given in table. 2. Height compensation chamber Hpequal to the height of rise is 15 m, the volume weight of fractured rocks with regard to the compensation coefficient 2 is equal to ρp=0,5·ρ=1,25·103kg/m3. The results of calculations of deceleration intervals are given in table 2.

Table 2
No. of wells1'2'3'4'5'6'
W, m0,350,60,80,80,90,9
dpm0,60,91,21,41,61,8
τabout, 10-3,71625253030
τin,10-3c110165220257294330
τ, 10-3c117181245282324360

The interval of a slowdown in the electric detonators ED-E, ED--N and selection phases was carried out on the basis of the values τ from table. 2. For explosive charge 1', 2', 3', 4', 5', 6' intervals deceleration respectively equal to 0 MS, 120 MS, 300 MS, 500 MS, 800 MS, 1000 MS.

After this well was charged with the installation of militants, equipped with electric detonators ED-G, ED-3-N with steps slow 0, 6, 14, 18, 21, 23 and produced short-delay blasting wells 1'-6'.

After loading blasted rock from the bottom of the rebels found that rising length of 15 m is passed to the full height without pressing the rock mass in its path.

It was thus established that the use of the specified deceleration intervals between successive blasting wells provides the breaking of rocks from the array, the ejection of the rock mass of newly formed cavity and prevents the effect of pressing the rebels blasted rock mass. This allows you to increase the height of the section or even use bisection blasting at penetration rising up to 30 m, which significantly increases the technical-economic indicators of penetration itself and inclined mine workings.

APPLICATION

Analytical calculation of the deceleration interval required for the release of the rock mass of the compensation chamber at penetration rising mining

The process of ejection of the rock mass of the compensation cavity consists of two stages. At the first stage of th the explosion of the explosive charge in the direction of an open surface under the action of detonation products (DP) at a rate of 10-100 m/s distributed wave fracture strain, which produces crushing separateness of the rock mass and its breaking in the compensation cavity. In the second stage gaseous products of detonation (PD) affect fragmented rock mass, allowing its release from the formed cavity. This process can be written in the form

where τaboutthe time required for blasting rocks from the array;

τinthe time required for the release of the rock mass of the compensation chamber.

Value τaboutis determined by the formula

where- the average velocity of propagation of the wave deformations on the plot of the distance w from the explosive charge to open the surface. According to [1] the average speed of wave propagation of deformation equal to

Then

The time of ejection of the rock mass of the formed cavity is determined based on the energy conservation law, according to which the energy remaining in the PD after the release of the breed in the cavity (EDD), is spent on the kinetic energy release of the rock mass (Etofrom the cavity, ie,

It should be noted that the energy required to overcome the forces of gravity and friction in the rock mass,is not taken into account, because in the first case, numerical calculations show that the energy to overcome the forces of gravity by 2 orders of magnitude below EDD. The energy required to overcome friction in rock mass when it is moving, not included, since in this case the cavity is the effect of fluidization", i.e. due to the high density PD-(0,5-1,0)·103kg/m mountain mass of a certain time, as if floating in PD.

Obviously,

whereaverage removal of gaseous PD in the cavity after the explosion of the next explosive charge;

- average amount of gaseous PD in the cavity after the explosion.

Average values of parametersanddefined as the arithmetical mean in the initial stage (immediately after blasting RP1VP1and when the whole mass ejected from the cavity RP2VP2).

The value of PP1according to [2] for elongated explosive charge is determined from the formula

where Pcmedium pressure PD in the borehole;

Sc, SP1respectively the cross-sectional area of the bore and cavity.

Using survey data [2] from (10), we obtain

In the final stage of ejection of the mixture of the mountain mass is s and PD (GM-PD) value of P P2can be taken equal to 0.

Then the average pressure PD in the cavity during all the time of ejection of the rock mass it is

The average volume of the cavity occupied by the mixture of the rock mass-DD (HM-AP) for the full discharge of the mixture from the cavity, obviously equal to

The kinetic energy of the moving rock mix GM PD equal to

Substituting (13), (12) in (9)and calculated (14) in (8), we obtain the average speed of the mixture of GM PD in cavities

Obviously, the time required to fully discharge the mixture of PD-GM of the cavity, as well

Sources of information

1. Tyupin NR. Improving the efficiency of Geotechnology using explosive energy during the deformation of fractured strained rocks. - Diss. on saisc. academic step. Dr technology. Sciences. - Moscow, Vnipipromtechnologii. 2002, s.

2. Baum F.A., K.P. Stanyukovich, Schechter B. I. Physics of the explosion. - M.: Fizmatgiz 1959. 793 S.

The method of penetration itself with the breaking of rocks by the downhole explosive charge includes drilling of compensation and blastholes, loading blastholes and their short-delay blasting on the compensation bore or cavity formed, characterized in that the interval of process plants is placed between successively exploding wells is determined taking into account the need to prevent the effect of pressing the rock mass in the path rising from the expression

where τaboutthe time required for blasting rocks from the array;

τinthe time required for the release of the rock mass of the compensation chamber, C.

where W is LENS or the distance between the explosive charge and the nearest wall of the compensation chamber, m;

D - speed detonation of EXPLOSIVES, m/s;

ρinthe density of loading, kg/m3;

dC- the diameter of the explosive charge, m;

μ - the coefficient of friction between the structural units in the array;

ν is the Poisson's ratio separately;

ρ - bulk rocks, kg/m3;

F - measure criminalist array;

The p - value of rock pressure in the place of blasting, PA;

C is the speed of longitudinal waves separately, m/s;

Hp- the height of the compensation chamber, which produce breakage, m;

dpthe diameter of the compensation cavity, m;

ρn- bulk fractured rocks in the contour compensation chamber at the time of its release, kg/m3;

π=3,14.



 

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