Energy-generating turbine

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: turbine is designed to convert energy of water or air streams inflowing from side. Proposed turbine has shaft hinge-mounted in post around which blades are installed for turning in radial directions between supports rigidly and normally connected to shaft. Turning of blades is limited by stops. Blades are made flat, with rounded off long edges, and are arranged around shaft minimum in two directions with spaces between edges. Turning of blades is limited by two stops, and tire in turbine, thus formed, repeats in length of shaft with uniform angular turn. Supports can be made in form of radial cantilevers with aerodynamic profiling of cross section. Stops are made retractable into support body if pressure force of blade exceeds calibrated force of spring holding the stop in working position.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of using energy of fluid medium flow, simplified design.

3 cl, 6 dwg


The invention relates to the field of devices for generating energy of water currents or wind.

Known widely used hydraulic turbine (mechanical engineer's Handbook, edited by Iagodka, vol. 1, Moscow, 1951, s), in which the incoming flow of water is directed along the axis of the shaft. The main disadvantage of them is the need for high water pressure and, as a consequence, construction of the flesh, and the flow rate of the river is used more often once.

Known to be water, otherwise a mill wheel (Danilevsky CENTURIES, "History of hydropower plants in Russia until the nineteenth century", Lenizdat, 1940), in which the flow of water under pressure is directed transversely of the shaft and rigidly attached to the associated blades located around the shaft in radial directions in a single circular row.

In addition the above-mentioned disadvantages of the waterwheel is inefficient because it uses only the frontal flow pressure on the blades, which are also partially shield each other from the stream.

Known used in small wind energy engines (Applicano and others, "the Wind of Russia", Moscow power engineering Institute, 1996, p.21) with the axial direction of the thread rolling screw blades mounted on a horizontal shaft. Their disadvantages include low efficiency in the use of wind energy, which leads to the huge size of the response is of Ostrovok to generate meaningful practice for amount of energy. In addition, they require setting relative to the wind, place generator on a movable shaft installation.

Known wind engine (Applicano and others, "the Wind of Russia, 1996, p.23), running in the lateral direction of the wind, rolling blades arranged around a vertical shaft in radial directions parallel to the long sides, and the cross-section of the profiled blades by type aircraft wing. Torque on the shaft created by the gradient of the aerodynamic forces during movement of the blades to the wind and against it, what caused the big protivotumanki and, therefore, insufficient use of wind energy, due to the huge size of the engine. For example, when the estimated engine power 1 MW, the width of the blade is 3.3 m, length 27 m, the diameter of the engine 27 m, resulting in wide application engine does not find.

Object of the invention is: when used in the hydraulic version, the efficiency of the kinetic energy of the flow rate of rivers without the use of dams, as well as the energy of the tides-tides, surf, etc. while simplifying construction and operation, when using the invention in the wind scenario, efficiency and simplification of the device and operation.

The essential substance of the flesh of the invention is a turbine to generate energy in a side direction of the flow of water or wind, used the following essential features of the prototype:

the shaft is placed in the hinge hours;

- blades, mounted in bearings around the shaft in radial directions;

- support blades rigidly associated with the shaft.

Distinctive features of the invention are:

- mount the blades to the bearings via a hinge relative to one of the edges that can be rotated;

- restriction of rotation of the blades catches their radial position, mounted on the same poles on both sides of the hinges;

- placement of the blade rows of the at least two radial directions than the formed layer turbine;

- accommodation tiers along the length of the shaft with a uniform angular spread;

- performance gaps between the rounded edges of the blades at the radial position of planes.

The use of the invention allows to obtain the following positive technical results:

for hydraulic turbines:

- the removal of dams and reusability energy flow naturally flowing water of small rivers and rapids big by placing a turbine cascades in vertical or horizontal position along riverbeds;

- the possibility of generating power from tidal currents and tidal waves;

- simplicity of manufacture and operation;

- save the tion ecology and the environment;

for wind turbines:

- improving the efficiency of wind energy and the reduction of the dimensions of the wind turbines of the same power;

- simplicity of manufacture and operation;

- simplification of the regulation parameters of current;

- the ability to apply petrologically, i.e. flares, successively narrowing cross-section and increases the speed of flow before the turbine inlet.

In figures 1-6 shows:

Figure 1 - side view on the tier of the turbine in the direction of flow.

Figure 2 is a horizontal section of figure 1. Arrow "a" indicates the direction of flow.

Figure 3 - top view 4-tier turbine, the tabs 5 are conventionally not shown. Arrow "a" indicates the direction of flow.

4 is a diagram of the successive positions of the blades, one turn of the radial cantilever beams with 6 stops, limiting the transmission of blades 90°.

The arrows indicate the directions:

"and" - flow,

"b" turbine

"C" - the throwing out of the blades.

5 is a fragment of a turbine with fixed blades in the hinge, the axis of which is parallel to the axes of the cantilever beams.

6 is a cross-section shaped cantilever beams and the blade between them. Arrow "a" indicates the direction of flow.

The proposed turbine to generate energy rolling across the shaft on the eye with water or air and includes a shaft 1 (Figure 1, 2), around which is placed the blades 2, mounted in bearings rigidly connected with the shaft, with blades mostly flat rectangular posted by rows with gaps between their long edges of the cantilever beams 3 in at least two radial symmetric directions and strengthened by hinges 4 with respect to one of the long edges normal to the axis of the beam with the possibility of rotation, limited retainers 5 radial position of the blades mounted on the same beams on both sides of the hinges. The thus created vane stage of a turbine is repeated along the length of the shaft, the estimated number of times with a uniform angular spread of radial rows (Figure 3).

In order to increase the capacity of the turbine through the creation of an additional stimulus to the moment when the movement of the blades on the side of the road against oncoming flow angle of the moving blades is limited to an angle lower than 180°by 6 stops (Figure 4), rigidly connected with the radial consoles.

To reduce the height of the turbine given power, the axis of the hinges of the blades are parallel to the axes of the cantilever beams (Figure 5).

To increase the flow velocity immediately before the blade cross-section beams (6) in the direction of flow aerodynamically profiled mainly in the form of rosefinches is.

To reduce aerodynamic losses as supports are disks, which is placed between the shoulder blades.

To control the parameters of the turbine when changing the flow rate or load on the shaft portion of the clamps are made retractable from the blades when exceeding its pressure force calibrated resistance of the spring holding the latch in position.

In order to increase the effect of the circulation flow rate of the blade is a longitudinal section of a cylinder with a backrest height of not more than 1/5 of the length of the chord, with a flat surface at a radial position of the vanes is directed against the stream.

The work of the proposed turbines is as follows: the incident across the shaft 1 (figure 1, figure 2) the flow of water or air sets of blades 2 mounted on the cantilever beams 3 by means of hinges 4 in two positions: radial focusing in the tabs 5 and in the plane of the flow, resulting hydrodynamic forces, specifically the lifting force and the frontal pressure is applied to the planes of the blades located in a radial position, many times greater than the force RAM pressure on the area of cross-sections of the blades located in the plane of the flow, the result is a torque on the shaft causing it to rotate in the direction of the major forces, while the radial position l is patok is maintained as long, while their direction coincides with the direction of flow, i.e. during rotation of the shaft at an angle πafter which the movement of the blades is directed against the stream, and they are thrown to the corner πaround the hinges are installed in the plane of the flow and remain in this position before meeting with the holders of the radial position of the blades, i.e. during the movement in the corner πafter which the process repeats. The placement of the blades on the tiers in radial directions should eliminate or minimize shielding of the previous thread, the movement of the blades later.

The uniformity of the torque on the shaft is achieved by placing his blade length layers with uniform angular spread in one direction. The gaps between the rounded edges of the blades 2 at their radial position provide the effect of circulation rate around the blades, which greatly increases their lifting force.

For each turn of the shaft, each blade 2 remains for angle π in radial position and is subjected to two pulses: the lifting force and RAM pressure, the value of which is determined by the squares of sine waves, constructed in the coordinates of the "power-off time". The value of these pulses is determined by the difference vector of the flow velocity and the projection of vector of the peripheral speed of the blade 2, as it is about the means, that by removal of the blade 2 from the axis of its shaft pulses are reduced with a simultaneous increase of the shoulder, creating a torque on a shaft, and in excess of the speed of movement of the vanes the flow velocity it moves away from the lock and is not involved in the creation of time, which gives the turbine property of self-regulation within a certain range of load changes on the shaft and the flow velocity.

The invention can be used when designing hydraulic and wind turbines to generate kinetic energy of the flow of water or air.

The production of turbines does not cause problems when used in low alloy steel, protected against corrosion, blades and hinges are made of stainless alloys or plastics.

1. Turbine to generate energy incident on the side of the flow of water or air, including the shaft, the hinge is placed in a rack, around which in radial directions between the supports, strictly and properly fastened with the shaft, placed the blades can be rotated limited to clamps, characterized in that the blades are made flat with rounded long edges and placed around the shaft in at least two directions with intervals on edges, in this case, rotation of the blades is limited by two latches, and the so formed layer t is rbine is repeated along the length of the shaft with a uniform angular spread.

2. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the support is made in the form of radial consoles with aerodynamic profile of the cross section.

3. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the catches made retractable into the body of support in excess of the force of pressure of the blade bagged the spring force holding the latch in position.


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