Energy-generating turbine

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: turbine is designed to convert energy of water or air streams inflowing from side. Proposed turbine has shaft hinge-mounted in post around which blades are installed for turning in radial directions between supports rigidly and normally connected to shaft. Turning of blades is limited by stops. Blades are made flat, with rounded off long edges, and are arranged around shaft minimum in two directions with spaces between edges. Turning of blades is limited by two stops, and tire in turbine, thus formed, repeats in length of shaft with uniform angular turn. Supports can be made in form of radial cantilevers with aerodynamic profiling of cross section. Stops are made retractable into support body if pressure force of blade exceeds calibrated force of spring holding the stop in working position.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of using energy of fluid medium flow, simplified design.

3 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of devices for generating energy of water currents or wind.

Known widely used hydraulic turbine (mechanical engineer's Handbook, edited by Iagodka, vol. 1, Moscow, 1951, s), in which the incoming flow of water is directed along the axis of the shaft. The main disadvantage of them is the need for high water pressure and, as a consequence, construction of the flesh, and the flow rate of the river is used more often once.

Known to be water, otherwise a mill wheel (Danilevsky CENTURIES, "History of hydropower plants in Russia until the nineteenth century", Lenizdat, 1940), in which the flow of water under pressure is directed transversely of the shaft and rigidly attached to the associated blades located around the shaft in radial directions in a single circular row.

In addition the above-mentioned disadvantages of the waterwheel is inefficient because it uses only the frontal flow pressure on the blades, which are also partially shield each other from the stream.

Known used in small wind energy engines (Applicano and others, "the Wind of Russia", Moscow power engineering Institute, 1996, p.21) with the axial direction of the thread rolling screw blades mounted on a horizontal shaft. Their disadvantages include low efficiency in the use of wind energy, which leads to the huge size of the response is of Ostrovok to generate meaningful practice for amount of energy. In addition, they require setting relative to the wind, place generator on a movable shaft installation.

Known wind engine (Applicano and others, "the Wind of Russia, 1996, p.23), running in the lateral direction of the wind, rolling blades arranged around a vertical shaft in radial directions parallel to the long sides, and the cross-section of the profiled blades by type aircraft wing. Torque on the shaft created by the gradient of the aerodynamic forces during movement of the blades to the wind and against it, what caused the big protivotumanki and, therefore, insufficient use of wind energy, due to the huge size of the engine. For example, when the estimated engine power 1 MW, the width of the blade is 3.3 m, length 27 m, the diameter of the engine 27 m, resulting in wide application engine does not find.

Object of the invention is: when used in the hydraulic version, the efficiency of the kinetic energy of the flow rate of rivers without the use of dams, as well as the energy of the tides-tides, surf, etc. while simplifying construction and operation, when using the invention in the wind scenario, efficiency and simplification of the device and operation.

The essential substance of the flesh of the invention is a turbine to generate energy in a side direction of the flow of water or wind, used the following essential features of the prototype:

the shaft is placed in the hinge hours;

- blades, mounted in bearings around the shaft in radial directions;

- support blades rigidly associated with the shaft.

Distinctive features of the invention are:

- mount the blades to the bearings via a hinge relative to one of the edges that can be rotated;

- restriction of rotation of the blades catches their radial position, mounted on the same poles on both sides of the hinges;

- placement of the blade rows of the at least two radial directions than the formed layer turbine;

- accommodation tiers along the length of the shaft with a uniform angular spread;

- performance gaps between the rounded edges of the blades at the radial position of planes.

The use of the invention allows to obtain the following positive technical results:

for hydraulic turbines:

- the removal of dams and reusability energy flow naturally flowing water of small rivers and rapids big by placing a turbine cascades in vertical or horizontal position along riverbeds;

- the possibility of generating power from tidal currents and tidal waves;

- simplicity of manufacture and operation;

- save the tion ecology and the environment;

for wind turbines:

- improving the efficiency of wind energy and the reduction of the dimensions of the wind turbines of the same power;

- simplicity of manufacture and operation;

- simplification of the regulation parameters of current;

- the ability to apply petrologically, i.e. flares, successively narrowing cross-section and increases the speed of flow before the turbine inlet.

In figures 1-6 shows:

Figure 1 - side view on the tier of the turbine in the direction of flow.

Figure 2 is a horizontal section of figure 1. Arrow "a" indicates the direction of flow.

Figure 3 - top view 4-tier turbine, the tabs 5 are conventionally not shown. Arrow "a" indicates the direction of flow.

4 is a diagram of the successive positions of the blades, one turn of the radial cantilever beams with 6 stops, limiting the transmission of blades 90°.

The arrows indicate the directions:

"and" - flow,

"b" turbine

"C" - the throwing out of the blades.

5 is a fragment of a turbine with fixed blades in the hinge, the axis of which is parallel to the axes of the cantilever beams.

6 is a cross-section shaped cantilever beams and the blade between them. Arrow "a" indicates the direction of flow.

The proposed turbine to generate energy rolling across the shaft on the eye with water or air and includes a shaft 1 (Figure 1, 2), around which is placed the blades 2, mounted in bearings rigidly connected with the shaft, with blades mostly flat rectangular posted by rows with gaps between their long edges of the cantilever beams 3 in at least two radial symmetric directions and strengthened by hinges 4 with respect to one of the long edges normal to the axis of the beam with the possibility of rotation, limited retainers 5 radial position of the blades mounted on the same beams on both sides of the hinges. The thus created vane stage of a turbine is repeated along the length of the shaft, the estimated number of times with a uniform angular spread of radial rows (Figure 3).

In order to increase the capacity of the turbine through the creation of an additional stimulus to the moment when the movement of the blades on the side of the road against oncoming flow angle of the moving blades is limited to an angle lower than 180°by 6 stops (Figure 4), rigidly connected with the radial consoles.

To reduce the height of the turbine given power, the axis of the hinges of the blades are parallel to the axes of the cantilever beams (Figure 5).

To increase the flow velocity immediately before the blade cross-section beams (6) in the direction of flow aerodynamically profiled mainly in the form of rosefinches is.

To reduce aerodynamic losses as supports are disks, which is placed between the shoulder blades.

To control the parameters of the turbine when changing the flow rate or load on the shaft portion of the clamps are made retractable from the blades when exceeding its pressure force calibrated resistance of the spring holding the latch in position.

In order to increase the effect of the circulation flow rate of the blade is a longitudinal section of a cylinder with a backrest height of not more than 1/5 of the length of the chord, with a flat surface at a radial position of the vanes is directed against the stream.

The work of the proposed turbines is as follows: the incident across the shaft 1 (figure 1, figure 2) the flow of water or air sets of blades 2 mounted on the cantilever beams 3 by means of hinges 4 in two positions: radial focusing in the tabs 5 and in the plane of the flow, resulting hydrodynamic forces, specifically the lifting force and the frontal pressure is applied to the planes of the blades located in a radial position, many times greater than the force RAM pressure on the area of cross-sections of the blades located in the plane of the flow, the result is a torque on the shaft causing it to rotate in the direction of the major forces, while the radial position l is patok is maintained as long, while their direction coincides with the direction of flow, i.e. during rotation of the shaft at an angle πafter which the movement of the blades is directed against the stream, and they are thrown to the corner πaround the hinges are installed in the plane of the flow and remain in this position before meeting with the holders of the radial position of the blades, i.e. during the movement in the corner πafter which the process repeats. The placement of the blades on the tiers in radial directions should eliminate or minimize shielding of the previous thread, the movement of the blades later.

The uniformity of the torque on the shaft is achieved by placing his blade length layers with uniform angular spread in one direction. The gaps between the rounded edges of the blades 2 at their radial position provide the effect of circulation rate around the blades, which greatly increases their lifting force.

For each turn of the shaft, each blade 2 remains for angle π in radial position and is subjected to two pulses: the lifting force and RAM pressure, the value of which is determined by the squares of sine waves, constructed in the coordinates of the "power-off time". The value of these pulses is determined by the difference vector of the flow velocity and the projection of vector of the peripheral speed of the blade 2, as it is about the means, that by removal of the blade 2 from the axis of its shaft pulses are reduced with a simultaneous increase of the shoulder, creating a torque on a shaft, and in excess of the speed of movement of the vanes the flow velocity it moves away from the lock and is not involved in the creation of time, which gives the turbine property of self-regulation within a certain range of load changes on the shaft and the flow velocity.

The invention can be used when designing hydraulic and wind turbines to generate kinetic energy of the flow of water or air.

The production of turbines does not cause problems when used in low alloy steel, protected against corrosion, blades and hinges are made of stainless alloys or plastics.

1. Turbine to generate energy incident on the side of the flow of water or air, including the shaft, the hinge is placed in a rack, around which in radial directions between the supports, strictly and properly fastened with the shaft, placed the blades can be rotated limited to clamps, characterized in that the blades are made flat with rounded long edges and placed around the shaft in at least two directions with intervals on edges, in this case, rotation of the blades is limited by two latches, and the so formed layer t is rbine is repeated along the length of the shaft with a uniform angular spread.

2. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the support is made in the form of radial consoles with aerodynamic profile of the cross section.

3. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the catches made retractable into the body of support in excess of the force of pressure of the blade bagged the spring force holding the latch in position.



 

Same patents:

Windmill // 2269674

FIELD: wind-power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed compact windmill capable of fully turning about its vertical axis has double-section coaxial vertical shaft coupled with ground-based electric generator; contractor with wind vane and device regulating air flow through contractor; rotor with two tiers of blades separated by horizontal plane; novelty is that proposed windmill is, essentially, power module incorporating horizontal windwheel rigidly fixed with vertical shaft and made in the form of flat circle carrying two tiers of blades on two sides of its edge; abutting against them are shaft-mounted contractors closed with casing which are free to rotate about this shaft and are fully or partially shielding windwheel area; contractors are provided with ribs and stiffness planes that function to organize high-speed flow within contractors; in addition, there are rollers locking windwheel between contractors, apron designed to secure contractors together to form integral part and to shield both tiers of blades against outside wind which passes through outlet channels of contractors and comes in contact with blades of both tires at optimal angle to vector of their peripheral velocity thereby setting in rotary motion the shaft and associated electric generator.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, modular design, ability of operating within wide range of head wind velocities.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Rotor windmill // 2269028

FIELD: wind power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rotor windmills which can be used for generating cheap mechanical energy. Proposed windmill contains vertical mast installed for rotation on tension members and radial-thrust bearings in support unit, and rotor wings secured on its horizontal cross member, arranged around mast on vertical shafts and provided with rotary trunnions. Trunnions of inner wings of rotor are secured on end faces of tubular crossmember passing through corresponding holes in wings, and trunnions of outer wings are provided with cranks installed in holders on ends of connecting rod passing along straight line guide inside tubular crossmember with buffer springs which thrust against holders of cranks of rotor outer wings. Rotor wings are fitted in pairs by leading edges on vertical shafts parallel to axes of trunnions of rotor inner wings.

EFFECT: simplified design and facilitated control of windmill, improved reliability and increased efficiency owing to reduction of brake torque of windward side wings.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: wind motors.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises wind-collecting device for the control of the direction of collecting of wind energy and compressing the air flow, deflecting device for reducing air drag of the wind-turbine device, and means for orienting which provides automatic control of the direction of the collecting of wind energy. The wind-collecting device has an arbitrary shape. The area of the cross-section of the inlet of the wind-collecting device exceeds that of its outlet for permitting enough aerodynamic force for rotation of the wind-turbine devices for weak natural wind. According to a two-tower version, one of the wind-generator towers is unmovable, and the other one is movable. The axis of the wind-generator tower is perpendicular to the ground surface. The wind-generator tower can be made of a rotation body with curved generatrix or a cylinder. The power is generated by the rotation of a number of wind-turbine devices mounted horizontally on the wind-generator towers one above the other.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities and enhanced efficiency.

64 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: wind power engineering; wind motors with vertical axis of rotation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wind motor includes wind-power turbine whose blades are made in form of aerodynamic profile; each profile of turbine blade is symmetrical and is formed by two smooth curves of different degree of curvature but of similar sign; axis of symmetry passes in center of length of wind-power turbine blade profile. Each blade consists of two or several parts interconnected by lag hinges for positive turn of any part of blade. Besides that, new method of control of rotational speed of wind-power turbine is developed when blades of wind-power turbine are shifted radially at change of wind velocity, thus changing distance between blades and axis of rotation of wind-power turbine; in case of hurricane, blades are positively brought nearer to axis of rotation of wind-power turbine and are turned around vertical axis of blade forming easily streamlined surface.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of factor of utilization of wind power; development of new generation of power; enhanced efficiency of control of turbine rotational speed.

3 cl,,, 3 dwg

FIELD: wind-power engineering; mechanical and electrical energy production.

SUBSTANCE: proposed windmill has vertical-shaft revolving wind turbine and wind-guides disposed outside of wind turbine over circumference which are free to turn about vertical axes; each wind-guide is provided with rollers and mounted in frame on slides arranged on its top and bottom edges for easy horizontal displacement of wind-guides over them. Wind-guides inserted in frame have several parts and are made extensible for forced adjustment of their width depending on natural wind speed. Frame holding these wind-guides is hinged to vertical shaft for easy rotation about vertical axis within desired sector. Location of joint between frame and vertical shaft is such that when parts of wind-guides are disposed in extreme position within frame, the latter is free to turn about vertical axis under action of air stream.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of wind energy use afforded by wind-guides.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: wind power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wind power-generating plant contains vertical shaft installed for rotation in support, rectangular blades installed for rotation around their axles being equally spaced relative to shaft and parallel to shaft axis. Angular velocity of blades is half as many as velocity of shaft. Blades rotate in direction opposite to direction of shaft rotation. Blades are made in form of symmetrical profile of width equal to double distance from shaft edge to axle of rotation of blades mechanically coupled with wind vane, and angle between plane of wind vane and plane of blade at moment of its alignment with axis of shaft is 90°. Upper support of shaft is located in crossmember secured in horizontal position on upper ends of three vertical supports driven into ground at equal distance relative to each other.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and power output of plant.

6 dwg

FIELD: wind power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed rotary windmill with vertical rotation shaft consists of support truss having at least three supports, upper and lower crossmembers connecting supports to form rigid structural unit, upper and lower support platform with holes in center and connected to cross members. Upper and lower bearing housings are secured on upper and lower support platform coaxially with holes which accommodate upper and lower bearings installed, respectively, on upper and lower ends of shaft of rotor arranged inside support truss between support platforms for rotation. Windmill is provided with working members in form of blades. Blades are made as part of hollow sphere or hollow cylinder. Support of truss are rigidly secured on base frame. Invention is aimed by increasing efficiency and improving serviceability of rotary windmill owing to provision of rigid truss, failless service life owing to reduction of vibration of structure at use of rigid truss, increasing power of rotary windmill with vertical shaft of rotation owing to increased sizes of rotor both in diameter and height using rigid truss.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, power output and service life.

1 dwg

FIELD: wind power engineering; pyramidal wind motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed support unit for pyramidal wind motor has blades in form of pyramids uniformly secured on axle. According to invention, device includes additional brackets uniformly secured on support shaft by means of thrust and radial-thrust bearing on common axle. Outer edges of brackets serve as support for lower tier of pyramids.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliability and safety in operation.

3 dwg

Wind motor // 2261364

FIELD: wind power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use as standby power supply source in industry, public services, agriculture, fleet, the Far North regions, etc. Proposed wind motor contains bearing structure, vertical shaft in bearings with rigidly secured cross and blades in form of hollow hemispheres pointed with convexities to one side. According to invention, wind motor is provided with screen with slot in form of arc bent from pipe through hole and slot of which blades with cross secured on axle for free rotation of shaft together with counterweight can pass. It is furnished with wind vane installed for free rotation of shaft in form of beam with tail fins, counterweight, electric motor and pair of bevel gears mechanically coupling wind vane and screen.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of motor and its power, facilitated servicing, reduced cost of manufacture.

2 dwg

FIELD: wind power engineering; pyramidal wind motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed speed limiter has vertical axle with fitted-on pyramidal blades. It is furnished with additional pyramidal wind motor. One blade of said motor is connected with counterweight, and the other, through wire rope, is connected with hydraulic system whose mechanisms are furnished with brake shoes to act onto axle of operating pyramidal wind motor.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of speed limiter, simplified design owing to use of standardized parts.

2 dwg

FIELD: conversion of river stream energy into electric power.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant has base in the form of catamaran that mounts current generators and their drive, current parameters stabilizing system, turbine capable of running in fully submerged condition, and its hoist. Turbine is made in the form of belt conveyer installed on edge at certain angle to river stream. Blades made of flexible material are secured throughout entire width and length of belt. Each blade is made in the form of bucket capable of folding and resting on belt during transfer from working to idle side of conveyer, and it has pocket on external surface for automatic raising of blade by river stream during transfer from idle to working position. Turbine hoist has rocker arm for turbine suspension hinged on one end to catamaran and on other end, to turbine frame that mounts generator-drive bevel gear so that longitudinal axes of hoist rocker-arm hinges and longitudinal axis of bevel-gear driven pinion are disposed on same line. In addition, hydroelectric power plant is equipped with device enabling variation of turbine angle of installation to water flow.

EFFECT: enhanced power capacity.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.

EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.

EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.

EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.

3 dwg

The invention relates to hydropower, in particular, to hydroelectric plants, which can be installed in a gravity flow of water at different depths, and to work at any time of the year

The invention relates to hydropower, in particular, to devices for energy conversion of the current environment, such as rivers, tidal, etc

The invention relates to hydropower, in particular, to devices for energy conversion of the current environment, such as rivers, tidal, etc

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.

EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.

3 dwg

Up!