Method for creating of grape mother plantation

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves producing and sowing seeds; growing seedlings; forming mother plantation; pinching rootstock seedling growth upon formation thereon of seven leaves while leaving two buds and forming two sprouts; training one bud grafter to 80-90 cm height and other bud grafter to 5-10 cm height from soil surface for forming grafter with two strains of different height. On laying of vineyards, seedlings are placed into holes so that grafter of first underground strain is at 40- cm depth and it grows at an angle of 10-15 deg from second vertical strain. Single-sided branch is alternatively formed from first strain to one side and to other side, with second strain grafter being 30 cm above soil surface.

EFFECT: provision for creating vineyards of grafted plants resistant to unfavorable conditions and free from bacterial and virus diseases.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, viticulture, and may be used in the creation of nurseries of new varieties of grapes.

A known method of creating an own-rooted Queen cells, where its root system, underground and above-ground stems, long sleeves and fruit links are formed by a single grape variety (encyclopedia of viticulture. Chisinau: Chapters. edit Owls. encyclopedia, 1986, Vol.2, p.87-88. Own-rooted culture of grapes).

The application of this method is limited by the area, not infected by phylloxera, and in the area of infection is only tolerant to the pest varieties. The bodies of plants that are used for vegetative propagation on old varieties, are usually infected with the disease.

The disadvantage of this method is that the stalks of grapes used for growing seedlings infected with viral and bacterial diseases. Received a new variety, originally vegetatively propagated, is already infected. During further cultivation in the open ground the secondary infection of plants. Clonal selection and testing for the presence of viral diseases takes a long period of time because of high material costs, and the clones and future varieties, planted in a permanent place, are unproductive.

And the known method of creating the mother liquor of grapes, where rootstock cultivar forms a root system, underground and above-ground trunk and graft forms long sleeves or shoulders cordons fruit links. Rootstock and Scion are the joints located on the soil surface (encyclopedia of viticulture. Chisinau: Chapters. edit Owls. encyclopedia, 1986, Vol.2, s.312. Unilateral fan the Bush form with sloping rootstock trunks.)

The disadvantage of this method is that the point of articulation of vaccination exposed to adverse environmental conditions, mechanical damage, death of the Scion and, as a consequence, the development of cancer and other diseases. And most importantly, vaccination of one eye on the stock decreases the output of the seedlings need a lot of rootstock material, privina part of the hive more strongly thickened in comparison with the rootstock, there is an increase in the growth of the spikes. Thus, there is a ring around privoynoy part that leads to the rejection of rootstock on Scion and reduced productivity and longevity of plants. Also the disadvantage of this method is that when vegetative reproduction from the beginning of the plant can be sick of infectious diseases. Death privoynoy part of the Bush from the frost and mechanical damage leads to sparse and requires perenaladka vineyards.

There is a method created the I of the mother liquor of grapes, including the production of seed, planting, growing seedlings, the formation of uterine plants. To obtain healthy varieties, keep them on bezrukovoj and virus-free basis, excluding the possibility of re-infection of the fallopian plants cover with plastic wrap, after ripening of the harvested seeds are stratified and sterilization, planted them in the greenhouse for seedlings (prototype, ed. mon. Small G.P. and others, No. 1678247).

The disadvantage of this method is that the result is not grafted seedlings, and own-rooted seedlings, which can not be build Queen cells European and European-Amur varieties in the open ground, as their use is limited by the area clean by phylloxera. In the specified way, the seedlings formed on a single-layer type in the vineyard and after planting in a permanent place, you cannot create two underground trunk, and if you want to instill in their articulation of the rootstock to the Scion may be just above the soil surface, and at critical low temperatures the death of vaccinations above the soil surface leads to the death privoynoy part of the Bush, to the grafting and long-term formation of a Bush or to the rehypothecation of the vineyard. In a known way on the fallopian bushes education of the head occurs at the soil surface. Therefore, there are difficulties with the criminal code is Yukai and otkryvaj bushes, sleeves lose their elasticity and break off with mechanized works.

The aim of the proposed invention is the creation of nurseries grafted plants that are resistant to adverse conditions, free from bacterial and viral diseases.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of creating the mother liquor of grapes, including the production of seed, planting, growing seedlings, the formation of uterine plants, produce inoculation, growth of seedling rootstock in the formation of 7 leaf coin, leaving 2 holes and form 2 of the shoot, green inoculated shoots conducted: one at the height of 80-90 cm, the other at a height of 5-10 cm from the soil surface for the formation of mother plants with 2 stems of various heights, and the first trunk in the soil at a depth of 40 cm out of the ground at an angle of 10-15 degrees from the second vertical bole, from the first trunk is formed unilateral sleeve alternately in series in one side.

Tab 2-year-old seedlings established for paleokrassas culture of grapes, carried out to a depth of 50 cm, while the articulation of one of the shoots are covered with a rubber sleeve is located at a depth of 40 see the Articulation of the rootstock to the Scion of another escape is located above the soil surface to 30 cm With this method of bookmarks of parent compound machining is I am the Scion is not damaged during processing bushes, and the loss of one of prevolnik components eliminates the death of all privoynoy part, because when you cut the Bush on the black head from dormant buds in privoynoy part, in the soil, it is possible to generate the Bush, and there is no need to Peratallada vineyard. When the dispersion of the spikes of the rootstock to the Scion on the seedling growth of the spikes does not occur and the rejection of rootstock on Scion is not observed.

In the proposed method the education of the head of the Bush occurs at a depth of 40 cm, which increases the elasticity of the sleeve when covering the culture of the vine, allows you to create a combined Bush one of the sleeves which can annually to cover, and the other to form the above-ground stem with a shrug of the cordon. At risk of early spring frosts after otkrytki covering part of the hive can be raised fructifying part of the zone of low temperatures of the soil surface in a vertical position, producing the garter sleeves and shoots to the top wire of the trellis.

New in the proposed method is: create vaccinated healthy seedlings, chasing seedling in the formation therein of 7 leaves, leaving 2 shoots for green vaccinations and formation of one - underground-aboveground trunk cordon, from the other surface of the sleeve. The location of the joint space of the rootstock to the Scion on the sapling, and when the tab vinegra the nicks in the Bush, can achieve yield stability, lower cost, and increase durability of the bushes.

Significant difference is the new shape of seedling, sapling, shrub.

Seedling form in the vineyard, steady increase in the formation of 7 leaves, leaving the seedling 2 escape, on which the growth process removes shoots, axillary eyes, antennae. Grafted shoots to obtain new sapling forming, one shoot at a height of 80 cm, the other 10 see So seedling from tabs comes in for a landing with ready 2 underground stems to create a Bush 2-tier type. This creates the possibility of reducing the period of formation of the trunk and full mechanization of processes of care grape Bush, optimization of cultivation conditions in covering part of the hive if the damage is not sheltered from frost cordon. Also significant is the forming of the hive, an underground part of which consists of 2 trunks, one of which comes from the soil vertically, the other out of the ground at an angle of 10-15 degrees from the vertical stem, which is formed unilateral sleeve alternately in series in one side. When this stem is formed of a flexible, prevents its breakdown, as head of the Bush is formed at a depth of 40 cm, which increases the elasticity of the sleeve in the shelter of the lower tier of the Bush.

For the best Panamanians invention provide drawing which shows a diagram produced vaccinations:

1. The seedlings inoculated in the greenhouse

a) the connection of the rootstock to the Scion

b) the junction of the rootstock to the Scion

2. The formed Bush in a new way

a) the connection of the rootstock to the Scion

b) the junction of the rootstock to the Scion

The proposed method is as follows: inflorescence rootstock and prevolnik bushes treated with oxalic acid, sheltering bushes with plastic wrap. For a good example take the seeds rootstock varieties Berlandieri × Riparia the Kobior BB and graft sort of Kunliang.

Received healthy seeds of these varieties is extracted from the berries immediately after harvest of the grapes and to prevent fermentation of the sugars on the surface of the seeds, washed and placed in storage in the glauconite in the room at the temperature of 15 +20°C. 20-30 days when the seeds are free from sugar, blacken, they put the stratification in the heat chamber. The bottom plastic boxes covered with a layer of filter paper, which are moistened with water and seeds on top are closed with plastic wrap to avoid evaporation of water. Temperature holding stratification 0 +2°C.

Thus obtained seeds are sterile clean planting material without wounds and injuries which might become infected.

In the greenhouse before planting seeds also sterilized ambient air generally accepted way. Then on the racks set pravilnoe briquettes density 150-180 kg/m3thickness 10×10, height 20 cm in the Middle of the briquette made a hole to a depth of 10 cm, which is planted one nablyudavsheesya seed and 3-5 cm covered with glauconitic sand is watering. After the formation of the seedlings, 7 leaves are chasing growth with preparation of 2 buds. On developed 2 shoots removed stepchildren, axillary eyes, antennae except the top, which form in the phase of 3-4 true leaf. Caring for plants is watering frequency 1-2 times a day, feeding, and after reaching the shoots length 130-140 cm produce green inoculated seedlings. The vaccine is produced by varietal and budding, cuttings taken from healthy uterine bushes varieties of Scion, obtained from the seeds of the past maple selection. Grown seedlings are selected from greenhouses, prepare for landing.

The growth of seedlings, from which is formed the first underground stem and sleeve, cut off, leaving the above vaccinations 50 cm, on the second shoot growth cut at 30 cm above the inoculation. At the junction of the rootstock to the Scion wear rubber sleeve.

On the polling tab of the cells are broken down is a distance in a range between bushes 70 cm between the rows 3 feet When laying vineyards seedlings grown in gravitonic briquettes, apocopation CPA-I prepare holes with a diameter of 30 cm, depth 50 cm Then the sapling with the briquette is installed in the hole, so that from the 1st bole future sleeve 10 rows can be channelled in one direction and 10 rows to another for the convenience of carrying out mechanized ubrywki vineyards. The hole to half covered with earth, well rammed and watered at the rate of 8-10 liters per plant.

Thus placed the seedlings in the holes inoculation of the 1st underground stems, are at a depth of 40 cm, the inoculation of the 2nd underground stem above the soil surface to 30 cm After the water is absorbed into the soil, away from a vertical trunk 1 trunk 10-15 degrees. The hole is completely covered with soil. Such planting reduces the stiffness of perennial stem that hinder flexion of the hive to the ground in the process of hiding it in winter when using mechanical means.

Form Bush with two tiers of different heights for 2-tier type.

Immediately after landing on the liquor install wire trellis height of 1.8-2 m During the formation of the lower covering layer on the horizontal surface Cardona height of the tension of the first wire over the surface of the soil 10-15 cm For forming a cordon on the second W is mwambe wire is placed on the height of the bole-40 see The next wire is placed at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other. Wire placed in pairs at both sides of the support posts so that the growing shoots was possible to make between the wires.

For the winter part of the vine is covered, the sleeve is detached from the wire trellis with its subsequent cover the earth. In the spring are odkrywca. The second part of the standard hive for the winter is not covered. The upper core layer is placed at a height of 60 cm from the soil surface, the lower tier at a height of 20 cm on the type of surface cordon with vertical growth. In the spring of the vine of the upper tier is cut at 5-10 cm, and in the lower tier leave a load up to 35-50 holes depending on the variety.

In addition, on the same seedling test can be grafted two varieties are more hardy on the top, and less winter-hardy in the lower tier, or varieties with functional male and female type of flower for best pollination.



The influence of time chasing seedlings on their growth and development (grade Berlandieri×Riparia the Kobior BB OPH ″Key″, 1996-1997 g).
Time stampingThe average length of 2 shoots of seedlings, cmThe diameter of the shoot above the 2nd node, mmDevelopment of 2-year-old is grafted seedlings in 1997
The average length of the shoot, cmThe area of leaf surface, cm2
Chasing the formation of 2 leaves62,35,1211,92117,5
Chasing in the formation of 4-leaf98,75,9221,62164,4
Chasing the formation of 7 leaves121,57,2251,82285,6
Chasing in the formation of 9-leaves108,66,4238,32193,3

The establishment of seedlings in the vineyard for paleokrassas culture increases the yield of seedlings, reduces the consumption of rootstock material, optimized conditions for the cultivation of grape cuttings in a covering area, you will be able to complete mechanization of processes of care for mother plants, obtaining stable yields, the reduction of labor costs.

The way to create the mother liquor of grapes, including the production of seed, planting, growing seedlings, the formation of uterine plants, characterized in that the growth of the seedling rootstock in the formation therein of 7 leaf coin, leaving 2 holes and form 2 of escape, and green inoculated shoots conducted one at a height of 80-90 cm, another 5-10 cm from the top of the spine of the soil for broodstock plants with 2 stems of various heights, moreover, during the laying of the vineyards, the seedlings placed in the holes so that the vaccine is the 1st underground stem is at a depth of 40 cm, extends at an angle of 10-15° from the second vertical stem, from the first bole form a one-sided sleeve alternately in one and the other side, and inoculation of the 2nd trunk is above the soil surface to 30 cm



 

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