Fluid-pressure diaphragm accumulator

FIELD: fluid-pressure actuators.

SUBSTANCE: fluid-pressure diaphragm accumulator comprises tank separated into gas and liquid spaces by the diaphragm. The top wall of the tank is provided with the unit for control of compressed air. The housing of the unit has the vertical cylindrical passage that enters the gas space of the tank and two cylindrical passages arranged perpendicular to it and receives identical valves spring-loaded to the connecting pipe faces by springs. The connecting pipes are mounted in the housing in front of the valves and overlap the nozzle opening for the inflowing compressed air into the space of the tank. The other connecting pipe receives the reducing valve and nozzle opening for discharging the compressed gas to the atmosphere. The vertical passage and longitudinal through grooves in the valve receive master cam which is connected with the diaphragm and cooperates with the stops of its valves by means of cam when the diaphragm moves outside of the specified working zone.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

11 dwg

 

The invention relates to a pneumatic accumulators membrane and can be used in petroleum, chemical and other industries for damping pressure pulsations of the fluid associated with the irregularity of its filing.

From the technical and patent literature known pneumohydroaccumulators containing capacity divided elastic elements on the gas and the liquid cavity. In our country produced such devices Ludinovskis aggregate plant type, PGA-B-20. A gas cavity in them pre-filled with gas under pressure. The disadvantage of these devices is the narrow range of pressures at which they can work normally. When the fluid pressure less than the pressure of the gas filling the gas passage, they generally do not function. With a substantial increase in fluid pressure gas within the gas cavity is compressed, decreases the working volume of the gas cavity and the quality of the damping decreases sharply. Elastic separator these pneumopericardium is in the form of a cylinder that can withstand significant deformation under the pressure of the liquid. Basically, the cylinders are made of rubber of various grades. The use of separators made of flat plates of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon-4, Teflon), stop the CSOs in almost all aggressive environments difficult or impossible due to significant deformation of the separator.

Known pneumohydroaccumulators, in which the aforementioned disadvantages tried to resolve.

In particular, known pneumohydraulic accumulator (A.S. No. 533760 MCL.2F 15 1/04)containing the cylinder, separated by an elastic element on the gas and the hydraulic chamber, indicated respectively with pneumatic and hydraulic system through valves installed with the possibility of interaction with an elastic element, wherein the gas chamber is equipped with check valve and out of the cylinder is installed mechanically associated with non-return valve hydraulic cylinder, the control cavity which is communicated with the hydraulic system through the valves of the hydraulic system. The presence of a valve in a liquid medium pipe and its connection with the piston mechanism complicates the device. Use it to smooth out pulsations aggressive liquids is almost impossible. In addition, the valve of the hydraulic chamber is provided with a drain hole in the drain, through which is discharged the part of the working environment after actuation piston mechanism that excludes its application, for example, explosive and toxic environments.

Similar to the proposed device is a hydropneumatic accumulator (hereinafter GAA) U. S. Pat. No. 3741692 containing a capacitor separated by a membrane on the gas and the liquid cavity. The membrane has a hard center, connected with the rod. On the rod are two plates, one placed in the gas cavity and has the ability to influence pneumatic valve air flow in the gas passage at the extreme upper position of the membrane, and the second plate is located outside of the tank and has the ability to affect valve air vent into the atmosphere from the gas cavity at the bottom position of the membrane. The unit has a rather complicated structure. In addition, the rod goes from the tank to the outside through the sealing device (cuff, rubber ring), which significantly reduces the reliability of GAA.

The prototype is the GAA in U.S. patent No. 4556087 containing capacity, divided by the membrane on the gas and the liquid cavity. The membrane has a hard center that is associated with the stem in the upper part with the plunger. The plunger passes through the sealing elements (cuffs, rings and through the bore in the control unit, placed on the top cover of the tank. At the extreme upper position of the diaphragm, the plunger connects the supply line of the compressed air with a gas cavity, and at the lower position connects the gas chamber with the atmosphere. The main disadvantage of this PGA is the presence of seals (collars or rings) of the plunger, which is all the time in work and life ogran the Chan. Be aware that many PGA work with high frequency pulsations (500-1, 000 oscillations per minute), which leads to rapid wear of the sealing elements and the output of the PGA of the system. Another significant disadvantage of the known GAA is that when the pump stops the air from the air cavity GAA is discharged into the atmosphere. When working GAA with pumps, with frequent start and stop the flow of compressed gas is greatly increased.

The purpose of the invention is to enhance reliability of the GAA, reducing the consumption of compressed gas and increase functionality.

This goal is ensured by the fact that the proposed PGA membrane (hereinafter PGAM)containing capacity, divided by the membrane on the gas and the liquid cavity, the upper wall of the container has a control unit with compressed gas, the body of which includes a vertical cylindrical channel extending into the gas tank cavity, and two perpendicular to it, located cylindrical channel with inside their identical valves, tucked springs to the ends of the fittings, mounted in the housing in front of them, and overlying one fitting coplowe hole inlet of compressed gas in the gas cavity capacity, and the other fitting with inside pressure reducing valve, - coplowe opening for the discharge of compressed gas into the atmosphere, and inside the vertical channel and a longitudinal through grooves valves is copier, associated with the membrane and having the opportunity to interact with the Cam on him, with stops valve when moving membrane outside the specified working area.

In figure 1, 2 shows a General view PHAM.

Figure 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 shows three versions of the valve. Respectively 3, 5 and 7 is a frontal view (sections) each of the options of the valve, and 4, 6 and 8 to the top.

Figure 9, 10 and 11 shows a variant of the copier shown in three planes, respectively a front view, left side view and top view.

PHAM contains a capacity of 1, divided by the membrane 2 to the gas passage 3 and the liquid cavity 4. On the upper wall 5 of the tank 1 by means of bolts (6) are fixed, the control unit 7 with compressed gas. In the housing 8 of the control unit 7 has a vertical cylindrical channel 9 extending into the gas passage 3, and two perpendicular to it, located cylindrical channel 10, 11, into which is placed the valves 12, 13, preloaded springs 14, 15 to the ends of the fittings 16, 17, screwed on the threads in the housing 8 and sealed by the gasket 18. The fitting 16 is supplied with pressurized gas from an appropriate source (compressed gas, an air compressor, line production, under the pressure of the compressed gas and so on). The fitting 16 has a Central channel 19, ending with a nozzle hole 20, is blocked by the valve 12 Within the socket 17 is a pressure reducing valve 21, spring 22 and screw 23. The fitting 17 has coplowe hole 24, is blocked by the valve 13, and a hole 25 is output to the atmosphere. Embodiments of the valve shown in figure 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. They have a cylindrical body 41, the end of which is fixed elastic sealing element 42 (Fig 3, 4, 7, 8) or made conical or spherical element 43 (figure 5, 6), proterty to the walls of nozzle holes 20, 24. The housing 41 has a longitudinal through groove 44 (slot) and it stops. Figure 3, 4 stop 45 is made in the form of a roller inserted in the housing bore 41 on a sliding fit. Figure 5, 6, the stop 46 is made in the form of a profiled ledge. 7, 8 the emphasis is made in the form of a ball 47 is placed in the bore of the housing 41 on a sliding fit and is backed by the screw 48. The diameter of the ball 47 must be greater than the width of the groove 44.

Within the vertical channel 9 is the copier 26, passing through a longitudinal through slots 44 (see figure 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) valves 12, 13 and connected by a pin 27 with a rigid center 28 of the membrane 2.

The Cam 26 is depicted in figures 9, 10, 11. It has a bottom cylindrical section 49 with a threaded hole 50 is mated with the flat section 51. In the Central part of the area 51 made of the Cam 29, the profiles of the sides 52 and 53 which define the laws of the opening of the valves 12, 13 (figure 1). On the cylindrical section 49 is made of two flats 54 for the passage of gas into the chamber 3.

the od of the membrane 2 is limited by the walls 30 and 31, which made grooves 32, 33, the same profile with an outer profile of the surfaces of the rigid center 28 of the membrane 2. At the extreme positions of the diaphragm 2 (upper or lower) it rests respectively on the wall 31 or the wall 30 and the upper or lower parts of the rigid center 28 are flush mounted in corresponding grooves 33 or 32, and damage to the membrane 2 no.

The working fluid is supplied into the liquid chamber 4 through the opening 34. The control unit 7 is sealed to the wall 5 by a rubber ring 35. Figure 1 positions 38, 39, 40 indicated locknuts.

Job description PHAM.

Before you start PHAM in the fitting 16 is supplied to the pressure of the compressed gas from an appropriate source (e.g., via a gearbox from a cylinder of compressed gas). The pressure of compressed gas must be greater than the working pressure of the fluid supplied into the liquid cavity 4.

When the flow of liquid through the opening 34 into the liquid cavity 4 of the membrane 2 is moved up, goes to the wall 31, the upper part of the rigid center 28 is flush in the groove 33. Copier 26 also rises. The Cam 29 of the Cam 26 interacts with the stop 36 of the valve 12, throws him to the left, opening coplowe hole 20 for admission of compressed gas into the gas passage 3.

The diaphragm moves down as long as you do not stop the influence of the Cam 29 of the Cam 26 on the stop 36 of the valve 12, which after this is about shuts off the supply of compressed gas into the gas passage 3. PHAM enters the normal operation mode.

By increasing the fluid pressure, the process is similar, but the membrane 2 may not reach the upper end position.

By reducing the fluid pressure membrane 2, the hard center 28 and the Cam 26 is moved down until the Cam 29 of the Cam 26 will not affect the stop 37 of the valve 13 by moving it to the left and opening coplowe hole 24. The pressure in the gas cavity 3 is decreased, the membrane 2 begins to rise up and, when there is no influence of the Cam 29 on the stop 37 of the valve 13, the membrane returns to its working position. The valve 13 closes coplowe hole 24 in the nozzle 17. The presence of the pressure reducing valve 21 in the nozzle 17 allows the adjustment of the tension of the spring 22 by a screw 23 to maintain the gas pressure in the gas cavity 3 when the pump stops operating with PGAM that can significantly reduce the consumption of compressed gas. The compressed gas remaining in the gas cavity 3 after stopping the pump, promotes soft start pump and a quicker exit PHAM on the normal operation of the pump, which is also a significant advantage of the proposed device in front of the famous prototype. The diaphragm 2 when the pump stops, due to the pressure of the compressed gas remaining in this case, in the gas cavity, lies the and the surface 30, and the lower part of the rigid center 28 is flush in the groove 32 and thus the membrane 2 is protected from destruction.

In figure 1 the dotted line provisionally designated work area move the diaphragm 2 when the output PHAM on normal mode.

Volume Q can be defined for the ideal case work PHAM working complete with pump, having, for example, a single flow rate q (cm3the formula: Q=q/2. I.e. half of the unit feed PHAM absorbs, then half throws in the line. The movement of the membrane 2 beyond the specified working area up, as mentioned earlier, increases the flow of compressed gas into the gas passage 3, and moving the diaphragm down outside the working zone from the gas cavity 3 are reset to the atmosphere part of the compressed gas.

So, automatically the best mode of the membrane 2 near its neutral position. Specified allows the material of the membrane 2 to use the plate of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon-4, Teflon), resistant to most corrosive environments. Proposed PHAM provides stable operation in a wide range of operating pressures. The value of large pressure is determined only by the strength of the hull of the vessel and the presence of a pressure source of compressed gas. After entering the normal mode robotham gas is not consumed. The gas is consumed only in the transitional moments - the transition to another operating pressure.

The volume of the gas cavity PHAM when working at different pressures remains almost constant, which is a very important quality factor smoothing ripple. In PGEM no sealing elements moving parts. The Cam 26 moves freely (copy the movement of the membrane 2) inside the channel 9 and a longitudinal through slots 44 (Fig 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). The valves 12, 13 are in standby mode. During normal operation PHAM they are always closed. Their service life is virtually unlimited. The control unit 7 (Fig 1) is a compact, simple device.

Using master Cam 26 as an actuator for opening the valves 12 and 13 allows the implementation of different laws opening them.

Figure 9 shows a copier having working elements for influencing the stops 36, 37 of the valves 12, 13 (1) sloping surfaces 52 and 53, the angle of inclination to the axial line determines the amount of opening of the valves 12 and 13 when moving the copier 26 by a certain amount. Figure 9 surfaces 52 and 53 is conventionally shown at the same angle, therefore, when moving the copier 26 up or down relative to the stops 36, 37 (Fig 1) at constant both valves 12 and 13 will be opened the same way.

By changing the inclination of one of the surfaces 52, 53 m which should provide a variety of opening of the valves 12 and 13 when moving the copier 26 by the same amount. The device allows by modifying the profile of the Cam 26 to provide any desired law of opening of the valves 12, 13.

It is known that the flow of gas or liquid and the pressure drop that occurs across the valve when it is opened, there is a quadratic dependence. In some cases it is necessary to provide a linear relationship between the flow rate of compressed gas and the degree of opening of the valves 12, 13. In this case, the surfaces 52, 53 can be performed, for example, a parabolic shape. Specified extends the functionality of the proposed PHAM compared to the prototype.

Thus, based on the above, it is shown that the objectives of the invention are achieved.

Structurally, the proposed PHAM can be accomplished without the hard center 28 of the membrane 2, for installation you want to perform a Central hole in the diaphragm 2. For this purpose, the lower end of the stud 27 is attached to the special disc-shaped element (washer - figure 1 is not shown), which lies on the surface of the membrane 2 and the entire Assembly consisting of the Cam 26, the stud 27 and attached washer, spring, (not shown in figure 1) is pressed against the surface of the membrane 2. The movement of Cam 26 up is due to the fact that the puck moves with the membrane 2 up. To address breakthrough membrane 2 at the lowest position in this case, the input of the LM the bones into the liquid chamber 4 can be carried out through the perforated wall (not shown in figure 1) or permanently open spring-loaded Poppet valve (not shown in figure 1), which membrane 2 is closed when the stop wall 30, preventing the membrane 2 from destruction.

To eliminate the possible self-oscillatory process inlet fitting 16 can be installed adjustable choke (not shown in figure 1), which is configured for optimal performance PHAM.

Pneumohydraulic accumulator membrane containing a capacitor separated by a membrane on the gas and the liquid cavity, wherein the upper container wall has a control unit with compressed gas, the body of which includes a vertical cylindrical channel extending into the gas cavity capacity, and two perpendicular to it, located cylindrical channel with inside their identical valves, tucked springs to the ends of the fittings installed in the building opposite them and overlying one fitting coplowe hole inlet of compressed gas in the gas cavity capacity, and the other fitting with inside pressure reducing valve, coplowe the vent hole of the compressed gas in the atmosphere and within a vertical channel and a longitudinal through grooves valves copier is associated with the membrane and having the opportunity to interact with the Cam on him, with stops valve when moving membrane outside the specified working area.

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