Water-proofing sheet

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a waterproof sheet for a tunnel, channel and underground structures in the most General sense, and to waterproof roofs and terraces of buildings.

The level of technology

In tunnels, mines, and generally in underground mining the presence of water and excess moisture creates significant problems during various stages of construction, and in the course of existence of an object or infrastructure.

Well-known difficulties arising from the formation of puddles or ice on the surfaces of pavements. Similarly in railway tunnels water also represents a danger to the mounted devices, and in areas with low winter temperatures, the formation of ice can destroy a rut due to deformation and even interrupt the movement of trains.

If any underground building works, the seepage of water destroys the complex control equipment and violates prompt service, and reinforced concrete structures often require special handling to prevent them from decalcomania and subsequent expansion due to oxidation of frames.

Conventional waterproofing systems solve many of the problems listed above, but their value is mostly great. This is manifested in particular in the event of such samples shall eat, as high levels of infiltration of rain water during laying of waterproofing and extreme climatic conditions, not to mention the situation when the need waterproofing occurs after construction is completed.

Usually apply a coating consisting of sheets, which are made of plastic material, usually PVC (polyvinyl chloride). These sheets have the disadvantage that due to their content of PVC they are biologically not degradable. In addition, they have limited intervals of temperatures and poor resistance to chemical agents.

Similarly the roof or terrace of buildings to protect them from water in the last few years gidroizolirovat sheets of PVC or asphalt. However, because of the materials used in these sheets, and also due to climatic conditions and exposure to the sun the leaves are subjected to ageing and to degradation, i.e. they should be checked and repaired.

In Spanish patent No. 9600657 owned by the applicant of the present invention described covering or waterproofing sheet, intended in particular for tunnels.

It contains three layers: first, a layer of raffia, a second, intermediate layer of foam and, thirdly, the layer of plastic material, metallized aluminum. For the dignity of the sheet is incombustibility of peoples is a and, compared with PVC sheet, high mechanical strength.

However, the sheet of this type has the disadvantage that it can only be applied in tunnels or channels. In addition, he is aging rapidly, i.e. it has a short lifespan.

Disclosure of inventions

The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to eliminate the disadvantages inherent in the leaves, which are used on the existing level of technology, as well as providing many advantages, as described below.

According to the invention proposed waterproofing sheet that contains three layers: the first layer of plastic material providing mechanical strength of the sheet, a second intermediate layer of foam forming the connection between the first and second layers and the third layer impermeable plastic material.

Distinctive features of the sheet is the fact that the first layer is made of an elastomeric polyethylene, high strength and elasticity, the second layer of foam with closed pores derived from physically or chemically cross-linked polyethylene, and a third layer of polyethylene with a high tear resistance, the thickness of the sheet ranges from 3 mm to 50 mm, the tensile strength of the sheet in tension is in the range from 24 to 39 MPa MPa and the elongation is in the range from 550% to 900%.

Full satisfaction is these characteristics of the flat and easy waterproofing sheet, able to withstand extreme weather conditions, including temperatures in the range from 100°C to -60°and resistant to chemical agents, such as concentrated acids. At the same time, due to the material that makes up the first layer, it has optimum mechanical properties at reduced thickness.

Unlike sheets, available on the market, the sheet according to the invention has no restrictions on aging; this feature means that once installed sheets replacement due to the destruction of new is not required. Next, the sheet is cheaper commonly used sheets, and the lack of PVC makes it environmentally friendly and, at the same time, biologically degradable.

According to a preferred variant of the third layer formed channels. Thus is regulated and directed by the leakage of water from the walls of the structures or pits, such as tunnels.

According to the alternative embodiment of the invention the third layer is made smooth and, therefore, highly suitable for use on terraces and roofs of buildings.

Ideally, the first layer is resistant to ultraviolet radiation. When you install these tiles on roofs or terraces of the buildings, this property allows the sheet to withstand prolonged exposure to sun light is A.

Brief description of drawings

To facilitate the understanding of all listed properties and features of the invention includes several drawings, which schematically and only as an example without limiting nature, illustrate the practical implementation of the waterproof sheet according to the invention.

Figure 1 is a perspective representation of a first variant implementation of the waterproof sheet according to the invention;

figure 2 is a perspective representation of a second variant implementation of the waterproof sheet according to the invention

The implementation of the invention

As shown in figure 1, the waterproof sheet 1 according to the invention is composed of three layers. The first layer is the outer layer 2 of elastomeric polyolefin, having high strength and elasticity, which is a polyethylene. The second layer is an intermediate layer 3 of the closed-cell foamed plastic, derived from physically or chemically cross-linked polyethylene. The third layer is a layer 4 made of polyolefin, having high tear resistance. This internal layer 4 has a dark brown shade and a sleek profile, which facilitates adjustment of the sheet 1 on the roof and/or exterior terraces of buildings. This ensures good thermal and acoustic insulation uplatneni the th joint. When the layer has good resistance to ultraviolet radiation.

Figure 2 shows another version of the exercise sheet 5 according to the invention. In this case, the inner layer 6, unlike the previous version, has a corrugated profile, forming channels. This sheet is suitable for internal waterproofing of tunnels and similar infrastructure, ensuring the flow of water and preventing its accumulation.

These sheets are placed between the layer of concrete or rock and concrete; this design is commonly called "sandwich".

A method of manufacturing a waterproofing sheet 1 according to the invention includes the process of extruding a plastic sheet with the subsequent hot-melt specified sheet in order to attach it to the polyolefin foam, linked via compound film based on the polyolefin. The end result is essentially flat coils of the layered material.

Here are the details of the tests carried out for the sheet according to the invention to determine its technical characteristics.

Tensile strength and elongation at break (according to the standard UNE-EN ISO 527-3 (96) /2/100)

Applied dynamometerINSTROM 112
Sample test Type 2 loop
Thickness (mm)4,5
The test temperature (°)23±1
The speed of separation of the gripping device (mm/min)100
The initial gap between the gripping devices (mm)50
The initial gap between marks (mm)20
The tensile strength in the longitudinal direction (N/cm)192
The tensile strength in the transverse direction (N/cm)183
Elongation at break in the longitudinal direction (%)665
Elongation at break in the transverse direction (%)655

Resistance to perforation (according to the standard UNE 104.300)

The diameter of sample for test (mm)65
The speed of separation of the gripping device (mm/min)100
Resistance to perforation (N)41,7
Resistance to perforation (N/mm)41,7

Resistance to chemical agents

Chemical decomposition

H2SO4(30%)No
H 2SO4(3%)No
NaOH (10%)No
NaOH (1%)No
With2H5HE (95%)No
C2H5OH (50%)No
(CH3)2CONo
CH3SOOS2H5No
CCl4No
With6H5CH3No
C7H16No
NaCl (10%)No
With6H5OH (10%)No
H2ONo
HNO3(10%)No
HCl (10%)No
CH3COOHNo
With17H33COOHNo
NH4OH (10%)No
Na2CO3(2%)No
H2O20,23
OilNo
GasolineNo

In the following table 1 shows the test results of tensile strength and elongation under tension for a number of samples of the outer layer 2 and inner layer 4 of waterproofing sheet 1. Oberlaa have almost the same structure, being made of polyethylene, so show similar strength characteristics. The tests were performed according to standard UNE-EN ISO 527-3 (96) /2/100 on the dynamometer INSTRON 1122.

Table 1
Sample # Tensile strength, N/cmElongation at elongation,%
in the longitudinal directionin the transverse directionin the longitudinal directionin the transverse direction
1196172700650
2196176650650
3184196675675
4188188650650
5196184650650
Average192183665655

The following is a comparative example of the strength characteristics of the layers 2 and 4 stated waterproofing sheet (table a) and the first layer of raffia sheet described in patent ES 2118035 which is covered by the plastic film is (table B).

Table a
DescriptionStandard testUnits of measurementValue
The tensile strength in the longitudinal/transverse directionUNE-EN ISO 527-3MPa1,9/1,9
Elongation under tension in the longitudinal/transverse directionUNE-EN ISO 527-3%>1148/>1147
Tear resistance in the longitudinal/transverse directionUNE 53-358N81,2/84,3

Table B
DescriptionStandard testUnits of measurementValue
The tensile strength in the longitudinal/transverse directionUNE-EN ISO 527-3N/50 mm>1100
Elongation under tension in the longitudinal/transverse directionUNE-EN ISO 527-3%>30
Tear resistance in the longitudinal/transverse directionUNE 53-358N50

The invention applies to the described gidrozo arianny sheet regardless of the specific choice of materials for the manufacture of its components, and the shape and dimensions of these components or from the possible presence of additional accessory items. These materials and items you can replace them with technical equivalents to the extent where they do not affect the essence of the invention and fall within the boundaries defined by the attached claims.

1. Waterproofing sheet that contains three layers: the first layer of plastic material providing mechanical strength of the sheet, a second, intermediate layer of foam forming the connection between the first and second layers and the third layer impermeable plastic material, characterized in that the first layer is made of an elastomeric polyethylene, high strength and elasticity, the second layer of foam with closed pores derived from physically or chemically cross-linked polyethylene, and a third layer of polyethylene with a high tear resistance, the thickness of the sheet ranges from 3 to 50 mm, the tensile strength of the sheet in tension is the range from 24 to 39 MPa, and elongation at break in the range from 550 to 900%.

2. The sheet according to claim 1, characterized in that the third layer is formed channels.

3. The sheet according to claim 1, characterized in that the third layer is made smooth.

4. The sheet according to claim 1, characterized in that the first layer is resistant to ultraviolet radiation.



 

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