SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
The technical field
The present invention relates to a waterproof sheet for a tunnel, channel and underground structures in the most General sense, and to waterproof roofs and terraces of buildings.
The level of technology
In tunnels, mines, and generally in underground mining the presence of water and excess moisture creates significant problems during various stages of construction, and in the course of existence of an object or infrastructure.
Well-known difficulties arising from the formation of puddles or ice on the surfaces of pavements. Similarly in railway tunnels water also represents a danger to the mounted devices, and in areas with low winter temperatures, the formation of ice can destroy a rut due to deformation and even interrupt the movement of trains.
If any underground building works, the seepage of water destroys the complex control equipment and violates prompt service, and reinforced concrete structures often require special handling to prevent them from decalcomania and subsequent expansion due to oxidation of frames.
Conventional waterproofing systems solve many of the problems listed above, but their value is mostly great. This is manifested in particular in the event of such samples shall eat, as high levels of infiltration of rain water during laying of waterproofing and extreme climatic conditions, not to mention the situation when the need waterproofing occurs after construction is completed.
Usually apply a coating consisting of sheets, which are made of plastic material, usually PVC (polyvinyl chloride). These sheets have the disadvantage that due to their content of PVC they are biologically not degradable. In addition, they have limited intervals of temperatures and poor resistance to chemical agents.
Similarly the roof or terrace of buildings to protect them from water in the last few years gidroizolirovat sheets of PVC or asphalt. However, because of the materials used in these sheets, and also due to climatic conditions and exposure to the sun the leaves are subjected to ageing and to degradation, i.e. they should be checked and repaired.
In Spanish patent No. 9600657 owned by the applicant of the present invention described covering or waterproofing sheet, intended in particular for tunnels.
It contains three layers: first, a layer of raffia, a second, intermediate layer of foam and, thirdly, the layer of plastic material, metallized aluminum. For the dignity of the sheet is incombustibility of peoples is a and, compared with PVC sheet, high mechanical strength.
However, the sheet of this type has the disadvantage that it can only be applied in tunnels or channels. In addition, he is aging rapidly, i.e. it has a short lifespan.
Disclosure of inventions
The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to eliminate the disadvantages inherent in the leaves, which are used on the existing level of technology, as well as providing many advantages, as described below.
According to the invention proposed waterproofing sheet that contains three layers: the first layer of plastic material providing mechanical strength of the sheet, a second intermediate layer of foam forming the connection between the first and second layers and the third layer impermeable plastic material.
Distinctive features of the sheet is the fact that the first layer is made of an elastomeric polyethylene, high strength and elasticity, the second layer of foam with closed pores derived from physically or chemically cross-linked polyethylene, and a third layer of polyethylene with a high tear resistance, the thickness of the sheet ranges from 3 mm to 50 mm, the tensile strength of the sheet in tension is in the range from 24 to 39 MPa MPa and the elongation is in the range from 550% to 900%.
Full satisfaction is these characteristics of the flat and easy waterproofing sheet, able to withstand extreme weather conditions, including temperatures in the range from 100°C to -60°and resistant to chemical agents, such as concentrated acids. At the same time, due to the material that makes up the first layer, it has optimum mechanical properties at reduced thickness.
Unlike sheets, available on the market, the sheet according to the invention has no restrictions on aging; this feature means that once installed sheets replacement due to the destruction of new is not required. Next, the sheet is cheaper commonly used sheets, and the lack of PVC makes it environmentally friendly and, at the same time, biologically degradable.
According to a preferred variant of the third layer formed channels. Thus is regulated and directed by the leakage of water from the walls of the structures or pits, such as tunnels.
According to the alternative embodiment of the invention the third layer is made smooth and, therefore, highly suitable for use on terraces and roofs of buildings.
Ideally, the first layer is resistant to ultraviolet radiation. When you install these tiles on roofs or terraces of the buildings, this property allows the sheet to withstand prolonged exposure to sun light is A.
Brief description of drawings
To facilitate the understanding of all listed properties and features of the invention includes several drawings, which schematically and only as an example without limiting nature, illustrate the practical implementation of the waterproof sheet according to the invention.
Figure 1 is a perspective representation of a first variant implementation of the waterproof sheet according to the invention;
figure 2 is a perspective representation of a second variant implementation of the waterproof sheet according to the invention
The implementation of the invention
As shown in figure 1, the waterproof sheet 1 according to the invention is composed of three layers. The first layer is the outer layer 2 of elastomeric polyolefin, having high strength and elasticity, which is a polyethylene. The second layer is an intermediate layer 3 of the closed-cell foamed plastic, derived from physically or chemically cross-linked polyethylene. The third layer is a layer 4 made of polyolefin, having high tear resistance. This internal layer 4 has a dark brown shade and a sleek profile, which facilitates adjustment of the sheet 1 on the roof and/or exterior terraces of buildings. This ensures good thermal and acoustic insulation uplatneni the th joint. When the layer has good resistance to ultraviolet radiation.
Figure 2 shows another version of the exercise sheet 5 according to the invention. In this case, the inner layer 6, unlike the previous version, has a corrugated profile, forming channels. This sheet is suitable for internal waterproofing of tunnels and similar infrastructure, ensuring the flow of water and preventing its accumulation.
These sheets are placed between the layer of concrete or rock and concrete; this design is commonly called "sandwich".
A method of manufacturing a waterproofing sheet 1 according to the invention includes the process of extruding a plastic sheet with the subsequent hot-melt specified sheet in order to attach it to the polyolefin foam, linked via compound film based on the polyolefin. The end result is essentially flat coils of the layered material.
Here are the details of the tests carried out for the sheet according to the invention to determine its technical characteristics.
Tensile strength and elongation at break (according to the standard UNE-EN ISO 527-3 (96) /2/100)
|Applied dynamometer||INSTROM 112|
|Sample test||Type 2 loop|
|The test temperature (°)||23±1|
|The speed of separation of the gripping device (mm/min)||100|
|The initial gap between the gripping devices (mm)||50|
|The initial gap between marks (mm)||20|
|The tensile strength in the longitudinal direction (N/cm)||192|
|The tensile strength in the transverse direction (N/cm)||183|
|Elongation at break in the longitudinal direction (%)||665|
|Elongation at break in the transverse direction (%)||655|
Resistance to perforation (according to the standard UNE 104.300)
|The diameter of sample for test (mm)||65|
|The speed of separation of the gripping device (mm/min)||100|
|Resistance to perforation (N)||41,7|
|Resistance to perforation (N/mm)||41,7|
Resistance to chemical agents
In the following table 1 shows the test results of tensile strength and elongation under tension for a number of samples of the outer layer 2 and inner layer 4 of waterproofing sheet 1. Oberlaa have almost the same structure, being made of polyethylene, so show similar strength characteristics. The tests were performed according to standard UNE-EN ISO 527-3 (96) /2/100 on the dynamometer INSTRON 1122.
|Sample #||Tensile strength, N/cm||Elongation at elongation,%|
|in the longitudinal direction||in the transverse direction||in the longitudinal direction||in the transverse direction|
The following is a comparative example of the strength characteristics of the layers 2 and 4 stated waterproofing sheet (table a) and the first layer of raffia sheet described in patent ES 2118035 which is covered by the plastic film is (table B).
|Description||Standard test||Units of measurement||Value|
|The tensile strength in the longitudinal/transverse direction||UNE-EN ISO 527-3||MPa||1,9/1,9|
|Elongation under tension in the longitudinal/transverse direction||UNE-EN ISO 527-3||%||>1148/>1147|
|Tear resistance in the longitudinal/transverse direction||UNE 53-358||N||81,2/84,3|
|Description||Standard test||Units of measurement||Value|
|The tensile strength in the longitudinal/transverse direction||UNE-EN ISO 527-3||N/50 mm||>1100|
|Elongation under tension in the longitudinal/transverse direction||UNE-EN ISO 527-3||%||>30|
|Tear resistance in the longitudinal/transverse direction||UNE 53-358||N||50|
The invention applies to the described gidrozo arianny sheet regardless of the specific choice of materials for the manufacture of its components, and the shape and dimensions of these components or from the possible presence of additional accessory items. These materials and items you can replace them with technical equivalents to the extent where they do not affect the essence of the invention and fall within the boundaries defined by the attached claims.
1. Waterproofing sheet that contains three layers: the first layer of plastic material providing mechanical strength of the sheet, a second, intermediate layer of foam forming the connection between the first and second layers and the third layer impermeable plastic material, characterized in that the first layer is made of an elastomeric polyethylene, high strength and elasticity, the second layer of foam with closed pores derived from physically or chemically cross-linked polyethylene, and a third layer of polyethylene with a high tear resistance, the thickness of the sheet ranges from 3 to 50 mm, the tensile strength of the sheet in tension is the range from 24 to 39 MPa, and elongation at break in the range from 550 to 900%.
2. The sheet according to claim 1, characterized in that the third layer is formed channels.
3. The sheet according to claim 1, characterized in that the third layer is made smooth.
4. The sheet according to claim 1, characterized in that the first layer is resistant to ultraviolet radiation.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.
EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of making oriented synthetic films and, specifically, to biaxially oriented polypropylene films, which invention may be utilized in manufacture of food packaging materials. Film is formed from at least polypropylene (co)polymer containing at least 0.8 wt % ethylene and optionally one or several C4-C10-α-olefins or from polypropylene composition containing at least 0.8 wt % one or several comonomers selected from ethylene and C4-C10-α-olefins. (Co)polymer or polymer composition have melting point above or equal to 155°C and less than 3 wt % fraction soluble in xylene at ambient temperature. Weight ratio of polymer fraction collected within temperature range 25 to 95°C to above-mentioned xylene-soluble fraction is superior to 8.
EFFECT: improved physicochemical properties of biaxially oriented polypropylene films.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of the cloth-shaped laminates with a cruciform arrangement of the layers.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry, in particular to the methods of production of the cloth-shaped laminates with a cruciform arrangement of the layers used for manufacture mainly of bags made out of the such material and having a shape of a pipe, or a folded laminate cloth with a cruciform-shaped arrangement of layers manufactured out of two or more linked to each other oriented films. The film(s)of the laminate representing A-component is (are) placed on one side of the laminate with a cruciform arranged layers and has (have) the main or resulting direction of orientation essentially corresponding to the longitudinal direction of the cloth. The film(s) the laminate, representing B-component is (are) placed on the other side the laminate with a cruciform arrangement of the layers and has (have) the main or resulting direction of orientation essentially perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the cloth. The modulus of elasticity of the A- component material being in a non-oriented state is at least by 15 % below the modulus of elasticity of the B-component material being in a non-oriented state. The A- and B-components have different thermal shrinkage along the longitudinal direction of the laminate cloth. At that the thermal shrinkage of A-component is more, than the thermal shrinkage of B-component. The bags made out of the laminate with cruciform-shaped arrangement of the layers have the thermal-welded seams with the heightened strength for delamination at an impact.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the film of the laminate representing A-component has a bigger thermal shrinkage, than film of the laminate representing B-component, and the thermal-welded seams of bags have the heightened strength for delamination at an impact.
22 cl, 12 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: laminated material for manufacture of packaging containers by folding and thermal sealing and packaging containers for liquid food products manufactured from said material.
SUBSTANCE: packaging material 10 has central layer 11 of paper or cardboard and layer 12 of polyolefin with mineral filler on one side of central layer. Layer 12 with mineral filler has thickness of from 30 micron to 100 micron and has mineral particles in an amount of from 40% to 70% by weight of layer 12 with mineral filler. Both sides of central layer are provided with water-impermeable coating of polyolefin.
EFFECT: increased rigidity and provision for manufacture of containers with improved capturing properties.
8 cl, 4 dwg