Method for determining dispersing-stabilizing properties of lubricating oils

FIELD: express-methods for determining presence and quality of dispersing-stabilizing properties, dispersing agent type for lubricating oils and determining engine oils among other oil types.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining dispersing-stabilizing properties of lubricating oils is performed by inserting into oil and dispersing therein of dirt agent and reaching calm state, while liquid dirt agent is injected into oil, which does not form a solution with oil, and after dispersion, emulsion is maintained in calm state, on basis of alternation of information parameters like loss of transparence and coloring of emulsion in colors from dark yellow to light yellow, quality estimate of presence of dispersion-stabilizing properties is determined with detection of engine oils, and on basis of alternation of information parameters like in form of intensiveness of coloring of emulsion in colors ranging from dark yellow to light yellow, time when dirt agent starts precipitating and/or time when emulsion starts dividing on distinct layers or absence of same, volume of precipitated dirt agent and/or height of column of layered emulsion during certain time limit or absence of same, volume of dirt agent inserted into oil, for which precipitation of dirt agent starts or layering of emulsion, and also - possible combination of same, quality estimate of workability level of dispersing-stabilizing admixture of lubricating oil is determined, as well as dispersant type.

EFFECT: decreased time consumption, increased information capacity of determination.

7 tbl

 

The invention relates to quick methods of determining the availability and quality of the dispersion-stabilizing properties, the type of dispersant chemical, lubricants and distinguish it from other types of motor oils.

Known way to determine the actual dispersible-stabilizing properties of running the engine lubricating oil by chromatography on paper, consisting in applying on filter paper drops of the test oil, taken from the lubrication mechanism [USSR author's certificate No. 201768, IPC 7 G 01 N 31/06].

Due to the presence of oil impurities dispersed and stabilized dispersible-stabilizing additive, and thus the ability of an oil to keep yourself in fine particulate pollution when it is spreading on the paper manifest the core and the area of diffusion. This oil spot is called a chromatogram.

Assessment dispersible-stabilizing properties of the oil produced by the ratio of outer diameters of the diffusion zone and core. Consider that the greater the difference between the diameters of the core and the zone of diffusion, the higher dispersible-stabilizing properties of the oil. For the quantitative determination apply benchmark samples of typical chromatograms with scoring or using well-known relations for calculating the dimensionless numeric display of the indicator, for example as in [USSR author's certificate No. 989481, IPC 7 G 01 N 33/30; françois F., Corvette A. Laboratory bench test motor oils // Chemistry and technology of fuels and oils. 1971, No. 5, p.39-40].

However, this method is not suitable for determining dispersible-stabilizing properties of the fresh market and weakly contaminated oils due to the lack of adequate number of particles of solid impurities.

There is also known a method of controlling the dispersion properties of fresh commodity oils method of obtaining the chromatogram when the dilution of the base oil and the artificial introduction of solid contaminant is carbon black in an amount of 10% by weight [françois F., Corvette A. Laboratory bench test motor oils // Chemistry and technology of fuels and oils. 1971, No. 5, p.39-40; reports of the II-nd International Symposium. "Investigation of the mechanism of action of additives". Halle, GDR, 1976, s-14].

According to this method, prepare a carbon black concentrate, which comprises 27% carbon black by weight and 73% of mineral oil. For dispersion, i.e. grinding of soot particles, the suspension should be thoroughly mechanically stirred for 20 min, then exposed to ultrasound for 10 min and thereafter are repeated mechanical stirring. After mechanical grinding particles of soot in the oil suspension was incubated for 3 hours at a temperature of 250°For finer grinding particles of soot dispersant additive, in the oil. As you know, dispersible-stabilizing additive may not dissolve solids pollutant, but is capable of and intended them to split, exposing them to finer grinding. Further artificially contaminated solid fine particles of carbon black oil cooled, put one drop on filter paper and two days to produce a measurement of the obtained chromatogram and evaluate dispersant properties of the oil.

Providing the ability to determine the dispersive properties of fresh commodity oils, the method has a high complexity and duration of receipt of the chromatogram and therefore does not possess the property of efficiency.

Closest to the present invention is a control method of dispersive properties of the oils by the method of obtaining the chromatogram in the artificial introduction of clean oil solid pollutant: bitumen, soot, or precipitation of asphaltenes isolated from waste oils [USSR author's certificate No. 654902, IPC 7 G 01 N 33/30 - prototype].

According to this method, to obtain a chromatogram previously conducted operations grinding solid contaminant, for which one of the following pollutants injected into the hydrocarbon or halogenougljovodonika solvent, capable of forming oil solution (benzene, toluene, xylene, α-methylnaphthalene, even recklessly carbon and others) at a temperature of 60...70° With that facilitates the grinding of the solid particles of the contaminant in the resulting suspension. The resulting suspension comprising suspended in the solvent of small solid particles poured into the test oil is heated to a temperature of 70... 80°and the solvent is distilled off under vacuum. In the distillation, the solvent is removed from the test oil and the crushed solid particles remain in the oil suspension. The results of operations for the grinding of solid particles of pollutant dispersion is formed, that is, a suspension of solid particles in oil.

Next, the suspension is allowed to cool down to room temperature and then put one drop on filter paper to obtain a chromatogram. Then measure the dimensions of the concentric zones of the chromatogram and calculate the rate of dispersive properties of the tested oil.

Determination of dispersive properties this method is more precise, decreases the length of the chromatogram, however, its implementation is associated with extra costs in time, money, supplies and equipment necessary for multi-stage grinding of solid contaminant, as well as for vacuum distillation of the solvent, which deprives method efficiency and ease of implementation.

Object of the invention is operative Express Oprah is bookmark the availability and quality of the dispersion-stabilizing properties of the fresh commodity lubricating oils or oils, with minor contamination of mechanical impurities, through qualitative and quantitative assessment of these properties determine the type dispersible-stabilizing additives and detection of motor oils include oils of other types with no need for equipment and supplies.

This object is achieved in that for the artificial contamination use liquid contaminant, forming oil solution, such as water, glycerin, etc. that are easily dispersed, stabilized and form oil suspension by shaking during, for example 0,5...1 min and does not require special preparation before use. In the excluded time spent on grinding pollutant, as well as consumables and equipment. In the tested oil is injected and dispersed the maximum amount of liquid contaminant that can hold oil with high dispersible-stabilizing properties, such as 30...50% of the volume of the test oil. Introduction to oil is not soluble in the liquid contaminant and the dispersion of the latter leads to the loss of emulsion transparency and coloring in a specific color from yellow-red to yellow-white, the intensity of which is directly proportional to the level dispersible-stabilizing properties of spitemare oil. This implies that depending on the actual level dispersible-stabilizing properties of the test oil additive can be atomized and to stabilize only the amount of liquid contaminant, which corresponds to its activity, and, as a consequence, the additive will keep in the emulsion only dispersed and stabilized liquid contaminant. Therefore, if performance additives insufficient dispersion and stabilizirovannye all of the liquid contaminant, redispersion and unstabilized part will begin to precipitate, and the emulsion to delaminate. In this case, the less-active additive, the faster and in greater volume will fall liquid contaminant and flake emulsion. The transmission, industrial and other oils, not having in its composition dispersible-stabilizing additives, loss of liquid contaminant and delamination of the emulsion begins almost immediately after you stop shaking. This allows accurate detection of motor oils include oils of other types.

The presence of such functional informative parameters, as the loss of transparency, color change and the color intensity of the emulsion, the time after which begins the precipitation of liquid contaminant, the height of the column of stratified emulsion, about the eating of precipitated in the sludge liquid contaminant over time, the volume is introduced into the oil liquid contaminant, which begins the precipitation and other uniquely characterize the actual dispersible-stabilizing properties of the test oil and allow, therefore, to assess them qualitatively and quantitatively. The ability to define dispersible-stabilizing properties more accurately using a simple rapid method indicates the feasibility of opt chromatogram on filter paper. This reduces the time to determine these properties and there is no need for equipment and supplies.

Of the known prior art does not know the definition dispersible-stabilizing properties of fresh commodity lubricants or with minor contamination of mechanical impurities, Express way when using liquid contaminant, not able to form an oil solution for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the properties, determine the type of additives and detection engine oil other oils in field and laboratory conditions in the absence of the need for equipment and supplies. Therefore, we can conclude that the technical solution meets the criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".

Qualitative assessment answers the question: "Test weight is about has dispersible-stabilizing properties?" - answer "Yes" or "No". Informative parameters in this definition is the loss of transparency and the acquisition of the emulsion of the specific color from yellow-red to yellow-white flowers. This reaction oil dispersion liquid contaminant and the absence for a certain period of time, for example 5...10 minutes, the emulsion breaking and precipitation part of the contaminant indicates the presence of oil healthy dispersible-stabilizing additives, which suggests the answer is "Yes". Otherwise, the oil is not containing the active dispersible-stabilizing additives, which implies a "No"answer. This definition allows us to identify motor oil include oils of other types.

Quantitative determination is to assess the level of health dispersible-stabilizing additives of the test oil. As informative parameters of this definition can be used: the intensity of the color emulsion from yellow-red to yellow-white flowers; the start time of deposition of the contaminant in the sediment or the beginning of the emulsion breaking or in their absence; the amount of precipitated in the sediment contaminant or (and) the height of the column of stratified emulsion for a certain period of time, or in their absence; the volume of injected oil contaminant, which begins the loss of contaminant in ocado and other informative parameters, as well as their possible combinations.

Another indicator of quality dispersible-stabilizing properties of the oil, which allows the detection of the proposed method, the type is entered in the tested oil dispersant chemical (dispersible-stabilizing additives). Dispersancy can be divided into two classes: 1 - ashless and 2 other types. Ashless dispersants are highly stable properties and therefore provide dispersion and stabilizirovannye, and, consequently, hold the oil significantly larger number of liquid contaminant than the dispersant of other types. This property provides hold in suspension, without precipitation, for example water for up to 30...50% or more of the volume of the test oil, which gives the emulsion during the test the maximum intensity of the color from yellow-red to yellow-white. As an informative parameter can also be used volume (percentage) is added to liquid oil pollutant. Due to this property ashless dispersant is provided unambiguous definition of one of the most important indicators of the quality dispersible-stabilizing properties of the oil.

For the implementation of the proposed method, the necessary capacity of white transparent plastic, such as plastic syringe without needle 5 or 10 ml oil, and E. the bone for liquid contaminant. The preferred syringe - excluded washing operations at its multiple use, and provides accurate dosing of the components.

The method is implemented as follows. Syringe fill the test oil in an amount of not more than 1/4...1/3 of its volume (to ensure the quality of the dispersion liquid contaminant in the oil) and then the liquid contaminant in the required amount, for example 30...50% of the volume of the test oil. The syringe is turned up the inlet, the piston bring to a stop, thumb close the inlet and is dispersed liquid contaminant in the oil intensive shaking the syringe for some time, for example 0.5 to 1 minute, until a uniform distribution of the pollutant by volume of oil. Next, emulsion, add the rest and observe the changes in the relevant informative parameters, carrying out qualitative and quantitative determination dispersible-stabilizing properties, including the definition of the type introduced in the oil dispersant chemical and identification of motor oils include oils of other types.

Thus, the ability of a liquid contaminant, forming oil solution, easy to dispergirujutsja, as well as a functional relationship used informative parameters from the actual dispersible-stabilizing properties of spitemare oil allow to detect and to comprehensively evaluate the quality of these properties without the time-consuming operations grinding solid contaminant and obtaining the chromatogram, that ensures efficiency this way, the opportunity for rapid analysis of oil field and laboratory conditions and thus eliminate the need for supplies and special equipment.

Here is the results of the study, the method of the rapid assessment dispersible-stabilizing properties (BCA) fresh motor oil on the example of two major brands that are currently used to lubricate internal combustion engines domestic trucks: M8/10 EBM and M8/10 G2. As contaminant water was used.

QUALITY INDICATORS

1 Transparency emulsions

Emulsion refers to an optically inhomogeneous media. This leads to scattering of light passing through them. Therefore, the degree of transparency characterize the turbidity factor, which shows the extent to which the transparency of the emulsion differs from the transparency fresh and not contaminated with oil.

Table 1

Assessment of the transparency of the emulsion
Brand oilsThe pollutant concentration in the oil, %The turbidity factor
MDM0...0,1Transparent
0,2...0,6Transparency is partially lost
0.7 and more than the Opaque
MG20...0,1Transparent
0,2...0,6Transparency is partially lost
0.7 and moreOpaque

2 Color (color) emulsion

Table 2

Evaluation of paint emulsions
Brand oilsThe pollutant concentration in the oil, %Colouring emulsion
MDM0...0,1Natural yellow
0,2...1,0Yellow-red
2.0 and overFrom red to yellow-white
MG20...0,1Natural - dark yellow
0,2...0,6Dark red
0.7 and moreFrom dark red to dark yellow-white

Qualitative indicators uniquely identify motor oil among the oils of other types of turbidity and color of the emulsion, especially by the presence of yellow-white (milk) colors. The color and turbidity in motor oils persists for a long time. Oil other types when introducing polluter is not able to be painted in this color and especially to keep in t is the treatment for a long time turbidity and color because they do not contain dispersible-stabilizing additives.

Colouring emulsion can be used as an additional indicator in determining the type of dispersant chemical because yellow-white color is a sign of ashless dispersant chemical and its operation.

QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS

3 Intensity (saturation) of the color emulsion

Evaluation of the intensity or saturation of the color, as you know, is an individual character, which inevitably leads to substantial differences in the estimates. Therefore, in this case it is proposed to use the comparative method, i.e. the method of comparison with the standards of the intensity of the color emulsion that can be obtained by using color pictures of emulsions with different concentration of contaminant in the oil specific brand. This method compared with other methods is simple and provides highly accurate estimates.

This indicator is optional when defining the type of dispersant chemical and health dispersible-stabilizing additives.

4, the start Time of deposition of the contaminant in sediment

Table 3

The start time of the deposition of contaminant in sediment
Brand oilsThe pollutant concentration in the oil, %Period of time and, in the period which begins with the loss of a contaminant in sediment
MDM0,1...1,0More than 48 hours
2,0 10,0...From 48 to 24 h
20,0 30,0...From 1 to 0.5 h
...50,0 40,0Immediately after giving emulsion quiescence
MG20,1...0,2More than 48 hours
0,3...0,4From 10 to 9 hours
0,7...4,0From 30 to 5 min, the contaminant may be covered with a film of surfactant
10,0Immediately after giving emulsion quiescence

This indicator is used when assessing the level of health dispersible-stabilizing additives. To reduce the time quality control of the BCA, you should select the concentration of the contaminant in the oil specific brands that provide loss of contaminant within 10...30 minutes If the loss of contaminant occurs not earlier than the specified time, then the BCA this oil is recognized quality, that is conform to the technical requirements on fresh oil of the brand.

If the loss of a contaminant has occurred before time expires, the activity dispersible-stabilizing additive is reduced. The reduction of the BCA proportion the flax-time reduction test in relation to the time set for high quality oil.

5, the start Time of separation of the emulsion

Table 4

The start time of separation of the emulsion
Brand oilsThe pollutant concentration in the oil, %The period of time during which begins the separation of the emulsion
MDM0,1...0,2More than 48 hours
0,3 to 2,0From 8 to 1 HR
4,0...70,0From 30 to 3 min
80,0The oil minimizes stratification in the volume immediately after giving emulsion quiescence
MG20,1...0,4From 48 to 5 h
1,0 0,7...From 2 to 1 HR
...4,0 2,0From 30 to 3 min
10,0The oil minimizes stratification in the volume immediately after giving emulsion quiescence

The purpose and the principle of assessing the level of health dispersible-stabilizing additives for this indicator is the same as for figure 4. Figures 4 and 5 complement each other, providing, thus, increasing the reliability of estimation of the actual BCA motor oils.

6 Volume dropped in sieges is to pollutant over time

Table 5

The amount of precipitated in the sediment contaminant ml
Brand oilsThe pollutant concentration in the oil, %Time, h
0,51,010,024
MDM4,00,100,150,300,50
10,00,130,180,650,95
20,00,130,180,951,40
30,00,100,150,180,25
MG20,70,070,130,130,15
1,00,070,070,100,15
2,00,100,100,150,18
4,00,070,150,250,40

The amount of precipitated in the sediment contaminant provided for the volume of the test oil 5 ml

7 the Height of the column of stratified emulsion over time

Table 6

The height of the column of stratified emulsion mm
Brand oilsThe pollutant concentration in the oil, %Time, h
0,51,010,024
MDM4,003,03,53,5
10,03,03,53,53,5
20,03,03,53,53,5
30,03,03,53,53,5
MG20,701,05,010,0
1,001,05,08,0
2,02,05,0Local separation of the emulsion in the amount of
4,05,06,0

Figures 6 and 7 characterize the level of health dispersible-stabilizing additives. The order of evaluation of the BCA for this indicator is the same as for figure 4.

Figure 7 has a low sensitivity to DSS oils with the ashless dispersant, but effective in the evaluation of the BCA the oil with dispersant other types.

Figures 4, 5 and 6, 7 complement each other, thereby increasing the objectivity of the assessment of the BCA.

8 the Volume of injected oil contaminant, which begins the loss of a contaminant in sediment

Table 7
IndexBrand oils
MDMMG2
The range of concentrations of a contaminant at which begins the roll of contaminant in the sediment immediately after giving emulsion quiescence, %35...458...10

This indicator is a key in determining the type of dispersant chemical because qualitative (ashless) dispersant hold in the volume of oil in 3...5 times more pollutant than the dispersant other types.

The test is carried out as follows. For example, for oil MDM according to table 7 enter 35% of the pollutant and it is dispersed mechanically for 1 min, give the emulsion a state of rest. If the polluter does not immediately precipitate, the ashless dispersant and meets the specified brand of oil. Otherwise, to identify the level of quality deterioration dispersant chemical necessary to carry out several tests, reducing each time by 5% concentration of the contaminant until the PRS, while the polluter will not cease to precipitate immediately. Additionally, you can draw figures 2, 3 and 9.

9 the Volume of injected oil contaminant, which begins the separation of the emulsion

The results of this test are presented in table 4 in the fourth drain of each brand of oil, where there is an entry: "stratification in the volume immediately after giving emulsion state of rest.

This indicator together with the previous indicator, are key in determining the type of dispersant chemical because qualitative (ashless) dispersants do not allow the oil to deteriorate as the system, hold in the volume of oil in 3...8 times more pollutant than the dispersant other types.

The procedure for determining this index is the same as the previous one.

2 item 6). Let's consider the first part of the question.

Dispersible-stabilizing properties of motor oils are designed to keep in fine condition insoluble in oil products that fall into it during the operation of the internal combustion engine. Such pollutants are products of incomplete combustion of fuel, mainly soot and products of the aging of the oil, and metal wear debris generated by the friction of the working surfaces of parts, outside of solid particles of different nature, fuel and coolant from faulty systems topl is papadaki and engine cooling and other

Dispersible-stabilizing additive is a surface-active substance (surfactant). To better understand and characterize the properties of a single substance of this additive usually divided into two service functions: dispersing and stabilizing.

Dispersing single additive is manifested in the interaction with insoluble in oil liquid and solid pollutants, the main of which are listed above. The essence of this interaction lies in the ability of surfactants absorb on the interface of two phases, dramatically reducing the surface tension (in this case, the boundary surface of the oil - solid surface", "surface oil surface insoluble in oil liquid", "solid surface pollutant - surface liquid contaminant") and thus to break down, i.e. finely grind caught in the oil pollutants. The intensity of sequentially flowing the process of grinding particles in the oil directly depends on the activity dispersible-stabilizing additives and is made for some time before the particles reach the ultimate grinding. The healthy motor oils, such as group "D", at room temperature the process dispersion liquid contaminant becomes visible is through 5...20 min, and solid pollutants, it lasts for 1...3 orders of magnitude longer (see application).

Until the additive functional, finely dispersed particles do not sedimentary in oil, that is they are in suspension, and therefore do not contaminate the surface of the combustion engine parts. When triggered, the additives and the reduction of its activity up to the maximum level of finely dispersed particles start to be integrated, consolidated and sedimentrelated, polluting parts of the engine.

Stabilizing function of this additive is also evident in the interaction with insoluble in the liquid oil and solid contaminants as dispergirovannykh and not dispergirovannykh. The essence of this interaction is that the additives are surfactants, on the boundary surfaces of the two phases sorbed and thus compresses each individual particle in the shell, consisting of molecules of this surfactant. As a result, all particles are insoluble in the oil acquire the same charges, which prevents their aggregation (sticking together) in conglomerates.

You must pay attention to the fact that initially the primary interaction of this additive with the products of the oil pollution is a function of the stabilization of the particles, i.e. the interruption of the process of unification of particles in the conglomerates, such as soot particles or thin (less than 1 micron) metal particles wear the, coolant, and only then becomes possible manifestation of the action dispersant additive functions.

Description of the process shown sequentially, but in fact he is one and proceeds simultaneously in two manifestations of additive functions because these functions can be realized without each other.

Let's consider the second part of the question about the nature of the pollutants.

To adequately assess the actual health dispersible-stabilizing additives for engine oils, it is necessary to create such conditions under which will appear visually dispersible-stabilizing effect, that is, to make the action became apparent and available for qualitative and quantitative evaluation.

It was shown above that dispersible-stabilizing properties of motor oils are implemented in the field of separation of the phases. However, fresh oil represents a homogeneous substance, and therefore there are no conditions for the formation of an interface and, as a consequence, manifestations dispersible-stabilizing properties. Therefore, in order to create such conditions it is necessary to enter in the oil contaminant, that is, a foreign substance. Such pollutants are solid and insoluble in the oil liquid of the body.

Solid in identifying dispersible-stabilizing properties of fresh oils create significant the major difficulties the essence of which is disclosed in the application.

Liquid body insoluble in oil dispersed fundamentally easier that actually eliminates labor-intensive and expensive equipment.

The main property of the nature of this fluid is to ensure the formation of an interface between the test oil and put in this oil liquid contaminant. It follows from this conclusion that the liquid contaminant must be of such a nature that provides the emulsion with the oil, that is not to dissolve in oil.

From a business position, it is advisable to use publicly available and cheap pollutants, which are always "at hand" in the transport, such as tap water and antifreeze. They are able to form an oil emulsion and a clear line at separation and precipitation.

From the viewpoint of accelerating the testing of oils it is advisable to use are safe for people's health liquid of high specific gravity, such as glycerin. The oil has a density of 900, water - 1000, and glycerol - 1230 kg/m3. The difference in specific gravities of oil and glycerin to 3 times greater than that of water with oil. Therefore, glycerin provides the acceleration of the process of separation of the emulsion and sludge, but it is compared with water and antifreeze creates a less intense color emulsion and less then the current border with oil when the precipitation and separation because that glycerin does not interact chemically with dispersible-stabilizing additive.

The method of determining dispersible-stabilizing properties of lubricating oils by introducing into the oil and disperse it polluter and give quiescence, characterized in that the oil injected liquid contaminant, forming oil solution, and after the dispersion of the emulsion give rest, change of informative parameters in the form of loss of transparency and the acquisition of emulsion color from yellow-red to yellow-white flowers provide a qualitative assessment of the presence dispersible-stabilizing properties with detection of motor oil and change of informative parameters as the intensity of the color emulsion from yellow-red to yellow-white flowers, the time of deposition of the contaminant in the sediment and/or the beginning of the emulsion breaking or missing volumes fell in sediment contaminant and/or height of a column of stratified emulsion for a certain period of time, or their absence, volume injected into the oil contaminant, which begins the loss of contaminant in the sediment or separation of the emulsion, as well as their possible combinations perform quantitative determination with the assessment of the level of health dispersible-stabilizing additive of lubricating oil is used to define the type of dispersant chemical.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: any industries where motor oils are used.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains shaped insert with oxidizer feed axial channel. Ring passage space for cooling agent is found inside shaped insert, and outer surface of middle stage is provided with corrugations. It provides cooling of oil vapors settled on corrugations at heating and dripping down in form of condensate into high temperature oxidation zone. Oil sample meter is provided in lower part of cylindrical head made in form of branch pipe by means of which metered delivery of oil to surface of aluminum weighing bottle is carried out. Oil is applied in layers, each being 150±5 mcm thick, each layer is oxidized, 240±5 s, by delivering oxidizer at rate of 50 l/h directly to surface of oil layer in aluminum weighing bottle. Taken as information index is mass "m" on deposits formed on aluminum weighing bottle. At mass of ratios greater than or equal to 0.0170 g (m≥0.0170g) oil is considered as group "В" oil, and ratio 0.0130g≤m<0.0170g oil is considered as group "Г" and at m<0.0130g, oil is considered as group "Д".

EFFECT: improved accuracy and reduced time taken for determining service group of motor oil under investigation owing to provision of conditions of testing close to real conditions of operation of oil in engine.

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SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains shaped insert with oxidizer feed axial channel. Ring passage space for cooling agent is found inside shaped insert, and outer surface of middle stage is provided with corrugations. It provides cooling of oil vapors settled on corrugations at heating and dripping down in form of condensate into high temperature oxidation zone. Oil sample meter is provided in lower part of cylindrical head made in form of branch pipe by means of which metered delivery of oil to surface of aluminum weighing bottle is carried out. Oil is applied in layers, each being 150±5 mcm thick, each layer is oxidized, 240±5 s, by delivering oxidizer at rate of 50 l/h directly to surface of oil layer in aluminum weighing bottle. Taken as information index is mass "m" on deposits formed on aluminum weighing bottle. At mass of ratios greater than or equal to 0.0170 g (m≥0.0170g) oil is considered as group "В" oil, and ratio 0.0130g≤m<0.0170g oil is considered as group "Г" and at m<0.0130g, oil is considered as group "Д".

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3 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing a mixture of oil to be tested with a standard oil, in mass%, 90:10, 50:50, and 10:90, sampling each mixture, allowing the samples to stand at a high temperature of 125±2°C for 24 hours, cooling the samples down to the room temperature with subsequent allowing the samples to stand at a low temperature for 8 hours, allowing the samples to stand at the room temperature for 240 hours, and performing the visual assessment of physical condition of the samples after each stage.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

3 ex, 7 tbl

FIELD: car industry; aircraft industry; other industries; methods of determination of the dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working oils.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the express method of determination of dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working oils. The method of determination of the dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working lubricating oils is realized by application on the filtering paper of the drip of the tested oil. After expiration of the preset time determine dimensions of the concentric zones the received chromatogram, and in compliance of their ratio judge about the functionability of the additive compound with the help of the formula. For each type of the oils (diesel, petrol or others) at first determine the temperature at which the additive compound demonstrates its maximum activity, and then this thermal regime use for obtaining of the chromatogram from the first drip descending from the drip-former on the filtering paper in the stationary and field conditions. The composition of the mechanical impurities in the test oil is determined in compliance with the core of the chromatogram using the magnifier of the image by separation of the really present in the oil of the different types of the pollutants and, thus, generalizing the outcomes of the evaluations of each type of the impurities present in the oil determine the composition of the impurities and the total pollution of the lubricating oil. The invention allows to receive the high accuracy of the evaluation both in the field and stationary conditions of the real activity of the disperse-stabilizing additive, and also - of the composition and concentration of the mechanical impurities in- the working lubricating oils-.

EFFECT: the invention allows to receive the high accuracy of the evaluation both in the field and stationary conditions of the real activity of the disperse-stabilizing additive, and also - on the composition and concentration of the mechanical impurities in- the working lubricating oils-.

2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for predicting tribotechnical properties of lubricating materials for drill bit supports at the stage of laboratory testing.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for testing lubricating materials, destruction activation energy of metallic surface before and after application of lubricating material is estimated and difference ΔG of produced activation energy values is determined. Tests of lubricating materials are conducted in range of temperatures matching operational temperatures. Type and the degree to which lubricating materials influence the metallic surface are determined respectively on basis of sign and modulus of value ΔG: ΔG<0 indicates softening effect, ΔG>0 indicates reinforcing effect, and ΔG=0 indicates neutral effect of lubricating material under examination on the metallic surface.

EFFECT: possible estimation of influence of boundary layers of lubricating material in strength properties of metallic surfaces.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in invention, parameter "total impurity" is defined by change of running oil optical density with regard to fresh oil against three spectral ranges by polychromatic optical radiation transmission through oil and recording of transmitted through oil radiation intensity in three spectral ranges - red, green and blue. In addition, diagnostic parameter "chemical destruction" of oil is used to monitor oil performance. Instrument includes optical source, flow-through cell, optical radiation receiver and signal processing unit. Besides, source contains polychromatic radiation source and receiver includes photo sensor, which records optical radiation intensity simultaneously in three spectral ranges.

EFFECT: invention improves self-descriptiveness and reliability of on-line oil performance monitoring.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurements.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for determination of temperature resistance of lubricant oils. In method for determination of lubricant oil temperature resistance, oil sample is taken, divided into equal portions, each of them is heated at atmospheric pressure without air access with condensation of vapors and condensate drain, besides for each subsequent part of oil sample, test temperature is increased by a permanent value, afterwards light flux absorption ratio Ka is determined, graphical dependences on temperature are built, and temperature resistance is detected, moreover, after testing sample is weighed, value of evaporated mass G is identified as difference of oil sample mass before and after test, evaporation ratio KG as ratio of evaporated oil sample to remained mass, coefficient of conversion energy Ec as sum of light flux absorption coefficients Ka and evaporation KG, then graphical dependences of energy conversion ratio Ec on test temperature are built, and temperature resistance of tested lubricant oil is determined by temperatures of destruction process beginning and completion.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of determination.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

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