Measurement method to determine level of river pollution with sewage water

FIELD: ecological engineering, particularly river monitoring with taking into consideration river pollution with sewage water within the limits of cities and other inhabited localities.

SUBSTANCE: method involves choosing river observation points relative single pollution source or pollution source array; aligning one observation point with single pollution cross-section or pollution cross-section array; taking water samples; conservation the samples and preparing thereof for following analysis; cultivating test-organism, namely one-celled green algae - Chlorella vulgaris, inside cultivator at temperature of 36±0.5°; measuring optical density thereof in red light; analyzing and estimating the measurement results. The observation points are transversal to river and set in front of single sewage pollution source or sewage pollution source array, in center of each source and behind them. All three observation points are located within the limits of a city or other inhabited locality. The optical density is measured before and after one-celled green algae cultivation in water samples. After measurement termination overall river water pollution index is determined.

EFFECT: possibility to compare overall river water pollution index obtained in particular observation point with that obtained from pollution source on river bank; extended functional capabilities and extended range of application.

5 cl, 4 tbl

 

The invention relates to engineering ecology of the river and can be used for environmental monitoring of rivers and river water quality, in particular with regard to wastewater pollution within cities and other settlements.

The known method of measuring the pollution of rivers and water bodies (see, for example, the book: Novikov YU.V., swallow C.O, Boldin Z. Methods of investigation of water quality of water bodies. 2nd ed. - M.: Medicine, 1990. - S. 9-20), including the selection on the river of target observations, sampling of water, conservation of water samples, preparation of water for analysis, measurements on the water sample, the analysis and evaluation of measurement results.

The disadvantage of this known method is the necessity of taking into account a large number of simultaneously active contaminants. For example, to assess the quality of drinking water accounted for 40 indicators, and technical water - 10 indicators.

There is also known a method of measurement of river pollution by sewage by biological testing (see: guidelines for conducting the practical work environment on the basis of academic environmental laboratory. - Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2002. - 15C.), with the selection on the river of target observations, sampling of water, conservation of water samples, preparation of water for analysis, the cultivation of the test body in the form of unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris in which cultivator type KK-05 Krasnoyarsk state University at a constant temperature of 36± 0,5°With the measurement of optical density to red light, the analysis and evaluation of measurement results.

The disadvantage is the lack of an overall index of pollution of the river treated or untreated wastewater and the difficulty of the comprehensive assessment of the level of pollution source of pollution, as well as all sources of pollution located within the city or other locality. It is difficult to compare settlements among themselves.

Technical result - increase the functionality and accuracy of definition of the generalized indicator of the pollution of the river one source of pollution for many measurements the optical density of the samples grown with algae.

This technical result is achieved in that the cross-sections observations take across the river to one or group of sources of waste water, in the middle of each source, and after one or group of sources of waste water, and all three have in the city or other locality, while measuring the optical density of the suspension of the algae perform before and after cultivation of algae in water samples, and after measuring the optical density define a generalized index of pollution of the river water.

Alignments observations take on the sources of pollution in the river section, n is confined to the precincts of the village, and sources of wastewater outside the village is considered as a separate group of sources.

The value of the generalized indicator of water pollution is determined by the formula:

where O1i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples up to growing up, in the middle and after source or group of sources of wastewater;

About2i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples after growing up in the middle and after source or group of sources of wastewater;

n1- the total optical density to grow algae at all sites observations on the river;

n2- the total optical density after growing algae at all sites of observation.

The values of the generalized indicator of contamination from a group of sources of pollution, the sites which are located within city limits, calculate the pollution index separately for each source of pollution from each group.

Water samples in each cross-section observations of the river are accepted in the amount of not less than seven repetitions.

Measure the optical density of the suspension of the algae perform before and after cultivation (cultivation) of algae in water samples.

After measuring the optical density in all water samples for the determination of the generalized indicator with marym optical densities for all samples and all river sites within the boundaries of the settlement amount to a pivot table.

Summary of measurements of optical density of a suspension of algae in all water samples (an example of the three sites one source pollution)
The total optical density of a suspension of algae in all water samples
The target 1The target 2The target 3
Before cultivationAbout11O12O13n1=O11+O12+O13
After cultivationO21About22O23n2=O21+O22+O23
Total:O11+O21O12+O22O13+O23

A generalized index of water pollution is determined by the formula

where O1i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples collected prior to cultivation before, middle and after the source of wastewater;

O2i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples collected after cultivation before, middle and after the source of wastewater;

n1- total Opticheskie the density prior to culturing (growing) algae at all sites observations on the river;

n2- the total optical density after culturing (growing) algae at all sites of observation.

Example. The source table of the results of measurements of the same source of contamination within PE-Ola has the following form.

The density of the suspension of algae (before and after cultivation)
no water sampleI targetII targetIII target
toaftertoaftertoafter
10.0210.0220.0220.0290.0180.028
20.0100.0140.0220.0270.0100.022
30.0260.0800.0170.0090.0180.028
40.0230.0360.0170.0230.0270.031
50.0330.0970.0260.0710.0770.106
60.0150.056 0.0330.0710.0240.060
70.0190.0450.0230.0510.0310.052

Here for all three sites (before, middle and after the source of contamination) were accepted equally by seven water samples. A smaller number of samples is undesirable according to the requirements of the statistical precision of the study.

For convenience of calculations, all values of optical density of the suspension of the algae multiply by 1000 (103).

The results of the calculation is placed in the pivot table.

Example summary table of measurements of optical density of a suspension of algae in all 7 samples of water, × 103(an example of the three sites one source pollution)
The total optical density of a suspension of algae in all water samples
The target 1The target 2The target 3
Before cultivationO11=147O12=160O13=205n1=512
After cultivationO21=350O22=281O23=327n2=58
Total:497441532

For the three sites received a private formula for calculation of the generalized indicator of water pollution in the form

Multiply the result by 10-3and get the inequality 4740,7>of 5.99, ie, the resulting statistics indicates that the composite index shows a significant difference between the samples before and after the cultivation of algae. The value of T can be used for comparison with other sources of pollution located within the city, as well as apply for the mapping of water pollution along the river.

The values of the generalized indicator of the pollution of the river several sources of contamination, sites which are located within city limits, calculate the pollution index section of the river within city limits.

The essence of the technical solution is that all the measurements of pollution in the various samples are divided into two groups before and after the cultivation of algae. The essential feature is that for the same source address three target up in the middle of and after the source of pollution, and all three of the target must be within the city or other populated item is.

The essence of the technical solution also lies in the fact that the summary table for the application of known statistical method of analysis of the original data in two sets before and after culturing (growing) algae. This gives an overall index of pollution of rivers by sewage from a single source pollution, which has two functions:

1) a generalized index of water pollution at the time of sampling or averaged over some time taking all 7 or more water samples;

2) statistical matching score importance of the two samples is the total optical density before and after the cultivation of algae.

The positive effect is the fact that offered clear and simple in the calculation method of measurement of river pollution by sewage comprehensive summary measure of water pollution of the river in the space of mixing water from a clean river. To do this, at the same time, it should take 7 or more samples at different depths of the river and at different width across the river (along the target). This allows you to build a map of the change in overall index depending on the depth or distance across the width of the river in this section observations.

The novelty of technical solutions is that for the first time made engineering attempt to obtain obobs the frame rate of contamination of the river water (or pond for some changes in the way) for the environmental assessment process mixing pure river of water with sewage flows.

The proposed solution has significant signs, novelty and significant positive effect. Materials prejudicial to the novelty of technical solutions, we have not identified.

The method of measurement of river pollution by sewage includes the following steps :

First on the river is determined by the location of the pollution source. With regard to him on the river across it identifies three target observations (before, middle and after the source of pollution). In these sites you water sampling. Then perform preservation of water samples. In laboratory conditions hold for the preparation of water samples for analysis, and then put algae and perform the measurement of the optical density of the suspension in the red light. After that, raise the test body in the form of unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris in the cultivator type KV-05 Krasnoyarsk state University at a constant temperature of 36±0,5°C. After the cultivation, the suspension is subjected to the re-measurement of optical density to red light. Then make a pivot table and calculated by the proposed formula is a generalized metric. Then, as the prototype, perform analysis and evaluation of measurement results.

The method of measurement of river pollution by sewage municipal sewage is implemented, for example, trace the accordingly.

First on the river within the urban area is determined by the location of the pollution source, such as the location of the drain waste water from some company. With regard to him on the river across it identifies three target observations (before, middle and after the source of pollution). In these sites is the sampling of water on a map of locations of water sampling relative to point source pollution.

Then the vessel with water samples transported to the laboratory and perform preservation of water samples. In laboratory conditions hold for the preparation of water for analysis, then put algae and perform the measurement of the optical density of the suspension in the red light. After that, raise the test body in the form of unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris in the cultivator type KV-05 Krasnoyarsk state University at a constant temperature of 36±0,5°C. After the cultivation, the suspension is subjected to measurement of optical density to red light.

After measuring the optical density in all water samples to determine the overall index for the total optical densities for all samples and all river sites within the boundaries of the settlement amount to a pivot table.

Summary of measurements of the optical platnost the suspension of algae in all water samples (an example of the three sites one source pollution)
The total optical density of a suspension of algae in all water samples
The target 1The target 2The target 3
Before cultivationAbout11O12O13n1=O11+O12+O13
After cultivationO21O22O23n2=O21+O22+O23
Total:About11+O21About12+O22O13+O23

A generalized index of water pollution is determined by the formula

where O1i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples collected prior to cultivation before, middle and after the source of wastewater;

About2i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples collected after cultivation before, middle and after the source of wastewater;

n1- the total optical density before culturing (growing) algae at all sites observations on the river;

n2- the total optical density after culturing (growing) algae at all sites of observation.

what about the various sources of pollution in the city carried out a comparison of the generalized indicator of contamination So For analysis and evaluation of the results of measurements of river pollution by sewage perform graphic and cartographic construction of received data.

The proposed method enables us to compare the obtained values of the generalized indicator of the pollution of the river in this place the measurements on the source of the pollution on the river. This increases the functionality of the analysis and evaluation of the results of measurements of the optical density of the suspensions of algae (test body) and thereby extends the practical possibilities of application of the proposed method. It also improves the accuracy of the analysis and evaluation of the results due to statistical generalization of the input data measurements of water samples. This allows further improvement of the method by applying mathematical modeling, for example the dynamics of contamination of the river by sewage.

1. The method of measurement of river pollution by sewage, which is chosen on the river cross-sections observations regarding the pollution source or group of sources of pollution, one of the sites of observation combined with the target or group of sites, wastewater discharge, carry out water sampling, preservation and preparation for analysis, the cultivation of the test body in the form of unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris in cultivate the e at constant temperature (36± 0,5)°With the measurement of optical density to red light, the analysis and evaluation of measurement results, wherein the cross-sections observations take across the river to one or group of sources of waste water, in the middle of each source, and after one or group of sources of waste water, and all three of the target feature in the city or other locality, while measuring the optical density of the suspension of the algae perform before and after cultivation of algae in water samples, and after measuring the optical density define a generalized index of pollution of the river water.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cross-sections observations take on the sources of pollution on the river, located within city limits, and sources of wastewater outside the village is considered as a separate group of sources.

3. The method according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the value of the generalized indicator of water pollution in the river is determined by the formula

where O1i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples collected prior to the cultivation of seaweed before, middle and after source or group of sources of waste water;2i- the sum of the optical densities for all samples after growing up in the middle and after source or group of sources is s waste water; n1- the total optical density to grow algae at all sites observations on the river; n2- the total optical density after growing algae at all sites of observation.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the values of the generalized indicator of the pollution of the river from the group of sources of pollution, the sites which are located within city limits, calculate the pollution index separately for each source of pollution from each group.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the water samples in each cross-section observations of the river are accepted in the amount of not less than seven repetitions.



 

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