Non-destructive unf method for controlling moisture load of solid materials and device for realization of said method

FIELD: technology for determining moisture load of solid materials, possible use for construction, chemical and other industries.

SUBSTANCE: UHF method for determining moisture load of solid materials on basis of Brewster angle includes positioning researched material into high-frequency electromagnetic field with following registration of parameters alternation, characterizing high-frequency emission. Ring-shaped multi-slit antenna with electronic-controlled direction diagram excites electromagnetic wave, falling onto dielectric material. Direction diagram inclination angle is measured until moment, at which minimal power of reflected wave is detected, wave length of UHF generator is determined and Brewster angle is calculated. Then on basis of normalized mathematical formulae moisture load value of surface layer of Ws is calculated for measured material. Further, power of refracted wave is stabilized by changing power of falling wave, temperature of subject material T1 is measured, and after given time span - temperature T2 and moisture level are determined for volume of material from given mathematical relation. Device for realization of given method includes UHF generator, UHF detector, wave-guiding Y-circulator, input shoulder of which has generator block controlled by voltage, attenuator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, UHF watt-meter with output to central microprocessor unit device for controlling and stabilization of output power, diode pulse modulator and video pulse generator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, peak detector. First output shoulder of Y-circulator has absorbing synchronized load, and second output shoulder has complex cone antenna, consisting of emitting portion in form of ring-shaped multi-slit antenna and cone-shaped receipt portion, to which gate is connected as well as second UHF watt-meter, connected to extreme digital controller for searching and indication of power minimum of returned wave and resonator indicator of wave meter. UHF generator is powered by central microprocessor unit controlled power block, video pulse counter is connected to digital wave meter, and thermal pairs block is connected to central microprocessor unit device.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity, increased precision of measurement of moisture load of surface layer, expanded functional capabilities due to additional determination of integral moisture load on basis of interaction volume and decreased parasitic UHF emission.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods of determining the moisture content of solid materials and can be used in construction, chemical and other industries.

Known resonator method (for example, see Berliner M.A. moisture Measurement. - M.: Energy, 1973) measuring the moisture content of solid materials, which consists in placing in the cavity volume of the resonator (RR) of the investigated solid model of strict shape and size. Change output values of the primary measuring conversion (PIP) EOS, namely the resonant frequency Δf=f-f0and q ΔQ=Q-Q0(f0and Q0- values (unloaded) parameter resonator) determine the moisture content of the material under investigation.

A device that implements the method comprises the microwave generator, PIP in the form of a cylindrical PRS and a measuring device for measuring the resonant frequency of the OP.

The disadvantages of the method and implementing system are: the ability to study samples only a certain shape and size that does not allow you to control the humidity of the products of large dimensions; in essence, the method is destructive, as it requires making simple sample shape and size, which is placed in the cavity of the PR; the need for an adjustment when changing the geometric dimensions of the EO or waveguide, is caused by change in ambient temperature; the complexity of the process, and in some cases, the impossibility of continuous moisture measurements; the possibility of degeneration of oscillations, causing additional error, and the use of polarization filters degeneration fluctuations reduces the quality factor of the main types of oscillations and complicates the design of the PIP.

Known microwave method for determining the moisture content of solid samples (see, for example, non-Destructive testing and diagnostics: a Handbook / Edited. edit VLA. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1995. - 488 C.), based on the measurement in free space attenuation or phase shift of the transmitted wave, with controlled material placed in the space between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Measure moisture content of the material under investigation is the weakening power of the last signal in decibels or changing its phase.

A device that implements this method consists of two parts: receiving measurement circuit that includes the receiving horn antenna, attenuator, detector microwave-signal-amplifying unit and the measuring device, and transmitting tract: transmitting horn antenna with klystrons microwave generator, a power supply, a gate and a control device attenuator.

As disadvantages of the method and implementing it should be noted that the accuracy of the measurements in this case C is dependent on the thickness of the sample and the density of the material, in addition, this method is inherent low sensitivity and the complexity of determining the moisture of a small mass and a large dispersion of microwave energy; complex hardware implementation (valves, circulators, amplitude or phase detector); the dependence of the measurement accuracy humidity temperature; the need to ensure a constant distance between the receiving and transmitting antennas; a narrow range of humidity measurement.

Known microwave method for determining the moisture content of solid materials (see non-Destructive testing and diagnostics: a Handbook / Edited. edit VLA. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1995. - 488 C.), based on the principle of measuring the characteristics of the reflected wave of the electromagnetic wave when measuring the moisture content of the material.

A device that implements this method, contains a double waveguide tee, N or s shoulder which included a microwave generator through an isolation valve and a variable attenuator with coreconnection. Reflected from the investigated material signal is compared in the waveguide tee in phase with the signal from attenuator with coreconnection. The resulting signal proportional to the moisture content of the material to be detected and recorded by the indicator.

Way and realizing its apparatus have disadvantages such as lack of integrated assessment humidity on the I materials of greater thickness, when measuring the moisture content it is necessary to take into account multiple reflections from the back surface of the sample, the measurement result is influenced by the state and nature of the reflecting surfaces, a large parasitic radiation power of the microwave signal, the complexity of implementing method.

Adopted as a prototype microwave method for determining the moisture content of solid material by the Brewster angle (for example, see Berliner M.A. moisture Measurement. - M.: Energy, 1973), which consists in finding the angle of incidence, which corresponds to the minimum of the reflected horizontally polarized electromagnetic wave from the flat surface of the sample.

The circuit that implements this method includes a microwave generator, a directional coupler, transmitting antenna, receiving antenna, a microwave detector, amplifier, and an indicator device.

The disadvantages of the method and implementing system are the dependence of the measurement accuracy of the thickness of the sample, the ability to study only the surface layer of a material that does not allow to obtain information about its integral humidity dependence of the accuracy on the state and nature of the reflecting surfaces, low precision measurements of large values of humidity, a large dispersion of microwave energy and the low accuracy of determination of the Brewster angle.

The technical result of the invention, making the increase in sensitivity, improve the accuracy of measuring the moisture content of the surface layer of Wp, increase functionality through additional definitions integral humidity W volume interaction and the reduction of stray microwave radiation.

This result is achieved by the fact that the microwave method for determining the moisture content of solid materials on the corner of Brewster, consisting in the premises of the investigated material in a high-frequency electromagnetic field with the subsequent registration of changes of parameters characterizing high-frequency radiation through the device of excitation of electromagnetic waves, representing a circular alternating phase multislot radiating aperture with electronically controlled pattern, at a wavelength of λGmicrowave generators excite an electromagnetic wave incident on a dielectric material at an angle ΘCHchange the angle of the radiation pattern of the radiating aperture by varying the wavelength of the microwave generator to the moment, which is the minimum power of the reflected wave, determine the wavelength of the microwave generator λGBrand calculate the Brewster angle

ΘBrCH±ΔΘ±,

where ΘCH- the angle of the beam main lobe in nachalnymi time when the λ G,

ΔΘ± - deviation of the maximum beam angle ΘCHdetermined by the magnitude of the wavelength of the microwave generator λGBrthus

where a is the size of the wide side of the ring waveguide with variable-phase arrangement of the slits multislot radiating aperture, d2- the value of out-of-phase step;

then calculate the value of the moisture content of the surface layer of WPsolving the system of equations:

whereis the permittivity of free moisture (taking into account the frequency dispersion);- dielectric constant "dry" material:

ε0- permittivity dehydrated material; εIn- the dielectric constant of bound water (4,5-5,8);

further stabilize the power of the refracted wave Prottenin the feedback circuit by changing the power of the incident wave, measure the temperature of the investigated material T1, after a preset interval of time tN- temperature T2and determine the amount of moisture content W in the material volume ratio is:

where Rrotten- power refracted wave; tNthe time interval of the temperature measurements; CVvolumetric heat capacity of moist material defined by the formula of Telescope: CV(W)=a+(a2+CV1WithV2/2)1/2; a=((3W-1)CV1+2(2-3W)CV2)/4; CV1and CV2- volumetric heat capacity free of moisture and dehydrated material, ρ(W) is the density of the investigated material, determined through density free of moisture and dehydrated material ρ(W)=ρ1W+ρ2(1-W), SAP- area of exposure.

A device that implements the method containing the microwave generator and the microwave detector additionally includes a planar waveguide Y-circulator, to the input of the shoulder which included the block generator voltage-controlled (VCO) on the lamp backward wave type "0" (FISHING "0") with output power of 100 watts in continuous mode and operating in the frequency range (5,5 6,5...) GHz, with a range of controllable frequency deviation ΔfD≤0,5 GHz, in addition, includes an attenuator on pogranichnom ferrite, a microprocessor controlled, microwave thermistor power meter with output through the UPT and ADC microprocessor device to control and stabilize the power output of the diode pulse modulator and generator videokursov, controlled by microprocessor, picolylamine, in the first output shoulder Y-circulator included absorbing the agreed load, and the second output included shoulder complex horn aperture, comprising a radiating portion in the form of an annular alternating-phase multislot antenna and horn receiving part connected to the valve, microwave thermistor power meter, coupled with extreme digital controller search and display the minimum power of the reflected wave by the controlled voltage on the second anode FISHING "0", the resonator sensor of the wavemeter, the power generator on FISHING "0" is controlled by microprocessor power supply; counter videokursov (VI)associated with the digital wavemeter block thermocouples coupled through low-pass filter, UPT and a / d converters with microprocessor device.

The essence of non-destructive microwave-way humidity control of solid materials is as follows.

Using microwave generators with controlled wavelength λGelectromagnetic wave arrives at the special radiant system integrated aperture in the form of an annular alternating phase multislot radiating antenna, the angle of the maximum beam (NAM) ΘCHwhich depends on the wavelength λGexcitatory microwave oscillations.

It is known (see Antennas and microwave devices. Calculation and Proektirovanie the antenna arrays and radiating elements. Edited Digestmessage. - M.: Owls. Radio, 1972)that the change of the maximum of DN, i.e. its deviation from the value of the angle of the bottoms of the main lobe ΘCHthe value of ΔΘ±you can achieve electronic scanning of the beam, changing the value of wavelength λGSstf. Therefore, by varying the wavelength λGgenerator of microwave oscillations can change the angle of the radiation pattern of the radiating aperture and to achieve minimum power of the reflected wave receiving parts of the complex aperture. The angle of the maximum DN of the radiating aperture, whereby there is the effect of maximum absorption of the incident electromagnetic wave is equal to the angle of Brewster ΘBr.

The Brewster angle is associated with a wavelength of λGmicrowave generators and the design parameters of the proposed ring alternating phase multislot radiating antenna and equal

where ΘCH- the angle of the beam main lobe in the initial moment of time when the λG,

ΔΘ±- the angle of deviation of the maximum DN angle ΘCHdetermined by the magnitude of the wavelength of the microwave generator λGBr; whereby there is the effect of maximum absorption of the incident wave, i.e. the corresponding angle Br the Roadster

where a is the size of the wide side of the ring waveguide with variable-phase arrangement of the slits multislot radiating aperture, d2- the value of out-of-phase step.

The real part of complex dielectric permittivity ε'provided that its imaginary part is not zero ε"(W)≠0, is a measure of the moisture content of the surface layer of WPmaterial and connected with the Brewster angle ratio (see Berliner M.A. humidity Measurement range microwave. - M.: Energy. 1973):

where ε'=ε'cm- the value of relative permittivity dvukhkomponentnoi mixture (building material with associated moisture - unstructured (free) moisture), defined by the formula of Lichtenecker:

whereis the permittivity of free moisture (taking into account the frequency dispersion);

- dielectric constant "dry" (with associated moisture) material, and the amount ofis determined by the generalized formula Reynolds and Hugh:

ε0- permittivity dehydrated building material;

ε In- the dielectric constant of bound water (4,5-5,8) invariant to the change of wavelength generator λGand temperature T°C.

Thus, solving the system of equations(1), (2), (3) and (4), find on the measured wavelength λGmicrowave generators the amount of surface moisture WPmaterial.

Ensuring maximum penetration of the energy of the incident wave in the material, i.e. the maximum power of the refracted Prottenwaves, and bringing the level to the nominal value measured by thermocouples temperature T1volume of the wet material. After a preset interval of time tN(s)=const - temperature T2. The measured temperature difference ΔT of a material is related to the humidity value W in the material volume ratio:

where Rrotten- power refracted wave; tNthe time interval of the temperature measurements; CVvolumetric heat capacity of moist material defined by the formula of Telescope CV(W)=a+(a2+CV1WithV2/2)1/2; a=((3W-1)CV1+2(2-3W)CV2)/4; CV1and CV2- volumetric heat capacity free of moisture and dehydrated material, ρ(W) is the density of the investigated material, determined through density free of moisture and dehydrated material ρ(W)=ρ1W+p2(1-W), SAP - area of exposure.

Diagram of the device that implements the proposed method, shown in figure 1, where the numbers denote the following blocks: 1 block generator voltage-controlled (VCO) on the lamp reverse wave (VOC) "0" "Scheelite" and HC-40: Po≅100 watts in continuous mode, (fmin...fmax)∈(5,5 6,5...) GHz ΔfD≤0,5 GHz - band managed frequency deviation; 2 is controlled by a microprocessor (MP) attenuator on pogranichnom ferrite; 3 - microwave - thermistor power meter with output through the UPT and ADC MP (through MP control and stabilization of Po); 4 - diode pulsed modulator; 5 - generator videokursov controlled by the microprocessor; 6 - peak detector; 7 - waveguide Y-circulator; 8 - absorbing coordinated load; 9 - ring variable-phase multislot antenna - radiating part of the complex aperture; 10 - horn receiving portion integrated aperture; 11 - valve; 12 - microwave - thermistor power meter; 13 - extreme digital regulator search and display the minimum power of the reflected wave RRefmanaged the voltage on the second anode FISHING "0"1 (EA2-CL 5); 14 - microprocessor controlled power supply for 1 (ESM); 15 - count VI, coupled with digital wavemeter 16; 17 - resonator sensor wavemeter; 18 - microprocessor; 19 - unit thermocouples (TC); 20 - personal com is outer.

The device operates as follows. Using ring alternating phase multislot antenna 9, which is part pievescola complex aperture 10 (2), excite an electromagnetic wave with the capacity of Ppadincident on a dielectric material. Radiating antenna is fed from a microwave generator 1 FISHING type "0" through controlled attenuator 2, the diode pulse modulator 4 and a decoupling device on the basis of H-plane waveguide Y-circulator 7.

Comprehensive pievescola aperture is presented in figure 2, where the numbers denote: 21 - electromagnetic screen and receiving the mouthpiece of the power of the reflected electromagnetic wave (EMW) - RRef; 22 - internal radiating slot; 23 - circular rectangular CENTURIES with radiating alternating-phase slot antennas; 24 - external gap excitation circular CENTURIES with a vibrator; 25 - plane material; 26 - space filled insulating radiotransparent material with ε', close to 1, (foam) with a glued set point thermocouples (thermopile), where ε' is the real part of complex dielectric permittivity: ε=ε'-jε".

The principle of non-destructive testing allows you to bring the aperture of the transducer to the surface of the product, ensuring minimum environmental exposure. Contact with what again has only thermocouple Converter (battery thermocouples), moreover, the clamping of the transducer must be as large as possible.

Design and geometrical parameters of the ring phase-alternating multislot radiating antenna shown in figure 3, where we have introduced the following notation: 22 - internal radiating slot; 23 - circular rectangular CENTURIES with radiating alternating-phase slot antennas; 24 - external gap excitation circular CENTURIES with a vibrator; 25 - plane material; 27 - chart orientation (LTO) the single slit; 28 - ΘCH- the angle of the beam main lobe in the initial moment of time when the λGone gap; 29 - ribbed periodic slow-wave structure; 30 - the middle line of the broad wall EXPLOSIVES; 31 - 2ΔΘ0,5- the width of the bottoms in the plane of incidence; 32 - leeffective (conditionally equivalent to the depth of the space microwave heating; 33 is the radius of the effective surface Refftransfer of microwave energy incident wave in the material; 34 is a conventional squirrel-cage plane (KZ); 35, 36 is diametrically opposite slits; 37 is the average radius Rcfannular waveguide; 38 - slit length ly; 39 - antiphase step d2waveguide-slot antenna; 40 - magnitude-phase step d1; 41 - the offset of the radiating slots Δ axis of symmetry of the rectangular waveguide.

The electric intensity vector is the wave radiated transverse cracks (figure 3) must lie in the plane of incidence, cracks should be coherently radiating with the proviso that the annular waveguide is single-mode mixed mode waves H10close to traveling waves (BV), and the amount of IPM≈1.

The number of slot antennas is equal to (N+1), where N is the number of radiating slots plus one excited by the vibrator from sstf (FISHING "0"), is selected from a ratio providing maximum electric field intensity at the center of the cross slot antenna:

where Λ - the length of the main wave H10in the rectangular waveguide; Rcp- the average radius of the circular waveguide (Rcp≫Λ); n∈1,2...

Parameters ring-alternating phase multislot radiating antenna the following (see Antennas and microwave devices. Calculation and design of antenna arrays and radiating elements. Edited Digestmessage. - M.: Owls. Radio, 1972):

(a) slit length ly≈Λ/2 - gap resonance;

b) the magnitude of the out-of-phase step d2=0,48 L of the conditions of existence of only the main lobe of the NAM (zero order), i.e. the condition:

on the other hand the condition of normality for the direction of the maximum of DN to the plane of the slits is d1=Δ. Really d2G=0,3-0,7 (see, for example, Antennas and microwave devices. The calculation about sterowanie antenna arrays and radiating elements. Edited Digestmessage. - M.: Owls. Radio, 1972, RIS, 2.10, 2.13)where:

C) the magnitude of the phase step d1=2d2;

g) slit width ≈0,25 ly;

e) amount Δ (offset radiating slits relative to the axis of symmetry of the rectangular waveguide) grows symmetrically from an imaginary plane C - 34 to the outer slit of the excitation circular CENTURIES with vibrator - 24, to reduce side lobes in the amount of 2Δ/N at step equal to d2(figure 3).

Reflected from material 25 wave, accept receiving portion 10 (Fig 1), through the gate 11 is fed to a resonant sensor wavemeter 17, where it is measured wavelength, and microwave thermistor power meter 12, where the measured power of the reflected wave RRef. The output signal 12 is fed to an extreme digital regulator search and display of minimum reflected wave RRef13 and through a microprocessor controlled power supply GEAR 14 is supplied to the terminal (CL) sstf 1, which changes the value of EA2, thereby changing the wavelength of generator λgthat leads to the deviation of the maximum DN of the main lobe ΘCHthe value of ΔΘ±.

To increase the change of angle NAM ΘCHit is necessary to increase the deceleration rate of the phase velocity νPDslow-wave structures 29 (figure 3).

The magnitude of the maximum deviation from NAM 8 CH(that ΔΘ±) for the proposed variable-phase system is determined by the expression:

where a is the size of the wide side of the ring waveguide with variable-phase arrangement of the slits multislot radiating aperture, d2- the value of out-of-phase step, νPD=/Vf- the rate of deceleration phase velocity of the wave H10in the rectangular waveguide, and the deceleration rate of the group velocity is determined by the expression νSGRPD-1.

The proposed search system the angle NAM ΘCH±ΔΘ±and, accordingly, the associated value of the Brewster angle ΘBrallows changing λgin the aperture of the ring waveguide is provided with a ribbed periodic slow-wave structure 29 (3), using a search of the minimum of PRef13 (1), the signal SHF thermistor power meter 12 through the OS on a GONG, find λGas a measure of the real part of dielectric permittivity ε' and accordingly to determine the amount of surface moisture WPmaterial, solving the system of equations(1), (2), (3) and (4) the MPU 18.

Further, when the found of Brewster's angle, the MPU 18 is set to the time of heating of the material tH(s)=const and the power of the incident wave, Rpad=const. So kakima part of the value of the dielectric permittivity ε "=F(W), i.e., Rpad=F(W), it is necessary through measurement ε'cmon the corner of Brewster, adjust (stabilize) the power of the incident wave, Rpador heating time so that the amount of energy was constant Rrotten·tn=Q=const. This is achieved as follows: measured by 12 and 13 of minimum reflected power Rotmpand the incident wave Ppad; in LPA 18 calculates the power of the refracted wave Protten=Ppad-Potmpand, changing the value of Ppadusing 2, stabilize Protten. The amount of heat absorbed by the material:

where CVvolumetric heat capacity of moist material defined by the formula of Telescope:

WithV(W)=a+(a2+CV1CV2/2)1/2a=((3W-1)CV1+2(2-3W)CV2)/4;

m is the mass of the interacting substances:

m=ρ·VEOI=ρ(W)·VEOI(W);

ρ - density of the investigated material, determined through density free of moisture and dehydrated material:

ρ(W)=ρ1W+ρ2(1-W).

Where measured ΔT:

where VEOI(W)=SE(WP)·lE(W)≈SAP(WP)·lE(W) - a variable amount of communication (amount of heat).

The value of VEOIcf≫λG). Vector modeling NAM corner Θ DZ (far zone), i.e. almost in the plane of the investigated material allows to draw the following conclusions:

a) the exposed area SAPless than the effective area of the aperture, equal πR2cfand is determined by the value of REFF(i.e. the value of ΘCH-ΔΘwhere ΔΘ - width DN in the plane of incidence and depends on the value of WP;

b) the angle ϕ=π/2-(ΘBr+ΔΘ)≥0 and should be minimal;

C) NAM in the plane of the material preserves the distribution of the fieldthe same as the single slit in the plane, but significantly already, i.e. the sharper the NAM, the less REFF(SEFF), the greater the sensitivity of the method, i.e. the distribution of the fieldfrom 0 to REFFlike the distribution of sale the th single antenna when the angle from NAM Θ CHto ΘCH+ΔΘ;

g) for all proposed structures apertures vector total picture field refracted waves gives a picture of the typical flat T - waves with uneven bottoms in the plane of the material.

On this basis, for a flat in DZ wave will use the known expression of the depth of penetration of the field into the material with dissipative (resistive) losses, characterized by conductivity γ [Cm/m]:

When determining the moisture equivalent values (taking into account the fact that the losses in heat conductivity as compared with a loss of polarization heating depending on the moisture content W is neglected) is the value of ε" (i.e. some kind of γSFF=f(W)):where γeff=ωε0ε"(W), and with a high degree of accuracy (assuming γom≪γeff) can be considered ε"(W)=K1W γeff=K2W.

Considering that when l≥3δ, losses in space at a distance from the aperture l≥3 δ can be ignored:

and

where the statistical characteristics of the basic algorithm has the form defined by (5).

Thus, by measuring the temperature change of the surface of the fixed block TP 1 (battery thermocouples) Δ T(°C)=f(W), (5) determine the amount of moisture content W in the material volume.

The reduction of sensitivity in the area of large moisture W is due to the increased size ε"and accordinglywhen this decreases the value of lE(VE), which reduces the amount of heat Q, since the attenuation of the wave in the material is directly proportional to lE(see Berliner M.A. humidity Measurement range microwave. - M.: Energy. 1973):

where

Technical and economic effect from the use of the invention is to increase the sensitivity of not less than 3 times in comparison with the prototype due to the reduction and localization of the zone of interaction of EMR with the material. In addition, the proposed solution allows to improve the accuracy of measuring the moisture content of the surface layer of WPby increasing the precision of measurement of the Brewster angle by electronic control of the position of the maximum DN of receiving and transmitting antennas and to increase resolution in comparison with the prototype. As a consequence, decreases the measurement error surface moisture is not worse than 3 times on the basis of experimental studies on samples of known moisture content (9% from prototype to 3% in the proposed CSP is both). Also expand the functionality of the method due to the additional determination of integral humidity W volume interaction and reduce stray microwave radiation while providing a one-way access to the tested material.

1. Microwave method determination of moisture content of particulate materials on the corner of Brewster, consisting in the premises of the investigated material in a high-frequency electromagnetic field with the subsequent registration of changes of parameters characterizing high-frequency radiation, characterized in that through the device of excitation of electromagnetic waves, representing a circular alternating phase multislot transmitting antenna with electronically controlled pattern, at a wavelength of ΔGmicrowave generators excite an electromagnetic wave incident on a dielectric material at an angle ΘCHchange the angle of the beam by varying the wavelength of the microwave generator to the moment, which is the minimum power of the reflected wave, determine the wavelength of the microwave generator ΔRRTand calculate the Brewster angle

ΘBrCH±ΔΘ±,

where ΘCH- the angle of the beam main lobe in the initial moment of time when the λ G,

ΔΘ± - deviation of the maximum beam angle,

ΘCHdetermined by the magnitude of the wavelength of the microwave generator λRRTwhile

where a is the size of the wide side of the ring waveguide with variable-phase arrangement of the slits multislot radiating antenna, d2- the value of out-of-phase step,

then calculate the value of the moisture content of the surface layer of Wpsolving the system of equations

where ε' is the real part of complex permittivity of a two-component mixture (building material with associated moisture - unstructured (free) moisture);

is the permittivity of free moisture (s'≈58,5 taking into account the frequency dispersion);

- dielectric constant "dry" material:

ε0- permittivity dehydrated material;

εin- the dielectric constant of bound water (4,5-5,8);

further stabilize the power of the refracted wave Prottenchain reverse St is zi by changing the power of the incident wave, measure the temperature of the investigated material T1, after a preset interval of time tn- temperature T2and determine the amount of moisture content W in the material volume ratio

where Rrotten- power refracted wave;

tHthe time interval of the temperature measurements;

Cvvolumetric heat capacity of moist material defined by the formula of Telescope: Cv(W)=a+(a2+Cv1Withv2/2)1/2; a=((3W-1)Cv1+2(2-3W)Cv2)/4; Cv1and Cv2- volumetric heat capacity free of moisture and dehydrated material;

ρ(W) is the density of the investigated material, determined through density free of moisture and dehydrated material;

ρ(W)=ρ1W+ρ2(1-W);

SAP- area of exposure.

2. A device that implements this method, containing a microwave generator, a valve and a planar waveguide Y-circulator, wherein the voltage controlled microwave generator to the lamp backward wave type "ABOUT" FISHING "ON" with output power of 100 watts in continuous mode, operating in the frequency range (5,5 6,5...) GHz with a range of controllable frequency deviation Δf≤0,5 GHz, is connected to the input of the shoulder Y-circulator connected in series through the attenuator on pogranicze the Ohm ferrite, operated by the microprocessor, the first microwave thermistor power meter with output through a DC amplifier, diode pulse modulator with generator videokursov controlled by the microprocessor, and a peak detector, and the first output shoulder Y-circulator included absorbing the agreed load, and pievescola antenna formed by the radiating part in the form of an annular alternating-phase multislot antenna connected to the second output shoulder Y-circulator, and horn receiving portion, which are connected in series valve, the second microwave thermistor power meter, coupled with extreme digital controller search and display the minimum power of the reflected wave by the controlled voltage on the second anode FISHING "O", and the resonator sensor wavemeter, coupled with the counter videokursov, while in contact with the surface of the measured solid block of thermocouples connected through the filter of low frequencies, the DC amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with a microprocessor-based device, and the power of the microwave generator FISHING "O" is controlled by microprocessor power supply.



 

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The invention relates to analytical chemistry, in particular, to methods of analysis of liquid nitrogen fertilizers containing urea and ammonium nitrate in the form of their mixed aqueous solution

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: primarily, for a given moisture level an arbitrary thickness of dispersion material flow is formed and power of absorption energy is determined, then along exponent thickness of flow is reduced to minimal value, determined by size of material pieces, after that flow thickness is increased to maximal level. In accordance to certain graphs of dependence of absorption energy and flow thickness, optimal value of flow thicknesses is found, at which measurements of moisture level of dispersion weak-conductive material are performed then. Device has serially connected UHF generator, receiving and transmitting antennae, phase-sensitive detector, comparison block and measurement device, while device is provided with serially connected power and thermo-stabilization blocks, phase-sensitive detector, made in form of pulse generator, working channel amplifier, support channel amplifier, comparison block, made in form of logarithmic amplifier, current-voltage transformer, optimal position microprocessor unit, mechanical displacement block, position indicator, movement mechanism and generator of flow of weak-conductive dispersion materials. One of outputs of UHF generator is connected to input of pulse generator and provides at output forming of two signals with phase displacement, while output of pulse generator is in parallel connected to one of inputs of UHF generator. Outputs of working channel amplifier and of support signal amplifier are connected to input of logarithmic amplifier, output of which is in parallel connected to input of measurement device and to input of optimal position microprocessor unit, second input of which is connected to generator position indicator, and output of optimal position microprocessor unit is connected to input of mechanical movement block, output of which is connected to mechanism for movement of generator of flow of weak-conductive dispersion material. Generator is made in form of evening plow or in form of pallet.

EFFECT: higher precision, higher reliability.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used in gas and oil industry for measuring volume fraction of water in pipeline containing gas-liquid mixture without separating products to fractions directly in wells or in collector areas of primary processing of gas-condensate and oil production at real time scale. Device has section of pipe made of dielectric material passed through wires of two identical coils. One coil is connected with reference self-excited oscillator and the other coil - with measuring self-excited oscillator. Electric screen provided with longitudinal slit is disposed inside coil connected with reference self-excited oscillator. Device allows excluding influence of saltiness of liquid into results of measurement.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

1 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method includes coaxially exciting effect from water component of gas-liquid mixture on pipe of dielectric material and measuring changes of resonance frequencies, exciting electromagnetic field in two identical coil resonators, positioned coaxially on pipe of dielectric material, two identical supporting and measuring auto-generators. Electric field of coil of support auto-generator is screened from gas-liquid mixture. frequencies of auto-generators are evened in absence of gas-liquid mixture in pipeline. Proportionality coefficient of difference of frequencies of auto-generators is set relatively to determined volumetric share of water in presence of gas-liquid mixture with known volumetric share of water.

EFFECT: higher precision.

FIELD: technologies for monitoring surface fertile soil layer.

SUBSTANCE: method includes remote filming of area in different ranges of electromagnetic radiation and decoding images from this filming. One-scale filming of area is performed in visible and invisible electromagnetic radiation ranges. On image in visible range contours of relief depressions are detected and marked in form of rivers, lakes, swamps, etc. Areas and borders of water-resistant growth are detected and marked on basis of brighter tones on image in visible area range. On image in invisible range areas and limits of soil watering are marked. Images are combined in visible and invisible ranges to single total image. Area zones are detected and marked on it, having water-resistant plants and watering combined with relief depression. Total image is combined to area map on basis of recognizable points and found portions are marked on it as over-watered.

EFFECT: higher precision.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: petrochemistry and laboratories such as those for measuring moisture percentage and salinity influencing engine efficiency and breakdown voltage of transformer oil.

SUBSTANCE: analyzed specimen in the form of small-diameter rod is placed in first cylindrical resonance cavity and E010 or E011 electromagnetic field is excited to determine low or high values of moisture volume concentration, respectively. Working Q of first cylindrical resonance cavity that serves as measure of moisture volume concentration in liquid medium being analyzed is measured; then analyzed specimen in the form of small-diameter cylindrical rod is placed in second cylindrical resonance cavity, E010 or E011 electromagnetic field is excited to determine low or high values of moisture volume concentration, respectively, and working Q of second cylindrical cavity is measured at frequency ensuring that loss due to rotational relaxation of water polar molecules is comparable with that due to salinity. In this case working Q of second cylindrical resonance cavity serves as moisture salinity measure and frequency of first cylindrical resonance cavity is chosen to ensure that loss due to rotational relaxation of polar water molecules in microwave region is much higher than that due to salinity. Device used to evaluate moisture content and its salinity in liquid media has cylindrical resonance cavity with pipeline carrying analyzed liquid disposed on its axis, tunable microwave oscillator, and Q meter. Output of tunable microwave oscillator is connected to exciting loop, input of Q meter, to receiving loop of cylindrical cavity, and control output of Q meter, to control input of tunable microwave oscillator. It also has second cylindrical resonance cavity filled with low-loss dielectric that incorporates pipeline carrying analyzed liquid disposed on its axis. Diameters and axes of cylindrical cavities are aligned. Newly introduced are second tunable microwave oscillator and second Q meter; output of second tunable microwave oscillator is connected to exciting loop, input of second Q meter, to receiving loop of second cylindrical cavity, and control output of Q meter, to control input of second tunable microwave oscillator.

EFFECT: ability of determining liquid media salinity along with its moisture content.

2 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to measurement techniques of ultra-high frequencies

The invention relates to remote methods of determining the real part of the dielectric constant of the object of study and can be used to determine the real part of dielectric constant film of oil spilled on the water surface

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in control systems of technological processes

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used in control systems of technological processes

The invention relates to a method of measuring the dielectric constantand conductivityliquid disperse systems and can be used for control and regulation of values of dielectric permittivity and conductivity mainly fire explosive and aggressive liquid media in the production process in chemical and other industries

FIELD: petrochemistry and laboratories such as those for measuring moisture percentage and salinity influencing engine efficiency and breakdown voltage of transformer oil.

SUBSTANCE: analyzed specimen in the form of small-diameter rod is placed in first cylindrical resonance cavity and E010 or E011 electromagnetic field is excited to determine low or high values of moisture volume concentration, respectively. Working Q of first cylindrical resonance cavity that serves as measure of moisture volume concentration in liquid medium being analyzed is measured; then analyzed specimen in the form of small-diameter cylindrical rod is placed in second cylindrical resonance cavity, E010 or E011 electromagnetic field is excited to determine low or high values of moisture volume concentration, respectively, and working Q of second cylindrical cavity is measured at frequency ensuring that loss due to rotational relaxation of water polar molecules is comparable with that due to salinity. In this case working Q of second cylindrical resonance cavity serves as moisture salinity measure and frequency of first cylindrical resonance cavity is chosen to ensure that loss due to rotational relaxation of polar water molecules in microwave region is much higher than that due to salinity. Device used to evaluate moisture content and its salinity in liquid media has cylindrical resonance cavity with pipeline carrying analyzed liquid disposed on its axis, tunable microwave oscillator, and Q meter. Output of tunable microwave oscillator is connected to exciting loop, input of Q meter, to receiving loop of cylindrical cavity, and control output of Q meter, to control input of tunable microwave oscillator. It also has second cylindrical resonance cavity filled with low-loss dielectric that incorporates pipeline carrying analyzed liquid disposed on its axis. Diameters and axes of cylindrical cavities are aligned. Newly introduced are second tunable microwave oscillator and second Q meter; output of second tunable microwave oscillator is connected to exciting loop, input of second Q meter, to receiving loop of second cylindrical cavity, and control output of Q meter, to control input of second tunable microwave oscillator.

EFFECT: ability of determining liquid media salinity along with its moisture content.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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