Positive-displacement hydraulic-mechanical transmission

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: positive-displacement hydraulic-mechanical transmission comprises input shaft (1), output shaft (2), two interconnected reversible controlled hydraulic motors (3) and (4), four-link differential (5), and pumping devices (12), (13), (14), and (15). Satellites (7) and (8) of differential (5) are made in pairs and engage each other. Satellite (8) is wide and interposed between the large solar gear (10) and central wheel (11) with the inner engagement. Satellite (7) is narrow and engages small solar gear (9). Two switching devices (14) and (15) connect the shaft of hydraulic motor (4) with input shaft (1) of the transmission and central wheel (11) with the inner engagement. Two switching devices (12) and (13) connect the shaft of hydraulic motor (3) with output shaft (2) of the transmission and small solar gear (9) of the differential.

EFFECT: reduced mass and sizes and enhanced efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in those devices where you want to transfer torque from the engine to the actuators, for example in the transmission of self-propelled machines.

The main advantage of the volume of the hydro-mechanical transmission (ogmp) - possibility of stepless speed change of the driven shaft in the whole range of gear ratios without breaking the flow of transmitted power. Thus transmission efficiency remains relatively high, as by hydraulic pressure transmitted relatively small part of the power.

In this case ogmp variable structure, which can effectively reduce the total installation capacity of the hydraulic machine transmission. The entire range of variation of the transmission ratio of the transmission (from zero to maximum) is divided into three sub-bands (mode) operation, respectively: first, according to the scheme with differential input (A1), then according to the scheme with two differentials (In) and finally, according to the scheme with differential output (A2). Under gear ratio made the ratio of revolutions of the output shaft to the speed of the input shaft.

Known continuously variable transmission (U.S. patent 5421790, NCI 475-78, publ. 1995), containing two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines, two epicycle planetary is echanism, each of which one part is connected with the input shaft of the transmission, the other with the output shaft; four switching devices, two of which connect the shaft of one of the hydraulic machine with the input shaft and free link one planetary gear, and the other two switching device connecting the shaft of the other hydraulic machines with the output shaft and free link of another of the planetary mechanism.

The disadvantage of this transmission is the presence of two planetary gear mechanisms arranged on different shafts, thereby creating the need for additional gears, increase weight and dimensions of the transmission, decreasing its efficiency. In addition, the connection of the input shaft of the transmission with epicycles (Central wheel with the internal toothing) leads to overestimation of the number of revolutions of the satellites.

These drawbacks are deprived of the device actuator of the vehicle (patent EP 0450282 B1, IPC F 16 H 47/04, publ. 1994), containing two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines, four differential having two sun gears, most of which are connected with the input drive shaft, double row satellites (two satellites, dual satellites), drove, United with the output drive shaft and the Central wheel with the internal toothing; four switching devices, two of which are medinaut shaft of one of the hydraulic machine with the input shaft of the transmission and the Central wheel with internal toothing, and the other two switching device connecting the shaft of the other hydraulic machines with an output shaft of the transmission and the small sun gear of the differential.

This drive has the following disadvantages: switch from field NM (when the device drive scheme In) in region NM (when the device operates under the scheme A2) is at a maximum working volume of both hydraulic machines, resulting in the field NM high circulation capacity, high losses and reduced efficiency. This area NM, where high efficiency, remains underutilized.

The closest analogue to the present invention is a device actuator of the vehicle (German patent DE 3821290 A1, IPC 60 To 17/06, publ. 1989, is the prototype EP 0450282 B1), construction basically identical EP 0450282 B1, but characterized in that the switching from the second to the third region is at a zero angle of inclination of the disk (block) switchable hydraulic machines.

The disadvantage of the invention is that the applied four-stage differential dvuhventsovye satellites has locked the small sun gear (when the switching device Q1 and stopped the hydraulic machines 6, the boundary between the second and third fields) ratios greater than one (step transfer)that do not allow yet, in many cases, to establish the optimal (from the point of view of reducing an installation capacity of hydraulic machines, weight and improve performance, increase efficiency) is the ratio of the boundaries of regions (sub-bands), i.e. their size. For the same reason, can have an excessive rotation speed of the small sun gear at the beginning and end of the control range of the drive.

The objective of the invention is to reduce the installation capacity of hydraulic machines, the improvement of weight and performance, increase efficiency.

To solve the problem in volumetric hydromechanical transmission containing the input and output shafts, two hydraulically connected reversible adjustable hydraulic machines, four differential having two sun gears, most of which are connected with the input shaft, satellites, carrier, connected to the output shaft, and a Central wheel with the internal toothing; four switching devices, two of which connect the shaft of one of the hydraulic machine with the input shaft of the transmission and the Central wheel with internal toothing, and the other two switching device connecting the shaft of the other hydraulic machines with an output shaft of the transmission and the small sun gear of the differential, according to the invention satellites performed paired acepsimas among themselves, and one of them is made wide and the setting between the large sun gear and the Central wheel with internal toothing, and the other satellite is made narrow and is engaged with the small sun gear. As the switching devices used synchronizers.

New in the inventive ogmp is that four differential contains paired siteplease satellites. If you take a valid smallest number of teeth of the differential gears 14, and the highest was 70, the size of the D2the second region (sub-bands) of analogue may be 3<D2<∞, we offer ogmp - 1,43<D2<2,65. Reducing the size of the second sub-band (or the first) can reduce the installation capacity of the hydraulic machine. The rotational speed of the small sun gear has claimed ogmp also less than the equivalent.

The drawing shows a variant of the kinematic scheme volumetric hydromechanical transmission (powertrain).

The transmission includes an input (master) shaft 1, the output (driven) shaft 2, two hydraulically connected reversible adjustable hydraulic machines 3 (G1) and 4 (D2), four differential mechanism 5 includes drove 6 with paired acepsimas satellites: narrow, 7 wide and 8, the sun gear 9 and 10, the Central wheel with internal teeth 11 (crown gear). The switching device 12, 13, 14, 15 (respectively, f1F2F3F4intended for connection of the shafts of hydraulic machines with different star, is lame ogmp.

The hydraulic machines G1 (3) is rigidly connected with the shaft 16, which is connected through siteplease gears 17, 18, 19, 20 and the switching device f1(12) with the output shaft 2. In addition, the hydraulic machines G1 (3) through the shaft 16, the switching device f2(13), siteplease gears 21, 22 associated with the small sun gear 9.

The hydraulic machines G2 (4) is rigidly connected with the shaft 23, through which siteplease gears 24, 25 and switching device f3(14) connected to the Central wheel with internal teeth 11. In addition, the hydraulic machines G2 (4) through the shaft 23, the switching device f4(15), siteplease gears 26, 27 is connected with the drive shaft 1. The driving shaft 1 is rigidly connected with the large sun gear 10. Driven shaft 2 is connected with the planet carrier 6 four differential mechanism 5.

Volume hydromechanical transmission works as follows.

In the table are included in the sub-bands of the switching device and the control parameters of hydraulic machines. Parameter regulation is equal to the ratio of the current working volume of the hydraulic machine to its maximum working volume.

Subrange (mode)Included switching deviceParameter regulation of hydraulic machines
G1G2
A1F1F31...00...-1
InF2F30...-1-1...0
A2F2F4-1...<00...1

The transmit operation in mode A1. At zero ratio of the hydraulic machines G1 (3) has a maximum working volume and is stationary, and the hydraulic machines G2 (4) has zero displacement and is driven via a shaft 23, gears 24, 25, Central wheel with internal teeth 11, 8, large sun gear 10 from the input shaft 1. At the beginning of the movement control system increases the working volume of the hydraulic G2 from zero to the maximum value, and the hydraulic machines G2, working as a hydraulic pump drives the hydraulic machines G1, operating in this mode as a motor. The hydraulic machines G1 through links 16, 17, 18, 12, 19, 20 drives the output shaft 2. The speed of the output shaft and gear ratio of the transmission increases proportionally to the change in the working volume of the hydraulic G2. Power is transmitted from the input shaft 1, is divided in the differential 5 on the mechanical and hydraulic flows. The mechanical component is transmitted to the output Val through the links 10, 8, 6. Hydraulic component is transmitted to the output shaft 2 through the links 10, 8, 11, 14, 25, 24, 23 hydraulic G2 (4), G1 (3), links 16, 17, 18, 12, 19, 20.

After reaching the maximum displacement hydraulic G2, decreases the working volume of the hydraulic machines G1 from maximum to zero. The speed of rotation of the hydraulic G2 and the power is transmitted by hydraulic pressure, is reduced, and the speed hydraulic machines G1 and associated output shaft increases. At zero working volume of hydraulic machines G1 stops hydraulic G2 and associated Central wheel 11, and the power flow is transmitted mechanically.

Switching the transmission mode A1 mode is by turning off the switching device f1and turn on the switching device f2. Because in this period the power through hydraulic machines G1 is not transmitted, the switching device f1and f2also do not transmit torque and switching occurs without breaking the flow of power transmitted by the transmission.

Mode In the hydraulic machines G1 kinematically associated with the link 9 of the differential 5, and the hydraulic machines G2 remains connected to the link 11. In this subrange of the hydraulic machines G1 mode of the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic machines in G2 mode of the motor. In the first stage, adjustable lighting angle is raised by the hydraulic machines G1 by increasing its displacement from zero to the maximum value in the opposite direction when compared with A1. There is an increase in the rotation speed of the hydraulic G2, reducing the speed of rotation of the hydraulic machines G1 and increases the gear ratio. The mechanical power flow is transmitted through the links 10, 8, 6; hydraulic power directed through links 10, 8, 7, 9, 22, 21, 13, 16, hydraulic machines G1, G2, links 23, 24, 25, 14, 11, 8, 6.

After the hydraulic machines G1 maximum volume adjustment hydraulic G2 by reducing its displacement from maximum to zero, which leads to slower rotation hydraulic machines G1 and the element 9 and to increase the speed of rotation of the carrier 6 and the output shaft 2. When the working volume of the hydraulic G2 becomes zero, the hydraulic machines G1 and its associated sun gear 9 are stationary, and all power is transmitted mechanically through the differential mechanism 5.

Switching the transmission mode In the mode A2 is by turning off the switching device f3and turn on the switching device f4. Because in this period the power through hydraulic machines G2 is not transmitted, the switching device f3and f4also do not transmit torque and switching occurs without breaking the flow of power transmitted by the transmission. In mode A2 hydraulic machines G1 remains kinematically associated with the link 9 different is Ala 5, and hydraulic machines G2 is connected through links 23, 15, 26, 27 with the drive shaft 1. In the subrange A2 hydraulic machines G1 mode of the motor, and the hydraulic machines in G2 mode of the hydraulic pump, while its speed remains constant.

At the first stage regulates the G2 hydraulic machines by increasing its displacement from zero to the maximum value in the opposite direction compared with the regime Century there was an increase in the speed of rotation of the hydraulic machines G1 and increases the gear ratio. The mechanical power flow is transmitted through the links 10, 8, 6; hydraulic power is directed through the links 27, 26, 15, 23, hydraulic G2, G1, links 16, 13, 21, 22, 9, 7, 8, 6. At the beginning of mode A2, the share of hydraulic power is equal to zero; with the increase of gear ratio, this share increases.

After the hydraulic machines G2 maximum volume adjustment hydraulic machines G1 by reducing its displacement from the maximum to a value defined by the installation capacity of this hydraulic machine and the permissible degree of power transmitted hydraulically. When reducing the working volume of the hydraulic machines G1 increases its speed of rotation increases the speed of rotation of the Central wheel 9, the led 6 and the output shaft 2.

Usually as a switching device in OGM use: when the velocity difference PE cluchey elements hydroporinae clutch; with speed matching switchable elements - toothed couplings with the use of electronic devices, determining the moment of switching. This complicates and increases the cost of construction of the transmission, in addition hydroporinae couplings have losses in idle mode, which degrades the efficiency ogmp. In the inventive transmission is proposed to use as the switching devices of the synchronizers used in manual transmissions of cars and tractors. Synchronizers do not have losses in idle mode, simple in design and do not require electronic control.

In manual transmissions synchronizer only overcomes the moment of inertia and must develop the friction torque:

Mt=Js*Δn/tc

where Js- discounted total moment of inertia of the part of the scheme, the angular velocity of which varies under the action of the moment Mt;

Δn is the initial difference between the angular velocities of the conical friction surfaces of the synchronizer;

tcthe time synchronization can be made with 1-2, subject to the restrictions on the pressure on the friction surfaces.

As in the inventive ogmp possible speed difference switchable elements to the moment of switching, and switching elements connected to the hydraulic machine, the synchronizer when the alignment is of Karosta must overcome the friction torque of the hydraulic machine M Tgtaking place at a zero angle of inclination of the disk (block) hydraulic machines. This friction torque hydraulic machines in most cases exceeds Mt. Therefore, the synchronizer ogmp must develop the friction torque:

Mcu=Mt+iSGMTg=Js*Δn/tc+iSGMTg

where iSG- gear ratio between shaft synchronizer and hydraulic machines.

The application of the synchronizer with such friction torque allows the use of large velocity difference switchable elements, which, in turn, reduces the installation capacity of the hydraulic machine.

Currently manufactured and tested on a prototype volumetric hydromechanical transmission.

1. Volume hydromechanical transmission containing the input and output shafts, two hydraulically connected reversible adjustable hydraulic machines, four differential having two sun gears, the majority of which is connected with the input shaft, satellites, carrier, connected to the output shaft, and a Central wheel with internal toothing, four switching devices, two of which connect the shaft of one of the hydraulic machine with the input shaft of the transmission and the Central wheel with internal toothing, and the other two switching device connecting the shaft of the other hydraulic machines with an output of vampiredaze and the small sun gear of the differential, characterized in that the satellites performed paired acepsimas among themselves, and one of them is made wide and is installed between the large sun gear and the Central wheel with the internal toothing and the other satellite is made narrow and is engaged with the small sun gear.

2. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the switching devices use synchronizers, the friction torque Mcuwhich is at least equal to

Js·Δn/tc+iSGMTg,

where Js- discounted total moment of inertia;

Δn is the initial difference between the angular velocity of the friction surfaces of the synchronizer;

tc- time synchronization;

iSG- gear ratio between shaft synchronizer and hydraulic machines;

MTgthe friction torque of the hydraulic machines.



 

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