Ground stabilization method and device

FIELD: securing of slopes or inclines, particularly for ground slopes and water pool banks stabilization, for artificial water pool building and reconstruction, for minor river recovery and erosive slope consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing masonry works of building members by laying building member layers in alternation with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric impregnated with binding material to provide elastic connection areas between stone layers. Ground stabilization device comprises masonry formed of building members alternated with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric to form elastic connection areas between stone layers.

EFFECT: increased environmental safety, improved appearance and technological effectiveness, increased elasticity of stone connection.

16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the construction of shore protection, namely the strengthening of earthen slopes and banks of water bodies, and can be used in the construction and reconstruction of artificial reservoirs, rehabilitation of small rivers, strengthening the crumbling slopes.

The prior art solutions related to ways to strengthen the slopes and riverbanks, which produce a reinforcement of the soil by using placed on the surface or in the thickness of the earth's various reinforcing elements, carry out the construction of the walls of the blocks using connecting elements, including walls from non-bound blocks, held by its own weight, spend the accommodation on the slopes of the panels, fixed braces or anchors.

Widely used in the works on strengthening soil geotextile material, which depending on its composition and structure, applied as a protective facing the floor, placed on strengthening the surface (slope), and as a reinforcing material (in this case, it is placed between layers of soil or special filler in the formation of a slope), and as intermediate layers during the construction, such as stone retaining walls for drainage of groundwater.

Known to be used as building elements when straw is the government decorative walls and fortifications raw (wild) stone. Usually in the construction of such walls to bond the stones using cement mortar. Due to different coefficient of thermal expansion of the constituent elements of this design is not frost-resistant, it is subject to cracking and rapid destruction.

Know the use of rescraping raw stones for the manufacture of slopes and dams, which is placed in the chamber formed fixed in the ground with piles network (see DE 3917357, IPC 7 E 02 At 3/12, 06.12.1990). However, this design is low-tech and short-lived in operation.

A known construction of masonry from special blocks that are listed in the US 5017049, IPC 7 E 02 D 29/02, 21.05.1991, representing a the ashlar stone blocks of rectangular shape with beveled edges and one longitudinal protruding edge. The bottom row is placed so that the protruding edge facing the outer side wall and directed upwards, and the other with a downward edge. The wall has a high stability under the action of loads from soil or water. However, such a means of strengthening the soil requires special fabrication used in the elements, as well as mechanization of works on the construction of coast protection.

From the patent FR 2650849, IPC 7 E 02 D 29/02, 15.02.1991 known by porna wall of the facing stones, reinforced with geotextile. Each facing stone to cut a groove into which is embedded geotextile reinforcement and able to deform the rod. Under the action of the weight he replusive and reinforces the geotextile. The way to strengthen the soil, disclosed in the aforementioned patent, can be considered the prototype of the claimed method the same destination, and the device for strengthening soil, obtained by implementing the method of the prototype of the proposed device. The disadvantage of this invention is the complexity of fabrication, its rigidity, the need to use special equipment during the construction of constructions, no fastening stones between them.

The objective of the proposed invention is the creation of eco-friendly design has a decorative appeal and high processability due to its flexibility, frost resistance, durability, and easy to manufacture, does not require the use of special equipment.

This problem is solved due to the fact that, in accordance with the first invention of the proposed group, in the method of consolidation of the soil, including the laying performance of building elements by layer-by-layer placing them interleaved with layers of fabric, as building elements using raw is Umney, this establishes connection layers of stones with the use of fabric impregnated with glue. Use of porous fabric, in particular, geotextile (for example, dornit), and the glue that provides the elasticity of the joints of the stones, for example, the polyurethane composition. While strengthening the slopes of the banks of the pond perform masonry in the form of a wall of a given height and thickness. For fixing the wall in soil using steel anchor delays, for which at least one of the layers of fabric secured to the steel embedded parts. While strengthening the slope perform masonry in the form of a Mat containing at least two layers of stones and at least one layer of the above-mentioned fabric, with stones laid out on the surface of the slope of the rows from the bottom up. To attach the Mat to the surface of the slope using studs-nails. If you want to place topsoil, perform the recess in the wall or holes in the material.

In accordance with the second invention of the proposed group, this problem is solved due to the fact that the device for strengthening the soil containing the clutch from layers of building elements alternating with layers of fabric, as construction elements used raw stones, with layers of stones bonded with each other by adhesive bonding using the-W fabric, impregnated with glue. Used porous fabric, such as geotextile (in particular, dornit). The adhesive connection is made using glue, ensuring the elasticity of the joints of the stones, for example, of polyurethane compositions. In case of strengthening of the slopes of the banks of the pond clutches made in the form of a wall of a given height and thickness. The wall may be secured in the ground using steel anchor braces, at least one of the layers of fabric fixed steel embedded parts. In the case of slopes clutches made in the form of a Mat containing at least two layers of stones and at least one layer of the above-mentioned fabric, this Mat can be attached to the surface of the slope with stiletto-nails. To accommodate vegetable soil wall can be made with grooves, and the Mat - with holes.

For the manufacture of strengthening pick the "wild" (raw) stones of various sizes, preferably the same species, for example, granites, sandstones, slates, Gabry etc. it is Important to choose the breed of stones suitable for its properties for use in a particular climate zone, for example, frost. The form and origin of the stones can be various: it can be ragged granite blocks after crusher or, for example, smooth boulders.

Before and the use of stones should be washed, clear from the adhered impurities (such as clay, oil etc) and allow to dry.

The fabric is cut into strips or webs required width depending on the size of the coated fabric layer of stones and impregnated with glue. The use of a fabric soaked in glue as a binder in the construction of masonry tech and fast free its placement between layers of stones allows to obtain a large contact surface and to provide reliable adhesive bonding.

Figure 1 and 2 shows diagrams of two alternative designs of the device for strengthening a ground according to the invention. While figure 1 - scheme of the retaining wall strengthening of the slopes of the banks, and Fig 2 is a diagram of the Mat while strengthening the slope. Figure 3 is a variant of the fixing wall using anchor braces.

In the above schemes, position 1 is the construction elements in the form of raw stones, position 2 - layer fabric impregnated with glue, and position 3 - anchor ropes used to attach the walls to the ground, position 4 - embedded parts, position 5 - anchor.

The following are examples of the invention, illustrating two embodiments of the proposed method, providing the proposed device to strengthen the soil.

I. Strengthening of slopes.

Prepared the stones 1 are placed tightly the Rog to each other in a single layer on the prepared dry soil surface. If necessary, the surface may be covered with a layer of geotextile, for example, dornit.

On top of stacked stones laid the canvas porous fabric 2 impregnated with glue, using geotextiles, for example, dornit, and as an adhesive - polyurethane compositions or any other adhesive that provides elasticity impregnated fabric during its solidification. The width of the impregnated fabric for aesthetic reasons, it is better to choose a little less than the width of masonry (in the form of a tape), the fabric was not visible from under the stones.

On the laid fabric 2 put the next layer of the prepared stones 1. Thus the spaces between the large stones can be set smaller to create a more dense masonry.

Over the next layer of stones 1 again laid fabric 2 impregnated with glue, then again a layer of stones. To create more smooth decorative masonry layers of stones round shape can be alternated with layers of flat rocks (shale, Sandstone or Planica).

The number of layers in the construction of walls depends on the desired height of the structures. If you need a high wall round stones you can make a temporary casing during the Assembly and to complete curing of the adhesive.

In the wall you can make indentations for vegetable soil, where it will grow approximately the aquatic vegetation.

To strengthen steep or landslide slope wall structures further strengthens shore anchors with steel anchor braces 3 which are attached to the wall by welding to mortgage the steel parts 4, glued to one of the layers of fabric.

II. The strengthening of the slopes.

Prepared stones 1 rounded placed on strengthening the slope of the rows from the bottom up the slope.

On top of masonry throughout its area laid porous fabric 2 impregnated with glue. On top of the fabric again put a layer of stones 1.

The resulting Mat consisting of two layers of stones and one layer of fabric, can be attached to the upper part of a slope or directly to the slope with stiletto-nails (not shown).

The top layer of stones can be covered with soil and plant herbs for the formation of the turf. For planting trees or shrubs in fabric impregnated with glue, you can make holes.

The proposed device for strengthening a ground raised by the proposed method meets all the technical requirements for this type of structures. The strength of the fortifications are determined by the strength characteristics of the used stones, with seasonal changes in ambient temperature do not affect the durability of such structures. Due to the way vasica upon receipt of masonry discontinuities wall pass through its groundwater and surface runoff. The elasticity of the connection provided by polyurethane or a similar adhesive, causes the receiving limited-flexible structures. In this design are "tamper-proof", this is especially important in the operation of retaining walls: all stones are one of a number of sealed, so it is difficult to separate each stone. Stone walls and mats are environmentally friendly as they do not contain toxic elements, and create habitats for many terrestrial and aquatic plants and organisms. Durable construction provides strength and frost resistance of adhesive joints. In addition, when mounting the wall and the Mat does not require the use of special equipment, all operations are done manually. Finally, the resulting construction decorative and attractive through the use of natural materials.

1. The way to strengthen the soil, including the laying performance of building elements by layer-by-layer placing them interleaved with layers of fabric, characterized in that in the capacity of building elements using rough stones, when it establishes connection layers of stones between them using a cloth soaked in glue, ensuring the elasticity of the joints of the stones.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the use of porous fabric.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that as Pori is the fabric used geotextiles.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the strengthening of the slopes of the shore perform masonry in the form of a wall of a given height and width.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that for fixing the wall in soil using steel anchor ropes, with at least one of the layers of fabric secured to the steel embedded parts.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the strengthening of the slope perform masonry in the form of a Mat containing at least two layers of stones and at least one layer of the above-mentioned fabric, with stones laid out on the surface of the slope of the rows from the bottom up.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that to attach the Mat to the surface of the slope using studs-nails.

8. The method according to any of claims 4 to 7, characterized in that the placing of plant soil perform the recess in the wall or holes in the material.

9. Device for enhancing soil containing masonry from layers of building elements alternating with layers of fabric, characterized in that in the capacity of building elements used raw stones, with layers of stones bonded together by adhesive bonding using a cloth soaked in glue, ensuring the elasticity of the joints of the stones.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that it used then the flock fabric.

11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the porous fabric used geotextiles.

12. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that in case of strengthening of the slope of the shore clutches made in the form of a wall of a given height and width.

13. The device according to item 12, wherein the wall is fixed in the ground with steel anchor braces, at least one of the layers of fabric fixed steel embedded parts.

14. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that in the case of slopes clutches made in the form of a Mat containing at least two layers of stones and at least one layer of the above-mentioned fabric.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that the Mat is attached to the surface of the slope with stiletto-nails.

16. Device according to any one of p-15, characterized in that the placing of plant soil wall is made with grooves, and mate with holes.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: manufacture of plant covers used for beautification of streets, squares, construction of sportive grounds, as well as for landscape designing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves spraying organic adhesive onto fine-mesh basalt net by means of specially designed equipment for filling meshes to thereby create strong carrier base. Net is perfectly ecologically safe and allows seeds to be uniformly sown over the entire area of lawn. Adhesive used for providing lawn is functioning as nutritive compound for seeds and is used simultaneously for protecting seeds from external influence of moisture and air during prolonged periods. After drying in first drying chamber, mixture of lawn grass seeds is sown onto carrier base through dosing hopper, followed by applying onto given mixture of organic adhesive and drying in second drying chamber. After discharge from drying chamber, ready dry lawn is cut into parts of various lengths, wound into roll and hermetically packed in polyethylene film for further storage and transportation. Lawn is placed on site by unwinding roll onto preliminarily prepared ground and spilling nutrient mixture thereon, followed by heavy irrigation to provide for sprouts emergence. Nutrient mixture and lawn grass seed mixture compositions are worked out depending on climatic zone and composition of parent ground on which lawn is to be provided.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing uniform sowing of seeds over the entire lawn area, and damage-free transportation and handling of grown lawn.

1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly bridge building.

SUBSTANCE: method involves compacting ground of embankment body and cones; forming drainage layers and water-draining chutes on coating; creating pad with variable rigidity decreasing in direction from bridge along embankment for length equal to approach slab length; arranging approach slab having upward gradient in bridge direction. Pad of embankment body is formed by creating cast-in-place piles along with surface compaction of upper cast-in-place pile parts and upper embankment layer, wherein transversal cast-in-place piles form strips having medium rigidity jointly with ground forming embankments. The medium rigidity is reduced from maximal value at bridge pier to minimal one at approach slab end opposite to bridge pier.

EFFECT: reduced embankment subsidence under approach slab due to decreased pad and draining material displacement in horizontal direction.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for slope consolidation and for stabilizing deep front landslide areas.

SUBSTANCE: structure includes foundation mat and piles formed in wells grouped in rows. Upper pile parts are embedded in foundation mat, lower one is restrained by not-sliding ground layers. Piles are composite along their lengths. Central pile parts are not filled with concrete. Heights of upper and lower pile parts decrease towards landslide head. Structure to prevent deep front land-slides comprises separate local pile groups connected by foundation mats and located within landslide body boundaries. Each foundation mat has tension bars anchored in stable slope layers and arranged under and above foundation mat along slope to retain thereof against displacement and rotation.

EFFECT: improved slope stability, increased operational reliability of structure built on wide landslides, reduced building time and material consumption.

2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to the field of construction and mining and can be used to restore the broken ledges during operation of the quarry
The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular the field of creation of soddy coatings and care for them, and can be used for the establishment and operation of outdoor sports soddy sites, high-quality lawn areas (tennis courts, Golf courses), ornamental lawns and soil-protective coatings slopes

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of mineral deposits

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used as shore protection structures in erodible channels of rivers, canals and other structures, flows have full of a lot of sediment

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used as shore protection structures in erodible channels of rivers, canals and other structures

The invention relates to the construction and can be used for the protection of earthworks from the sandy soil from wind erosion

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for slope and river or channel bank consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: support wall includes gabions made of gauze and filled with stones. The gabions are laid in layers. Support wall is fastened with gauze anchors to ground embankment from another wall side. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders connected one to another so that ridge of each upper gabion is offset relative that of previous lower ones to which above upper gabions are connected. Support wall base is protected against erosion by flexible reinforced concrete apron. The wall is covered with concrete coating from working side thereof. Gauze anchors may be continuous or discrete. Number of continuous anchors is more than one.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and reduced cost.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for ground consolidation, namely for embankment slopes protection.

SUBSTANCE: coating is formed of polymeric fiber material and of fertile ground mixed with perennial grass seed. The coating is formed as mats sewed or joined with the use of heat. The mats are filled with mixture including fertile ground, perennial grass seed and polymeric wool taken in amount of 3-5% of fertile ground mass. Fiber material thickness is 2-5 mm, fiber density of the material is 0.01-0.12 g/cm3. Diameter of fiber material and wool fibers is 5 - 40 μm.

EFFECT: reduced cost, increased reliability of slope protection.

1 ex

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as bank strengthening structures in river and canal courses. Proposed fastening contains gauze metal cylinders with filled-up inner space connected to form solid fastening. Gauze cylinders of parabolic form are made by winding gauze over bush of tree branches laid on prepared base of slope and are secured on slope by anchors over line of contact of gauze and base. Lower part of fastening is dipped to depth exceeding depth of expected degradation. Parabolic cylinders can have crosswise or longitudinal orientation relative to direction of stream. Said parabolic cylinders can be made of woven gauze or rigid gauze with double twisting of wire between meshes.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of protection of banks, increased service life of construction, reduced construction and service expenses.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly for river and channel banks consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying gabions filled with stones on prepared base located on slope along river bed. Gabions are made as gabion mats consist of connected elliptical tubular members. Tubular member bases are described by the following equation: (4·X2/B

2g
)+(4·Y2/h2g
)=1, where X, Y are abscissa and ordinate of parabola defining tubular member base; Bg and hg are gabion width and height correspondingly, Bg = (1 - 2)hg. Gabion mats are preliminarily made with the use of matrixes filled with stones and made as two nets, namely upper and lower ones. Neighboring tubular members are sewed up in straight line by connection wire. Gabion mats are connected one to another to form single unit having apron. Apron is anchored to slope. Connection wire is twisted by wire twisting means. Gabion mats may be laid on slope with longitudinal or transversal tubular members orientation relative stream direction. In particular cases gabion mats are laid on slopes so that tubular member orientations alternate in staggered order. Gabion mats also may be laid on slope on gravel base having thickness of hb > hg/2, where hb is gravel base height, hg is gabion height.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of slope protection against erosion, increased service life.

5 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.

EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.

5 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river channel bed reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: means includes netted metal cylinders connected one to another to form integral reinforcement structure. Netted cylinders are made as cylindrical frames filled with shrubs or tree branches and secured by anchors to preliminary prepared base. Lower part of structure is deepened for depth increasing depth of possible bed erosion. Cylindrical frames may be oriented in transversal or longitudinal direction relative stream direction and may be formed of mesh grid wound around metal rings and connected to them or of rigid net having wire twisted in two-for-one manner between cells.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bed protection against erosion, increased service life, reduced cost for structure erection and maintenance.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in shore protection structures

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used as shore protection structures in erodible channels of rivers, canals and other structures, flows have full of a lot of sediment

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used as shore protection structures in erodible channels of rivers, canals and other structures

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

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