Profiled milling method

FIELD: metal working, in particular, working of rolling surface profile of wheel pairs for railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: method involves transmitting rotational motion and feeding motion to profile cutter mounted on holder and to blank; using cutter located on mandrel for rotation in slider bearings formed as bushings and in thrust roller bearings. One end of cutter is made corrugated for joining to mated corrugated end of coupling mounted on mandrel in slots for axial displacement and biased by nut to cutter with the help of damping member formed as disk spring. Other end of cutter is biased with the help of nut through one of thrust roller bearings. Before machining, resiliency of damping member may be regulated for increasing resistance to vibration, providing continuous-intermittent bringing into contact and separation of cutter teeth from contact with surface under machining process, said surface having thermomechanical and other defects.

EFFECT: increased durability, enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency.

3 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to metal working, mechanical engineering technology, in particular to shaped milling cutters, and can be used, for example, for processing profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.

There is a method of milling a modular cutter, comprising a housing with cutters, damping elements made in the form of thin-walled sleeves, and an intermediate disk [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the limited technological capabilities, as the cutter is designed only to handle planes and cannot handle the body of rotation and the surface of complex shape, which receive on CNC machines or using a copier, as well as the complexity of the design, Assembly and tool settings - all this makes the milling process expensive and inefficient.

The known method shaped milling of surfaces of revolution, which use shaped cutters mounted on the mandrel, while the workpiece and the cutter inform the rotational movement and the movement of the feed [2].

The disadvantage of this method is the limited technological capabilities, as the cutter does not respond to thermo-mechanical and other damage occurring in the workpiece being machined and causing vibration and shock-intermittent processing that is nijaat quality and processing performance, as well as damage to the tool.

The objective of the invention is the expansion of technological capabilities in the processing of solids of revolution and surfaces of complex shape, as well as simplifying the design, Assembly and adjustment of the instrument, increasing productivity, quality and durability of the cutters by ensuring a smooth process of cutting and transfer of the kinetic energy of impact in the potential energy of bending of the elastic disc springs.

The problem is solved using the proposed method shaped milling of surfaces of revolution, which shaped cutter mounted on the mandrel and the workpiece tell rotational motion and the motion of the feed, and use a cutter mounted on the mandrel for rotation in bearings in the form of bushings and thrust bearings, and one end of the cutter is made grooved to mate with mating grooved end couplings mounted on the mandrel at the slots movably in the axial direction and bogatoi using nuts to the cutter damping element in the form of Belleville springs, the second end of the cutter preloaded nut through one of the mentioned thrust rolling bearings. In addition, before processing to produce the regulation of elasticity of the damping element to increase the vibration, reliable operation and ensure lawno-intermittent input and output of the teeth of the cutter out of contact with the treated surface, having thermo-mechanical and other damage. When this method is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.

The essence of the method is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows the proposed device for mounting the milling cutter that implements the proposed method, a General view of the Assembly, in partial longitudinal section; figure 2 - cross section A-a in figure 1; figure 3 - cross section B-B in figure 1; figure 4 - cross section b-b In figure 1; figure 5 is an element D in figure 1; figure 6 - diagram of the processing of the treads of the wheels of railway transport; 7 - section G-g of figure 6.

The proposed method is designed to handle shaped cutter 1 of the treads of the wheels 2 of the railway transport, in which the workpiece and the cutter inform counter-rotational movement and transverse movement of the feed.

A device that implements the proposed method contains a mandrel 3, which has shaped cutter 1 and the damping element 4. The damping element 4 is taken in the form of Belleville springs (for example, according to GOST 3057-79) - stiff, made of spring steel (GOST 14963-78).

The cutter 1 is installed on the frame 3 for rotation in bearings in the form of sleeves 5 and the thrust bearings 6 and 7. One end (for example, the left, see figure 1) cutter 1 is made reef is Yong radial triangular grooves 8, angle equal to 90°. This end of the cutter 1 is mated with the response profile, is made with corrugated triangular radial grooves 9 at the end of the coupling 10. The clutch 10 is installed on the mandrel 3 slots 11 movably in the axial direction and pressed against the cutter 1 Belleville spring 4 by a nut 12 and nuts 13.

The axial force generated by the Belleville spring 4, is perceived through the coupling 10 and the cutter 1 thrust bearing 6, which is made in the form of a counter track under the balls on the second end face of the cutter and at the end of the nut 14, the last recorded from self-unfastening the nut 15. Raceway angular contact ball bearing 7 is made on the mandrel 3 and the hole cutter 1.

This design of the bearings 6 and 7 can reduce the size of the device, however, as the bearings 6 and 7 can be taken as the standard, respectively, of the thrust and radial thrust sharikopodshipniki.

The method of processing team shaped cutter 1, in which the desired shaped profile is created as an envelope curve to a set of simple shape of the edges of the individual cutting elements, is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.

Cutter [2] consists of a body, the grooves of which are attached to the slats, fastened them round carbide plate and a diameter of 16 mm 12... To obtain the necessary roughness of the processed surface of the seat plate on the adjacent rails are displaced relative to each other by 1.5...2 mm

The proposed method of treatment team shaped cutter allows you to semiadaptive to the heterogeneity of the processed material, the fluctuation of the magnitude of the allowance and other thermo-mechanical damage, causing increase of cutting forces, and to reduce the shock load on the teeth of the tool in the machining process, which will increase the durability of the cutting elements.

An additional degree of freedom is rotation about the longitudinal axis, allows the teeth come in contact with the workpiece under the action of increased cutting forces decrease the angle of rotation of the cutters, thereby to reduce the thickness of the removed chip.

The reduction of the angle of rotation of the cutter occurs due to the pressing of the clutch 10 and the instantaneous stopping of the cutter in a continuous and uniform rotation of the mandrel and the workpiece. Thus, when meeting with the increased allowance or thermo-mechanical damage on the treated surface of the device with the cutter 1 will respond and reply 9 coupling 10 will be disengaged from the grooves 8 of the cutter 1, the cutter will begin to slip relative to the clutch.

After passing the area with high strength cutting slippage will stop and the cutter will continue uniformly versatis is, driven by the clutch.

When the accepted angle of 90° triangular flute 8 and 9, the ratio of the forces Pzat the optimum cutting conditions and power clamp couplings Pdthe cutter due to the elasticity of the damper 4 is the following:

- Pz<Pd- there is normal operation of the cutter, without slipping and clicks;

- Pz>Rdthere is slippage of the cutter relative to the clutch and heard the distinctive clicks.

The way depicted in figure 1-7, is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport, however, it can be effectively used for shaped milling any of the surfaces of various workpieces.

For machining when restoring profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport is different in design cutting tools with cutting part use different shape and composition of the removable plate.

The main obstacle to the effective use of the tool are thermo-mechanical and other damage to the wheel rim that occur during operation [2].

During the rotation of the cutter at a constant speed at the time of cutting teeth in the workpiece in place increased hardness reduces the speed of the district supply Vfthe cutting tooth of the milling is s due to the bending of the elastic damper - Belleville springs and reducing the width of the removable chip. This ensures a smooth process of cutting and transfer of the kinetic impact energy to potential energy of bending of the elastic disc springs.

After the tooth is out of contact with the workpiece deformirovanii to this elastic element comes in its original condition, restoring engages flute coupling with the grooves of the cutter.

Due to the presence of the elastic damper, which reduces the speed of the district supply Vfmills goes smooth-intermittent input and output of the teeth of the cutter out of contact with thermo-mechanical and other damage to the treated surface.

Example. The industrial tests were processed the rolling surface of the pair of wheels of railway transport with thermomechanical damage the workpiece diameter wheels - 1009 mm, the diameter of the finished parts after processing - 995 mm, the treatment was carried out in one pass, so the milling depth amounted to 7 mm.

Before machining the surface was carried out induction annealing, the average hardness of the rolling circle after heat treatment amounted to 289 HB. The wheel is made of steel grade 2 in accordance with GOST 10791-89 chemical composition of steel: From 0.60 Percent; Mn - 0,78%; Si - 0,31%; P - 0,03%; S - 0,03%, the rest of the iron.

Regis is s mechanical processing: speed billet wheels - VC=5 m/min (nC=1,6 min-1); the speed of rotation of the cutter - Vf=342 m/min (nand=320 min-1). Shaped cutter set by the proposed method had a number of teeth z=10; outer diameter of 340 mm; Cup plate RPUX2710MO carbide TC.

The treatment was carried out on the upgraded pit machine mod. QOL 1836 (made in Kramatorsk KZTS).

Experiments have shown that, subject to the same performance, tool life, working on the proposed method, increased in 2...2.5 times compared with conventional tillage, improved surfaces and increased vibration resistance process, increased productivity and decreased marriage.

Sources of information

1. A.S. 1569105 the USSR, MKI 5 23 5/06. The combined cutter. Vietro and other Application No. 4340167/31-08, Saul. 07.12.87, publ. 07.06 90. Bull. No. 21.

2. Bogdanov A.F., and other Recovery profile wheelset wheelset. Saint-Petersburg, the St. Petersburg state University, 2000, p.50-54, Fig. the prototype.

1. Way shaped milling of surfaces of revolution, which shaped cutter mounted on the mandrel and the workpiece tell rotational movement and the movement of the feeder, characterized in that use a cutter mounted on the mandrel for rotation in bearings in the form of bushings and a thrust bearing is rolling, moreover, one end of the cutter is made grooved to mate with mating grooved end couplings mounted on the mandrel at the slots movably in the axial direction and bogatoi using nuts to the cutter damping element in the form of Belleville springs, the second end of the cutter preloaded nut through one of the mentioned thrust bearings.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein before processing to produce the regulation of elasticity of the damping element to increase the vibration, reliable operation and ensure smooth-intermittent input and output of the teeth of the cutter out of contact with the treated surface with thermo-mechanical and other damage.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.



 

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FIELD: metal working, in particular, working of rolling surface profile of wheel pairs for railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: method involves transmitting rotational motion and feeding motion to profile cutter mounted on holder and to blank; using cutter located on mandrel for rotation in slider bearings formed as bushings and in thrust roller bearings. One end of cutter is made corrugated for joining to mated corrugated end of coupling mounted on mandrel in slots for axial displacement and biased by nut to cutter with the help of damping member formed as disk spring. Other end of cutter is biased with the help of nut through one of thrust roller bearings. Before machining, resiliency of damping member may be regulated for increasing resistance to vibration, providing continuous-intermittent bringing into contact and separation of cutter teeth from contact with surface under machining process, said surface having thermomechanical and other defects.

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