Diamond imitator for controlling diamond-containing raw material separation

FIELD: jewel technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for concentrating diamond-containing ore using physical effects and can be used to control processes. Diamond imitator for controlling diamond-containing raw material separation contains solid material, which is a mixture of binder with weighing, luminescent, coloration, and magnet components, said binder containing X-ray transparent substance, said magnet component containing conducting and X-ray transparent substance, and said weighing component containing substances or substance mixtures selected from second series elements with density 2.7 g/cm3 and effective atomic number 5.5-6.5.

EFFECT: increased separation process reliability and reduced price of diamond imitator.

7 cl, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, and in particular to methods of enrichment of diamond ore using physical effects, and can be used for control of separation processes.

Known indicator for monitoring the separation of diamond raw devices using physical effects, made of optically transparent solid material based on organic polymers and having a weight component from the secondary separation characteristic, luminescense and color components in the surface layer of the indicator (Patent RF №2137556/ Indicator for monitoring the separation process of diamond-containing material. Author: Slutman EM IN 07 WITH 5/342, 03 At 13/04 was investigated, the application 98114704/12 from 20.07.1998,, epubl, bull. No. 26).

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the low reliability of control of the separation process when using this indicator. The indicator is not accurate enough to simulate the characteristics of a diamond, as partially opaque to x-rays. Used in similar optically transparent solid materials based on organic polymers are transparent to x-rays, but have a density of 1.05-1.5 g/cm3that is substantially less than the average density of the ore (2.7 g/cm3) and the density of diamond (3.5 g/cm3). The result is e sharp differences in the density of samples of this material have a motion path different from the trajectory of the main stream of ore. In order to bring the effective density of the indicator to the density of diamond, it adds weight component density which is substantially greater than the density of diamond, such as lead, with a density of 11.3 g/cm3. From a simple calculation, it follows that to obtain the indicator-based organic polymer with a density of 3.5 g/cm3it should be added to about 30% of lead. If the lead be added in powder form, is uniformly distributed in the polymer, the resulting composite will be opaque for optical and x-ray radiation. Therefore, lead is added in the form of granules localized in the center of the indicator, and receiving, so that is opaque to x-ray and optical radiation from the core and a transparent shell. Thus, this indicator is partially opaque to x-rays, which impairs his ability to control devices of separation, which are based on transparency diamonds for x-rays.

Also known indicator for monitoring the separation process of diamond raw devices using physical effects, consisting of solid material, which is a mechanical mixture of the binder, fluorescent-weight, magnetic Vescovo and color components, where is used as a binder optically transparent substance, and as a fluorescent-weight component of natural diamond powder, with magnetic weight component is closely associated with the surface layer material of the indicator (Patent RF №2162747 / Indicator for monitoring the separation process of diamond-containing material. Authors: Slutman E.M., Semerikov V.R., 03 AT 13/02, In 07 With 5/342, the application 99110145/03 from 19.05.1999,, epubl, bull. No. 4).

In the above known invention partially addressed the shortcomings of analogue, since the powder of natural diamond is a diamond, and, accordingly, has the characteristics of a diamond: density of 3.5 g/cm3and atomic number (Z), is equal to 6. However, this indicator does not address the task is to mimic the properties of natural diamond: for example, the indicator is opaque to x-rays. This follows from the following considerations. In the diamond powder has a strong scattering, since diamond has a very high refractive index and high dispersion. The transparency of the indicator in the optical range can be achieved only if the equality of the refractive indices of the binder and the diamond, i.e. the binder should have a refractive index (n), such as a diamond, namely n=2.4. Such a high index of refraction which I binder based on organic polymers, x-ray transparent, do not possess. The refractive index n=2 have some sort of optical glasses, such as heavy crowns (TC), however, to increase the refractive index of these glasses doped by a number of metals, including lead, so they are not transparent to x-rays. Thus, if the indicator is transparent to optical radiation, it is opaque to x-rays and cannot serve as an indicator for devices using as a distinctive sign of the transparency of the diamond in the x-ray range.

Magnetic weight component is applied to the surface of the indicator. As its name implies, this component has two properties: the magnetic and the weight. The latter means that he plays the role of weighting, i.e. has a high density of at least greater than the density of diamond. Substances with a density of diamond: diamond and boron nitride does not possess magnetic properties and substances with higher density opaque in the x-ray range. Therefore, magnetic weight component is also opaque to x-rays. As for the magnetic properties of natural and synthetic diamonds are wide-gap semiconductors, i.e. have a very low conductivity. The nature of the interaction with MAGN who Tim field they exhibit the properties of dielectrics. Therefore, as a secondary distinguishing characteristic is the "magnetic" component - used additives, making a conductive material, such as barium ferrite. When passing through the coil with the magnetic field conductive material, unlike diamond, induces in the coil a pulse induction current, which allows us to separate the indicator from the diamond. In our case, this material (barium ferrite) is also opaque in the x-ray range.

In addition, the indicator on the basis of natural diamond has a high cost. The need of the diamond mining industry is 1-1 .5 million indicators in the year. When the consumption of natural diamond powder to produce a light that weighs an average of 1 carat, you will need 1-1 .5 million carats of diamonds per year, i.e. 200-300 kg Thus, the indicator on the basis of natural diamond requires a large consumption of valuable natural resources.

The purpose of the invention is to increase the reliability of control by increasing the compliance of the physical characteristics of the simulator and diamond and reduce the cost of the simulator due to the replacement of natural diamond, synthetic materials.

This objective is achieved in that a diamond simulant to control the separation process of diamond raw devices using physical effects, containing solid material, which own the th mixture of the binder, weight, luminescense, coloring and magnetic components, the binder contains a substance which is transparent to x-rays, as the magnetic component includes conductive and x-ray transparent substance, and as the weight component contains a substance or mixture of substances of the elements of the 2nd row of the periodic system: with a density of more than 2.7 g/cm3and effective atomic number 5.5-6.5.

With the simulator as the weight component contains substances from the series: the lithium fluoride (LiF), beryllium oxide (EEO), boron nitride (BN), synthetic diamond (C), boron carbide (BC), carbon nitride (CN).

And as the binder contains material based on hydrocarbon polymers, such as epoxy resin.

And as the magnetic component contains graphite or light metals, for example, substances from the group of beryllium, magnesium, aluminum.

A diamond simulant to control the separation process of diamond raw materials must meet the following requirements:

1) transparency of diamond simulant in the x-ray range should be close to the transparency of the diamond.

2) the diamond simulant should luminesce under the influence of x-ray radiation;

3) diamond simulant should have a density close to the density of the heavy fractions of the ore (2.7 g/cm ), and even better density of diamond (3.5 g/cm3). Thus, the density of the simulator must be in the range of 2.7-3.5 g/cm3;

4) in some cases, the diamond simulant should have secondary hallmark, allowing the instrument indicator control this feature automatically register its passage through technological devices. Secondary hallmark should contrast with the properties of diamond. On this basis, the apparatus recognizes that the detected it is a diamond simulant, not a real diamond.

The absorption of x-rays substances consisting of atoms of one kind, is determined by their atomic number Z. If a substance composed of atoms of different kinds or the substance is a mixture of several substances, the use of Zeffeffective atomic number, which is the average for numbers of all atoms in a compound or mixture. As for diamond Z=6, the desired simulators must have an effective atomic number close to that of diamond Zeff=5.5-6.5. All atoms with small values of Z are in the second row of the periodic table. Of them may be formed of a substance with Zeff=6 and a density of more than 2.7 g/cm3such as lithium fluoride (LiF), beryllium oxide (EEO), boron nitride (BN), synthetic diamond (C). Close-its the governments will carbides and nitrides of elements of the 2nd row of the periodic table, for example, boron carbide (BC, Zeff=5.5) or carbon nitride (CN, Zeff=6.5).

As a secondary distinguishing characteristic is the "magnetic" component - used additives that make the material conductive; in our case, this material should not degrade the transparency of the diamond simulant in the x-ray range. As such additives can be used conductors, transparent or partially transparent to x-rays, such as beryllium. In small quantities (the first percentage of the volume of the simulator) valid magnesium and aluminum. However, the simplest and most available material is a hexagonal phase of carbon - graphite.

As binders simulator, transparent to x-rays taken of the substance based on hydrocarbon polymers. One of them is epoxy resin.

Thus, by using as a binder an organic polymer with the addition of the phosphor, as the weight of the component synthetic substances or their mixtures with a density of more than 2.7 g/cm3and effective atomic number equal to 5.5-6.5, and as the magnetic component of the conductor, in quantities sufficient for the effective atomic number is not left out of the above range, we will meet presented above requirements.

Examples of specific performance.

When is EP 1.

A diamond simulant, in which the weight component is a powder of synthetic material of lithium fluoride with Zeff=6 and a density of 2.9 g/cm3. As the binder used epoxy resin. To the resin was added a powder of graphite. Binder combined with dehydrated LiF powder and thoroughly mixed. The resulting mass was placed in a shape corresponding to the shape of the indicator, and put the form under the press. When pressing the excess binder is pressed from the resulting mass is removed. Simultaneously, eliminates voids and pores. After removal of excess binder form rise up to complete polymerization of the binder. In the dye, for example, based on the nitro enamel was added a powder of the phosphor To-35, which is typically used to make replicas of properties luminesce, and dipped received harvesting in dye with phosphor. In this case, the resulting diamond simulant consisting of x-ray transparent material, with a conductive volume, over which is applied luminescense layer.

After drying of the paint got a diamond simulant desired color, luminescense, conductive and transparent to x-ray radiation with a density of about 2.8 g/cm3.

Example 2.

Closest to the diamond across the physical characteristics of synthetic m is a material predetermined - boron nitride has a density of about 3.5 g/cm3transparent in the x-ray range and has Zeff=6. Simulator-based boron nitride is the most exact imitation diamond in the enrichment process. The manufacturer of the simulator is carried out as in example 1. The result is a sample with a density of about 3.4 g/cm3.

In examples 1 and 2 of the "magnetic" component distributed in the volume of the simulator.

Example 3.

A diamond simulant, in which the weight component is a powder of synthetic material of lithium fluoride with Zeff=6 and a density of 2.9 g/cm3. As the binder used epoxy resin. Binder combined with dehydrated LiF powder and thoroughly mixed. The form for the simulator coated inside a thin layer of graphite or aluminum powder. When filling forms part of the powder is introduced into the surface layers of the binder, forming a thin magnetic (conductive) layer. The resulting mass is put in the form and rise to polymerization. Next on the workpiece caused the dye with phosphor.

Example 4.

A diamond simulant, in which the weight component is a powder of synthetic material of lithium fluoride with Zeff=6 and a density of 2.9 g/cm3. As the binder used epoxy resin. The binder was combined with about wojennym LiF powder and thoroughly mixed. The resulting mass was placed in a shape corresponding to the shape of the indicator, and put the form under the press. After removal of excess binder form rise up to complete polymerization of the binder. The resulting workpiece is covered with a composition made from a mixture of binder, for example, the same epoxy resin, and powder of graphite or aluminum. In this case, the "magnetic" (conductive) layer is concentrated near the surface simulator and forms a conductive sphere. To obtain the conductive layer is also enough to cover the workpiece nitroenamel with the addition of aluminum powder, known as "silver".

In examples 3 and 4 conductive layer is near the surface of the simulator.

The resulting simulated diamond allow control of the processes of enrichment of diamond ore, which are based on a number of physical effects, such as separation by density separation on the level of luminescence, division on transparency in the x-ray range.

1. A diamond simulant to control the separation process of diamond raw devices using physical effects, containing solid material composed of a mixture of binder, by weight, luminescense, coloring and magnetic components, the binder contains a substance which is transparent to x-ray of the teachings, as the magnetic component includes conductive and x-ray transparent substance, and as the weight component contains a substance or mixture of substances of the elements of the 2nd row of the periodic system: with a density of more than 2.7 g/cm3and effective atomic number of 5.5 to 6.5.

2. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that as the weight component contains substances from the series: the lithium fluoride (LiF), beryllium oxide (BeO), boron nitride (BN), synthetic diamond, boron carbide (BC), carbon nitride (CN).

3. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder contains material based on hydrocarbon polymers.

4. The simulator according to claim 1 or 3, characterized in that the binder contains epoxy resin.

5. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that as the magnetic component contains graphite.

6. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that as the magnetic component contains light metals.

7. The simulator according to claim 1 or 6, characterized in that as the magnetic component contains substances from the group of beryllium, magnesium, aluminum.



 

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