Method for aero-gamma spectrometric filming of environment under conditions of man-caused emergency, followed by dispersion of plutonium

FIELD: aero-gamma spectrometric technologies, possible use under conditions of man-caused emergency accompanied by dispersion of plutonium, and also during actions connected to liquidation of consequences of these emergencies.

SUBSTANCE: method includes gamma-radiation registration from man-caused sources by detecting gamma-quanta of americium-241.

EFFECT: higher information quality and trustworthiness of filming, increased speed of reaction to man-caused emergencies.

 

The invention relates to the field of technical physics, namely the airborne gamma-spectrometric methods and technical means of the shooting environment, and can be used for preventive control of radiation situation in the area of radiation-dangerous object, and process activities related to the elimination of industrial accidents involving release of fissile materials, particularly plutonium.

Known geophysical method airborne gamma-spectrometric survey (MSS 854166 publ. 10.01.2000)allows you to monitor the natural background radiation of the Earth to search for mineral deposits by determining the concentration of radionuclides in rocks. The method consists of measuring the flow of radiation by means of sensors installed on the aircraft.

To implement this method using a device installed on Board an aircraft, consisting of the detecting unit of gamma radiation, the amplitude of the analyzer, the computing unit and the Registrar. The detection unit consists of primary and secondary detectors, which allows to measure the intensity of gamma radiation at various distances from the Earth's surface and taking into account the adopted mathematical model using the counting-casting device to measure is Concentratio radionuclides in rocks.

The possibility of using this method in the conditions of technogenic accidents with the dispersion of plutonium is limited by the fact that the height, which produce a detection above the earth's surface (about 800 m), due to the technical possibilities of the medium does not allow registration of gamma quanta of plutonium due to their complete absorption in the layer of air at this altitude. The use of the helicopter for these purposes at low altitudes leads to a strong "perturbation" bearing screws the surface of the earth and talk about the reliability of determination of surface activity of plutonium in this case is not possible.

The closest way (prototype) to declare is airborne gamma-spectrometric method (Preprint 029-95 / MEPhI, Moscow, 1995), which allows for capturing the environment in the conditions of technogenic accidents. To detect the areas with radioactive contamination and to study the characteristics of the field of deposition of gamma-emitting radionuclides is measured spatial energy density distribution of the flux of gamma rays from the lower half-space by a system of sensors installed on Board aircraft (LA). To do this, with the passage of the aircraft over the target area is set by a series of sequential spectra the ditch. Each of the spectra is tied to the plot, the linear dimensions of which are determined by the speed of the aircraft and time set range.

This method is implemented in the detection unit of the modular type, containing four of the scintillation detector in thick crystals of NaI(TI) total volume of 20 l (5 l each)installed on Board the LA General aviation.

The disadvantage of this method is its inability to obtain information about the characteristics of the fields of radioactive radiation in the low energy region of the spectrum of gamma radiation, in particular photon radiation of plutonium in accidents involving its dispersion.

Plutonium is the most dangerous radionuclide from the point of view of impact on the human body. Radiation environment due to dispersed plutonium, can be long-term and catastrophic (the half-life of plutonium is 24,000 years). In these conditions, as soon as possible after the accident requires information about the radiation environment for emergency measures to minimize the harmful effects of plutonium on the person and the effective planning of works on liquidation of consequences of the accident.

In the method MIFI as a media recording equipment itself is used the years (altitude - a few hundred meters above the ground) or helicopter (its use at low altitudes leads to a strong "perturbation" of the earth's surface). Technical characteristics of the aircraft and associated features perform radiation surveys of contaminated areas allow us to determine the characteristics of fields of radioactive radiation only in the high-energy part of the spectrum of photons (>200 Kev) and not allow you to register low-energy component of gamma radiation. In addition, for the operation of the aircraft or helicopter required a specially equipped runway, which is in the immediate vicinity of the shooting may not be. The use of remote airstrips causes wasted flight time and thus leads to a considerable increase of airborne gamma spectrometry works.

The challenge is to develop an improved method for obtaining new information in the conditions of technogenic accidents involving the release of plutonium.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the value and reliability of the shooting, the speed of response to radiation accidents and the reduction of costs for the implementation of airborne gamma spectrometry works.

This technical result is achieved for FPIC is the BA, in contrast to the known method, airborne gamma-spectrometric survey, which consists in registering the spectrum of gamma radiation from man-made sources of radiation through the detection of gamma-quanta in the proposed method detects gamma-rays of americium-241.

In addition, registration can be carried out on Board a light aircraft and detection produced by the installed onboard the detector crystals of NaI(TI).

The proposed method airborne gamma spectrometry shooting provides registration of the low-energy part of the spectrum of photons in the detection of gamma rays of americium-241, which increases the information content and accuracy of shooting, giving additional and the most valuable information about the radiation situation of the environment. It is possible at altitudes of the order of several tens of meters, based on the conditions do not absorb in the air quanta of americium at these heights. The method is performed by carrying out the following operations. The required number of statistically significant spectra is conducted at the survey tacks network of straight-line routes, at heights and speeds that allow you to register gamma americium-241 (free path length in air of gamma-quanta of americium-241 with an energy of 60 Kev is 415 m).

The choice of americium as measured isotope (detection of its gamma rays) due to the fact that plutonium always contains traces of americium-241. Knowing the content of americium in a mixture of plutonium isotopes and the age of the mixture, analyzing the spectrum of americium-241, moving from gamma measurements to the surface activity of plutonium, and it is judged radiation environment environment and plan appropriate protective measures.

Along with choosing the optimal values of the parameters of the flight altitude and flight speed, airborne gamma-spectrometric measurements important to select the type of detector installed on Board the aircraft. The choice for the detection of detector crystals of NaI(TI) with its installation on Board a particular aircraft type (LIA) due to its ability to register in these conditions of low-energy radiation. For minimum detectable activity is set to the area of the sensitive surface of the detector. Once again it should be noted that airborne gamma-spectrometric survey of the contaminated area can be carried out on Board a light aircraft that can satisfy the above conditions, that is to fly at a slower speed and at lower altitudes (compared with plane and helicopter)that nevoso is but for General aviation, on the basis of conditions of safety. Thus, it can be achieved, response to radiation accidents, and reducing the cost of performing airborne gamma spectrometric works, as there is no need to use for these purposes remote runways, causing wasted flight time and thus leads to a considerable increase of airborne gamma spectrometry works.

The proposed method allowing the detection of gamma rays of americium-241 is implemented using a device installed on Board of the carrier - light aircraft (LIA), for example, type CH 701 (Russia). The device is a spectrometric measurement module (airborne gamma-ray spectrometer) in the form of a rectangular container, the internal volume of which vibromassazhery devices are placed detectors, spectrometer units and specialized power sources. Here, as the device receiving the radiation, is used mnogomotornye detection unit, consisting of detectors on thin NaI(Tl)crystals that allow you to register americium-241 with an energy of about 60 Kev. At this altitude the LIA is up to several tens of meters (30 m) from the ground surface when the flight speed of 100 km/hour.

Development of a mathematical model of an emergency allows to conclude that the application of the proposed method helps to significantly enhance the usefulness and reliability of the method by providing opportunities registration of low-energy part of the spectrum of gamma radiation technogenic sources of 0.05-1 MeV), as well as responsiveness to radiation accidents by reducing overhead flight time required for delivery media recording equipment to the venue of the shooting and maneuvering in execution of works. The LIA can be delivered to job site fully assembled and by any means of transport and are in working condition in the shortest possible time, for his take-off and landing does not require specially prepared runways. Can be used for this smooth roads, the fields, the water surface.

Thus, the application of the proposed method will not only enhance the usefulness and reliability of airborne gamma spectrometry shooting environment due to the possibility of determining by detecting gamma rays americium-241 surface activity of plutonium in accidents during the dispersion of this radionuclide, but also to increase the performance of these services, through mobile the surface of the LIA and its operational application.

1. The way airborne gamma spectrometry shooting environment in the conditions of technogenic accidents involving dispersion of plutonium, including the registration of the spectrum of gamma radiation from man-made sources of radiation by detecting gamma-rays, characterized in that detects gamma-rays of americium-241.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the registration is carried out on Board a light aircraft, produced by the detection installed on Board the detector NaI(Tl)crystals.



 

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