Histological forensic medical method for diagnosing gunshot injuries

FIELD: forensic medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves taking foreign available gunpowder and healing wound epidermis scab particles out of skin using needle pretreated with alcohol, placing them into sterile physiologic saline on object-plate and drying. Epidermis scab particles are compressed between two object-plates and lapped with physiologic saline. Then the object-plates are separated and covered with microglasses. No staining is applied to the preparations. Gunpowder fragments are visually observed using autoluminescence in ultraviolet light.

EFFECT: simplified and reliable procedure.

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to forensic medicine.

Forensic medical examination consists of a number of scientific and practical research of interest to be undertaken to address specific medical and biomedical issues that arise when conducting specific inquiry, preliminary investigation and court proceedings. The use of laboratory methods of research is complex and is determined by the necessity of obtaining the maximum for each specific case information about the studied object. Along with other laboratory methods histological examination is mandatory. It allows you to define prizhiznennoi and prescription gunshot injuries, and to identify signs of fire damage, additional factors shots, including particles of gunpowder.

Grain smokeless powder on histological preparations have the form of a translucent inclusions of rounded, oval, rod-shaped or other shape, the part surrounded by a black border, histological staining, they do not perceive.

A known method for detecting fragments of smokeless powder in view of its consistent changes during combustion, established experimentally [1]. Burning piosenki gradually softened, melted, foaming and sprinkle the Xia with the formation of tiny shards and darkening of the substance of powder, education of secourisme products.

The known method [2] detection of powder smokeless powder in ultraviolet rays, where they have a yellow-green glow.

Because the particles of powder histological staining not perceive that their detection using conventional histological techniques is almost impossible. In addition, it is necessary to differentiate fragments of burnt gunpowder from particles of soot and other foreign contamination.

The use of ultraviolet light are not reflected in the existing literature and is rarely used in practical work.

However, none of the known methods used in the forensic examination of living persons.

When forensic examination of living persons with gunshot injuries of one of the main objectives, along with determining the extent of injury is determining whether or not objective data on the damage investigation versions. This is especially important in cases of suspected sham attacks, self-harm, use of atypical firearms (gun), and also when using gas weapons, which because of its availability has received recent widespread.

The expert should be found on the body of the victim signs of fire damage is Denia the so-called traces of the shot (the action of the powder gases, fragments of gunpowder). The solution of these problems is hampered in some cases by the fact that the forensic expert examines the victim after some time. Wounds by the time may have signs of healing or undergo surgical treatment. In cases when the shot was fired through the barrier, additional factors not found in wounds. When using gas weapons outwardly manifested swelling, bleeding, abrasions, the severity of which depends on a number of factors, including the time elapsed since injury, reactive changes, individual characteristics of the organism.

The determination of the distance of the shot is one of the main issues that need to be resolved in the examination of gunshot wounds. For this it is important to determine the presence and nature trails close up shot, the deposition in the field of gunshot wounds of the powder grains. One of the factors to determine the distance of the shot, can be a measure space and the embedding depth of the powder fragments and their number. By how pronounced the deposition of the powder grains in the studied material, one can approximately determine the distance of the shot. For smokeless powder expressed signs are determined up to 150-200 cm (2). With increasing distance weakened the em action of the powder gases and increases the area of deposition of the powder grains, decreases the density of their implementation.

In the study of gunshot wounds, especially the last surgical treatment or having signs of healing, difficult diagnosis input and output gunshot wounds.

Even considering the increased level of methodology of scientific research, using an integrated approach, the use of modern recording equipment, mathematical processing of the results obtained to date for the above situations, there was no way of determining traces of gunpowder.

Our proposed method allows to determine the presence of fragments of gunpowder in the situations described above. In the study of material dissected from wounds subjected to surgical treatment, and the shot through the barrier, using our methodology can be diagnosed fire damage, and quantitative comparison of the detected powder to define the input and output apertures, and tentatively to speak about the distance of the shot.

In the course of our practical activities developed a new method for extraction and processing of biopsy material, having the following steps:

1. A sterile needle from the skin pre-treated with alcohol, retrieved fragments of epidermis with foreign particles introduced gunpowder, and is also epidermal peel healing damage and placed in sterile saline on a glass slide.

2. Applied scales of epidermis on a glass slide with saline and dries. If you have removed the crust of the healing of the epidermis, it is clamped between two object glasses and preterit with saline, and then sever the glass and cover with a cover glass.

The coloring agents is not required.

Conditions luminescence for visual observation:

1) microscope "LUMAM-2 (I-1)

2) the source of excitation of luminescence - mercury lamp DRSH-250-3

3) filters the excitation FS-1-4

4) the locking filters LGL 18+ISS 19

Grain smokeless powder on histological preparations have the form of a translucent yellowish-black or greenish inclusions are round, oval, rod-shaped or other shapes with clear contours, often surrounded by a black border, histological staining do not perceive.

In addition to these methods, the collection of biological material we recommend you to explore the surgical material esecanna wounds and soft tissue along the wound channel with their subsequent processing:

1) on a freezing microtome,

2) after standard processing biomaterial (alcohol, ether), followed by pouring in the wax,

3) after combined transaction biomaterial (acetone, alcohol), followed by pouring in the wax.

The best type of staining of histological preparations of hemotoxic what yesina. You can study unpainted hysteresis.

Conditions luminescence for visual observation of the same.

In our practical work was conducted dissected surgical material from the area of gunshot wounds. Were conducted examination of lesions on the face, caused by a gas gun. In all cases, the technique had a positive result and allowed to solve the tasks carried out forensic examinations.

We offer affordable and simple method for the determination of fragments of gunpowder.

Sources of information

1. Isakov E, Forensic characterization of damage prichenennyj shots from a small caliber self-loading pistol //Court.-the honey. expert. - 1988. No. 1. - P.30-32.

2. Vigoleno, Vladov, Knelman. Gunshot wounds and forensic examination. -M., 1990.

Method for the diagnosis of gunshot wounds on the skin, caused by smokeless powder microscopy, characterized in that the extract sterile needle, pre-treated with alcohol, leather fragments of epidermis with foreign particles, as well as epidermal peel healing damage, put them on a glass slide with saline solution and dried, and the crust of the healing of the epidermis is clamped between the two object glasses and grind in with saline solution, then sever the glass and cover with a cover glass, microscope carried out under ultraviolet light and the detection of translucent yellowish-black or greenish inclusions are round, oval, rod-shaped forms with distinct outlines, surrounded by a black border, diagnosed fire damage on the skin caused by smokeless powder.



 

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