Method of large-capacity production of a lump fuel charcoal and a device for its realization

FIELD: wood-chemical industry; the methods of large-capacity production of a lump fuel charcoal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of wood-chemical industry, in particular, to the technologies for a charcoal-burning of a wood raw material based on the methods of a temperature-average pyrolysis. The method includes: operations providing for receptions of the middle-sized raw materials from a warehouse; transportation of the raw materials from the warehouse into some of the similar type module chambers of a periodical charcoal-burning action; a multi-stage process of a charcoal-burning in each charcoal-burning module chamber at the air pressure close to atmospheric. The process of the charcoal-burning includes: a sequential drying of the raw material by a superheated steam, including its mixtures with the air; the raw material temperature-average pyrolysis, calcination and chilling of the coal; its discharge from the charcoal-burning module chamber. At that the phase of the pyrolysis is divided into two parts - an endothermic part and an exothermal part. All operations are conducted in the automatic mode. The heat-carrying agents and electrical power for realization of the processes of drying, pyrolysis, calcination and granulation are fed from the all-station power-generating unit. The gained generator gas after chilling and cleanout is used as a gaseous fuel in a gas-diesel engine and in the second power-generating unit, in which all the non-condensable gases of the pyrolysis are burnt up. The invention also is pertaining to the device for realization of the method. The invention ensures production of the granular charcoal at the small capital inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the granular charcoal at the small capital inputs.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg


The proposed method and device relate to the field of chemical industries, and specifically to technologies and equipment for charcoal-burning (perepilivanija) of wood raw material on the basis of the methods of classical medium temperature pyrolysis.

The technology is focused on large-scale production of fine powder and raw coal on the typical charcoal-burning stations (STS) with a capacity of 3...15 thousand tons of coal per year with its subsequent pelleting or briquetting to improve the transportability and commercial value of coal on the part of STU technological pellet coal (TLGU) of the same capacity, which can be constructed on the basis of the known solutions. As raw materials for perepilivanija used chips of natural humidity (45...55% Rel.) in volume 20...100 thousand dense m3in the year generated in related industries with mobile and stationary complexes of low-grade wood, timber, and other wood waste.

STU and coupled with it TLGU are designed for use in the cutting area, burnt forest, forest with overmature wood and wood affected by Biomedicine, in the warehouses of a major logging and sawmills, forest exchanges, woody branches of the large pulp and paper mills and other

The technology ensures the production of cheap fuel is about granulated charcoal with a calorific value at the level of 29.3 MJ/kg (7000 kcal/kg), with ash 2,5...4,5% (Rel.), humidity not higher than 3% (Rel.) and a density of not lower than 0.7 t/m3at a cost two to three times lower in comparison with existing technologies suitable for use in the Russian forest regions.

Large-scale charcoal production began to develop about 150 years ago in connection with the needs of the rapidly developing since the mid-nineteenth century ferrous metallurgy in the fuel and the reducing agent of iron oxides for blast and other technological areas. But by the middle of the last century, with few exceptions, charcoal in metallurgy was almost entirely driven by cheaper coal coke. In the technology development of large charcoal-burning after about 1950, there has been a marked decline. He was overcome only in the last about 20 years, during which global production of charcoal has increased more than 4 times.

During the period from 1850 to, replacing and complementing each other, developed three generations of technology large capacity charcoal-burning, which in a modified form, but in limited amounts, are used in our days[1, 2, 4]:

(1) burning coal from wood or wood in piles, piles, pits, trenches on the type of silo; a lot of manual labor, the quality of the coal is low, the environment is poor; the advantages of mobility and relatively n is ska cost of coal;

(2) the standard chamber and tunnel kiln and periodic continuous periodic operation; raw materials - wood, loading trolley or carriage of the retort, the volume of a single production in tunnel kilns up to 10 tons lump of coal per year; the quality of the coal is high, ecology requires improvements;

(3) stationary units with large vertical continuous current retort (diameter up to 3.0 m, height up to 30,0 m, the reaction volume to 50 m3); raw materials - wood, large chips;

the volume of a single production to 12 thousand tons of small and medium-sized coal per year; side-chemical products - methanol, acetic acid, resin, and others; the quality of the coal is high, ecology in modern installations satisfactory.

Despite various improvements [4], all these three generations for use in the XXI century are obsolete. On large stationary installations of second and third generation the coal is expensive due to the rising costs of shipping raw materials from more distant forest plots and preparation of raw materials for charcoal burning (chopping wood). The lack of mobility and autonomy of their main drawback. In the recent years mobile plant for charcoal-burning [4, 7] are light-duty (up to 100...150 tons per year), for large-scale programs charcoal-burning they are not suitable.

Modern the global trends in large-scale charcoal-burning reflect installation and complexes of the fourth generation, typical representatives of which are:

1) the German technology group "Mannesmann", implemented through its subsidiary "Maple" in Brazil in 1970...1995 for the production of small-sized (10...100 mm) charcoal from plantations of eucalyptus for blast-furnace production at the Brazilian plant "Mannesmann" in the amount of 0.3 million tons/year [3];

2) it later Russian counterpart, represented by the settings of the "Parma" Syktyvkar machine-building plant [6].

Technology and equipment "Maple" focus on obtaining coal from Khlystov eucalyptus seven years of age in large units of rectangular shape (16,8×4,5×3,65 m) with a useful volume of the chamber pyrolysis approximately 250 m3. The annual production of one unit of coal - 780 tons. Cycle charcoal-burning is pre-dried in air for 60...90 days Khlystov eucalyptus - 8...10 days. Side products are resin. All operations are mechanized. The coal is relatively cheap. For Russian conditions this technology is not suitable.

Technology and equipment Parma designed to receive coal from assortments length of 4.6 m and a diameter of 0.3 m, the specific consumption of raw materials with regard to fuel wood - 7.8 m3/t coal. Unit Parma has a rectangular shape and consists of three parts:

- oven topock the second device (block), working with wood and pyrolysis gases;

camera pyrolysis with a useful volume of 20 m3with cover; the duration of the working cycle of drying and pyrolysis - 50...60 hours; the maximum temperature in the chamber of the pyrolysis - 550°With (500...600°); Luggage pyrolysis is installed on the furnace unit;

- insulating camera, worn on top of the camera pyrolysis. The maximum dimensions and weight has a heat-insulating chamber: 6,0×3,2×4.2 m and 6.2 so

The annual capacity of one unit Parma - 320 tons of coal, the size of lump charcoal 20...80 mm Production lesohimikov not provided. The resulting pyrogate burnt in a combustion unit that reduces the consumption of fuel wood by 50% and provides environmentally friendly operation.

The developers recommend operated units "Parma" in blocks of four. Assembly-disassembly four units Parma, raw material loading and unloading of coal are supplied with only one crane with lifting capacity of 10...15 tons and a reach of up to 8.0 m, attendants for a block of four units or four people per shift (crane operator, two rigger, source).

Technology and equipment Parma have autonomy and mobility, can be used directly in the plot. By increasing the number of units in the complex (more than 4), you can increase annual produce is inost complex station to the desired values.

Technology and equipment Parma adopted for the prototype, due to two main qualities of independence and mobility, required for large-scale production of cheap coal. As analogues on private decisions are considered and used technologies and installation of the second and third generations, as well as solutions from related fields of machinery for working with wood [8, 9].

The main disadvantages of the technology and equipment "Parma":

- technical indicators remained at the level of 50-ies of the last century;

- low volumetric capacity of charcoal-burning units and the output of each of the charcoal burner's house (320 tons/year on one of the charcoal burner's house);

- lack of mechanization (manual loading wood into the combustion device), the impossibility of automating all processes;

- with an acceptable salary workers high cost of charcoal-burning.

As in the prototype, the proposed technology uses the principle of deblocking and modularity build large complexes, provided 100%recycling Pirogov, the rectangular shape of the aggregates and their division into transportable component parts, the combination in one unit all stages of the charcoal-burning and periodic scheme of the circular sequence diagram.

All other solutions significantly and even fundamentally different from the prototype that provides crtn the e improvement of the main technical and economic indicators - at cost in 2...3 times, productivity in 5...10 times, with some decrease in specific consumption of raw materials per 1 ton of coal is not more than 7 PLM3/t instead of 7.8 PLM3/t in units of "Parma".

The proposed method for large-scale production of fuel wood coal and device for its implementation within the stated technological schemes are characterized by the following essential features:

(1) As in the prototype, provides Autonomous operation. For the proposed station necessary raw wood, water and diesel fuel.

(2) As in the prototype, provides mobility operation, by which we mean the possibility of the rapid mounting and dismantling of all equipment and the relocation of vehicles on new, previously prepared working platform with minimal losses annual Fund of working time (5...10%).

(3) Raw materials for coal - wood chips mainly medium in size (approximately wedge-shape, 30...50×30...50×0...10 mm), with optional humidity 45...55% Rel., as green wood. In comparison with the prototype, the transition from wood to wood chips reduces the time of drying and pyrolysis approximately 3 times. Charcoal burning large chips (200×100×20 mm) is known and mastered the technology of the third generation; see the J. the retort Stafford [1, page 233], patent RU 2166527 from 01.02.2000 and other

(4) the Reception of raw material (chips) with dump trucks or other tipper technical means of transport is carried out on automated operational warehouse of raw materials, consisting of two to six collapsible, transportable similar sections, made for example by the type of automated warehouses chips for hot water boilers [8], but there may be other solutions. The capacity of a single partition on a bulk wood chips - 20...40 m3.

Sticks, logs and chips from them procured external units using existing mobile (on wheels) or stationary machinery complexes in the plot on the top and bottom warehouses forestry farms, warehouses forest exchanges and cumulative warehouse next to STU. With deforestation or cumulative warehouse chips served at the operational warehouse Documentation.

The supply of wood chips from an operational warehouse in camera charcoal-burning and wood gas generators by using screw feeders, scraper conveyors or pneumatic, are widely used in modern wood-processing enterprises, transport loading-unloading bulk materials or in the same boiler [8].

Unlike the prototype where you work with raw materials only mechanized and many manual operations, the decisions provide the ability to turn the key 100%automation of all operations with raw materials.

(5) In the large-capacity STU used from 6 to 20 of the same type of modular cameras charcoal-burning (ISU), arranged in two rows or in a circle, their optimal number 10...12, with an annual capacity for coal crude each ISU - about 500...1000 tons. A large number of cameras as part of the Specification and in accordance with the following agreed working cyclograms, ensures continuity in the allocation of combustible Pirogov and pyrocondensation used in units of STU as fuel. All the ICA work on intermittent, as in the prototype, the circular sequence diagram, in which we distinguish provide control and management of the following stages of the complex process using heat exchange stages of circuits internal heating / cooling:

1 - download the raw material filling the through pneumoperitoneum; in winter at the finish of the stage for a shorter preheating structure itself and the dumping of wood chips steam-cooled (flue gases) at a temperature of up to 200...250°C;

2 - drying of the raw material vapor coolant (OEM) at a temperature of 120...150°With, at a volume ratio of steam and air is about 1:1; the air is added in order to eliminate "zaklepywanie" dumping chips in the initial period of drying, when the supplied steam may condense in the cold layers of the filling; in embodiments, the pre-heating of the filling flue gases at the boot stage or in the operation of PSTs in the summer, the air consumption can be reduced, down to zero, and keep the dryer clean steam with a temperature regulated within 150...250°C;

3 is an endothermic pyrolysis of the raw material at a temperature of 250...300°C, heating steam-cooled (PTH);

4 - exothermic pyrolysis at a temperature in the range 300...400°is heat dissipation, which as the cooler use SMT to increase consumption in order to limit overheating of coal above 400°schema is used by recycling part of the non-condensable pyrolysis gases (SSG), who served at the entrance to KU for mixing with the original SMT;

5 - heating at the maximum temperature of the exothermic stage of pyrolysis 370...400°With, using the same heating and cooling components, and in stage 4, but with less in 3...10 times the costs;

6 - cooling of the raw coal to a temperature of 30...85°using a pair of (at the first stage of cooling) and cold non-condensable pyrolysis gases at the stage finish cooling; you can also use the traditional method of cooling - extinguishing coal, irrigating it with water and combining this stage with unloading of coal.

7 - unloading of raw coal and feed it into the process line granulation.

Unlike the prototype stage pyrolysis is divided into two, and all heat exchange stage is controlled by the circular sequence diagram using the OBR is the shaft connections on the coolant temperature at the inlet to the reaction zone T 1and the temperature of the steam, air and steam combined-cycle of the coolant at the outlet of this zone T2. While all stages are carried out in the same chamber and, unlike the prototype, with its constant position in the layout diagram of the Specification. This simplifies the operation, the system automates all processes, robust control and optimization of temperature regimes in accordance with the updated us guidelines [1, pp. 217-218] for tunnel kilns of the second generation. Compared with the prototype, it increases the specific output of raw coal per absolutely dry weight of the original 1.15 1.2 times.

(6) Each ISU is collapsible, with maximum dimensions and weight of the components, providing transportation, and is composed of:

a) the same type of one-two-three-section of thermally insulated chamber charcoal-burning (KU), with the volume of each section within 10...20 m3(3,5×to 2.5×1,5...2,5 m), i.e. about the same size as the camera pyrolysis prototype, with sealed insulated cover, neprovalnoy and mechanized support bars with drop-down doors in the lower part, as, for example, in the retort Stafford, see [1, page 234], with one-two-three-strand pipe entering the chips in the upper zone of the sections or in the lid, with three main paths of the exhaust fluids is the reaction of gas-vapor products from the total upper steam-collector zone sections KU, one tract is designed to exhaust steam or steam-air carrier during drying, as in the prototype, the second exhaust Pirogov on stage endothermic pyrolysis, the third exhaust Pirogov on stage exothermic pyrolysis, calcination and cooling, and at the entrance to each tract has start-off valve (SSV); the introduction of an additional tract for removal of Pirogov, in comparison with the prototype, enables selection of the most valuable energy content part of the products of pyrolysis of resins, which can also be produced as a commodity raw materials and (or) used as a binder in the granulation;

b) lower vapor manifold, through which the section of the TOP of the BOP systems served steam, vapor and steam heat transfer (FRI, OEM and PTH), while on the input line SMT mounted mixer-corrector temperature T1due to the injection in the VILLAGE of regulated water flow and feedback on T2(lower vapor manifold replaces the bottom of the fuel block in the prototype, working with wood and Pirovano); lower vapor manifold is also used for the coolant for the final cooling of the coal, the cooler uses steam or steam-air mixture with a temperature of 120...150° (C) and recycledcontent of Pirogov (with a temperature of approximately 50° C);

in the lower one-two-three receiving sealed bunker packaged, powdered raw coal in which the coal is poured after the opening of the valves neprovalnoy reference grating sections charcoal-burning, cooling unit-extinguishing coal irrigation water use shower heads, screws and gateways in the lower zone of the receiving bin to output cooled to 30...85°raw coal from ISU in-station pneumatic, hydraulic or conveyor system for feeding raw coal input into the process granulation line (TLGU); in comparison with the prototype, these solutions provide automation unload raw coal; similar - see patent RU 2166527 from 01.02.2000;

g) two similar and external to the KU devices, each is composed of a water-cooled heat exchanger, a condenser and a separator for separating the pyrolysis condensate fraction streams PRC and PRC and non-condensable gases flow NCG and NKG, while the first one is XU connected to the second exhaust Pirogov from KU, and the second CSU connected to the third exhaust Pirogov from the same KU, see above p.(a); the General scheme of each of these devices is performed at a rough analogy with the corresponding blocks in the plants of the third generation, see scheme Lambiotte and Stafford [1, page 231 and 234]; the scheme of external devices can be supplemented with heat exchanger-a heat exchanger in the path of the exhaust Pirogov in the second stage of pyrolysis for heating the stream recycling non-condensable gases NCG, applied to the input KU, mixing with fresh VILLAGE with the aim of increasing the flow of coolant;

d) built-in controls: load wood into sections charcoal-burning under item(a); temperature and pressure flows in the lower steam-gas reservoir for p.(b) or at the entrance to KU - temperature T1and pressure P1temperature and pressure flows in the upper reservoir area sections charcoal-burning under item(a) or the total output KU - temperature T2and pressure P2or the pressure drop ΔR, equal to R1-R2;

e) the lower support frame on which are mounted components, specified in points (a), (b) and (d); part referred to in points (a), (b), (C) and (d) form the camera charcoal-burning (KU);

In the baseline scheme and construction of the MCA, as in the prototype, all operations charcoal-burning is carried out at a pressure close to atmospheric.

(7) the Presence of BOP systems: supply of coolants, refrigerants, water, air, low and high pressure, the other working components; systems exhaust non-condensable pyrolysis gases and pyrocondensation. Thus, in addition to pipelines, which includes traditional complex pneumatic systems, assemblies, subsystems, and elements: receivers for gas flows, prefabricated storage tanks for liquid components, pumps, exhausters, blowers, filters, pneumatic - and electric controlled units automation, subsystem of heat on highways with zamerzayuschie components, controls, settings, etc. These systems provide for the operation of the STU in the automated mode. In the prototype they are missing.

(8) the Availability of other unit for receiving fuel gas from the gas generator and power station and unit for receiving fluids and coolants, which are proposed in the Specification are used: superheated steam (PP or PT), OEM, SMT and boiling water. As fuel is fuel in these blocks are used: the same wood chips in an amount of 5...20% of its expenditure on charcoal burning and products of gasification in specialized wood gas generators (DGG), non-condensable pyrolysis gases - NCG and NKG, pyrocondensation - PRC and PRK and standard diesel fuel. With the exception of starting modes, charcoal-burning energy is provided mainly due to the full utilization of Pirogov and pyrocondensation, as in the analogue of [5, see also patent JP 09143474 from 03.06.1997]. The flow of wood chips is to cover the needs of dual-fuel power plant in the fuel gas and the provision of energy granulation.

(9) the Availability of current systems of production (from the surrounding water bodies or wells), preparation and supply of process water. The traditional solutions.

(10) the presence in the STU, it is the policy of pellet raw coal (TLGU), run on a modular scheme based on the known solutions and which has in its composition:

- mill raw coal;

separator foreign and neverapine particle;

mixing of raw coal with a binder (starch, other purchase binders or part of the resin condensate);

rotary drum-type press pellets or briquettes);

- drying chamber;

device unloading pellets (briquettes) and their packing in shipping containers, bags or nets.

The drying chamber of TLGU use fluids, produced for charcoal-burning, drying temperature of the granules is not higher than the temperature of calcination of the raw coal.

In the prototype of such line no.

(11) the Presence of remote automated control of all technological processes on Students, including TLGU (APCS), with the use of modern computer equipment, software, technical controls, transmission and display of information. Staff operators APCS - 2 people per shift plus shift foreman and one worker for controlling the operation of all equipment Documentation and maintenance.

In the prototype, these systems do not.

(12) a Circular timeline of the work of any two adjacent satellites in the overall program of work multi-module station charcoal-burning displace relative to each other in time that is they way to end stage exothermic pyrolysis in each KU coincides roughly with the beginning of this stage in the adjacent KU or blocked it by up to half the time period of this stage. As already noted above in paragraph 5, to comply with this interval offset circular cyclograms related KU their total number as part of the Specification chosen in the range from 6 to 20, and recommended the optimal number of KU - 10...20. With a large number of KU is continuity highlight Pirogov and pyrocondensation, stabilizes the operation of all technical equipment in the system of their production, transportation and utilization, reduced prefabricated storage tanks and receivers. To improve management efficiency of heat exchange stages in the process of charcoal-burning is beforehand specified sequence diagram for each MCS is adjusted according to the results of operational monitoring of temperatures T1and T2in each of this KU.

These decisions in the prototype are not used.

Listed above are the essential features and technical solutions are reflected in principal technological scheme of large stations charcoal-burning is presented in figure 1, as well as on the overall program of work STU, are presented in figure 2 for example shows a variant with 12 ISU).

In accordance with figure 1 the hardware, we offer STU form the second blocks, modules and systems.

1. Power unit And the power supply STU, TLGU perform well-known scheme [9], it consists of:

1 - air fan drives, the scheme is conditionally shown one, it is recommended to have in the scheme 2...3 such units;

2 - battery wood gas generators (DGG) mine type, paired with hot water boilers (VK), which provides cooling of the fuel generator (GTG) to 100...150°; number DGG in the battery, it is recommended to choose within 2...3 as gasified raw material in DGG use the same chips, and charcoal-burning, 5...20% of the expenditure on charcoal burning; the scheme of gasification of wood chips in GGG - facing or poluvremena; unlike analogue of [9], in the same DGG is gasification and Thermopolis part of pyrocondensation (threads PRC and PRK) - up to 50% of their total consumption, which are entered in the upper layers of the chips in the zone of the boot hatch, irrigation;

3 - the Packed scrubber type wet (water) clean fuel gas from the gas generator from the ash, soot and condensate; in the scrubber fuel gas generator due to irrigation cold water is cooled to 30...40°; recommended amount of scrubbing columns in block two (one shown); to reduce the discharge of water is recommended to provide recycling of contaminated water with us what time in the path of the recycle pump and the water heat exchanger, in which contaminated water is cooled with clean running water (in the diagram the path of recycling not shown);

4 - battery charcoal filter for runoff of contaminated water from the scrubber and other Students; the filters operate on intermittent; polluted coal is extracted from the filters and fed to the gasification in the battery DGG;

5 - automatic flow divider GTG provides regulation and stabilization of consumption TGG in diesel engine;

6 - diesel engine: diesel serial converted by well-known scheme for the purified fuel gas generator (stream THG), the combustion of which the cylinders of the diesel engine provides 80...85% of rated horsepower and 15...20% power, still, is provided by the combustion of standard diesel fuel; the launch of the diesel engine is carried out on the same diesel fuel, and then smoothly transition to dual fuel; the scheme of this module is approximately the same as in the analogue [9];

7 serial generator AC 380 V, 50 Hz), the actuator which provides the diesel engine;

8 - power substation, which provides power to all actuators STU alternating current, and low power measurement and control grid STU DC (12, 24, 36).

As an example, let us point out that for Students with a capacity of 12000 tons of granulated coal in the od (STU 12000) and annual loading of equipment 8000 hours of required electric power of the unit is estimated to be 350 kW. In addition to the electric power unit And receive and hot water with a temperature of 85...95°the heating capacity of the water - 80% of electric. Hot water boilers and heat exchangers unit And included in the overall steam system blocks a, B and the station as a whole.

The approximate ratio of heat capacity battery DGG and the output electric power of the generator is 3:1. The annual consumption of wood chips for DGG approximately 15 dense m3/kW of electric power of the electric plant. For the same example STU 12000 proportion of wood chips, spent on supply STU, will not exceed 8% of the flow of wood chips to the charcoal burning. But taking into account the needs of unit B in GTG complete consumption of the chip is about 2 times more.

In the block And disposed portion of the pyrolysis condensate fraction up to 50% of its total output, which is fed from the collecting tank 18 to the input in DGH.

A smaller part of the fuel gas generator (stream THG) output scrubber 4 exhauster (not shown) and through the divider 5 serves in a dual-fuel module, a large part of this gas stream THG, and most of the air from the output of module 1 serves to block B.

The control unit And, as with all other blocks, modules, systems, remote, carry out the remote control system.

2. Power block B - block obtain fluids for charcoal-burning, it consists of:

9 - getgenerator the regenerative type (ugh), in which the combustion air fuel gas generator (THG) from the block And, after deduction of the ow taken at station network f through automatic divider 5 of the same type as the block a, which regulates and stabilizes at the entrance to UGG costs GTG with cost accounting and non-condensable pyrolysis gases NCG and NCG supplied from receiver 16 through the mixer 17. In the mixing head of the combustion chamber (CC) UGG Autonomous path of the storage volume served part or all of the costs PRC and PRK. The ratio of oxygen and combustible components α set close to stoichiometry (α=1), but do not allow the appearance of free oxygen in the combustion products of more than 3...5% vol.; costs NCG and NCG served in UGG also regulate and stabilize using units of automation, relieving excess NCG and NCG in the network f;

10 - superheater or steam-superheater (PP, HDPE); in the baseline scheme overheated steam and steam-air mixture is performed up to 120...150°With; to reduce energy costs, provide recycling the vapor of the coolant manufacturer (OEM), leaving the MCA, with magnification up to 2,0...2,5 (relative to the initial flow OEMs)supply OEM goes through the receiver 16, the excess HTP served in TLGU, and it is discharged into the atmosphere; in the variant drying steam clean it recycling ASU is estlat with multiplicity at least 1.0, and the temperature was raised to 250°C;

11 - steam boiler (STC), the input of which is served warmed water from the block and get saturated steam and boiling water;

12 - gas-water mixer (DHW), in which the products of combustion from the output of STC if necessary Ballesteros adjustable water flow with feedback temperature to obtain the combined-cycle thermal power (PTH) at the entrance to the network M (line 13, 14, 15 and bends at ISU) at a temperature in the range 400...500°; additional ballasting adjustable water flow if necessary, is carried out in mixers-corrector 19 in the path of the filing of the VILLAGE at the entrance to each of the ICA in accordance with its program and program control temperature regimes on T1at the entrance to the area of charcoal-burning in this ICU, with feedback T1;

16 receivers for the pair, OEM and non-condensable gases;

17 - collector-mixer combustible components at the entrance to UGG;

18 - the collection vessels for the storage and supply of pyrocondensation. The total thermal power units a and B depends on the modification of the Specification. Maximum heat output blocks a and B for STU 12000 depends on the overall cycle time and τ=20 hours is approximately equal to 10 MW. Block B is recommended to perform a two-module (conventionally shown moneygreat).

3. Modules In the same type of camera modules coal is hereto (ISU), including the actual camera charcoal-burning 20 (KU), mixer-corrector 19, two of the same type condensing-separating devices 21 and 22 XU and XU and the heat exchanger-recuperator "SMT-NCG" (not shown).

4. Module G - chip feeding system in the MCA and DGG. Figure 1 presents the option of a redundant system pneumatomachi chip, comprising a hopper 29, the conveyor 30, the air fan 31 with electric drives, handout U-shaped pneumoperitoneum 32 taps at each UA with a pneumatically three position flaps-off valves 33 and dampers (dampers) 34 on taps. The elements of this system, which feeds the chips in DGG block A, in the diagram shown partially. The chip feeding system in the MCA and GGG can also be built on the basis of scraper conveyors, enclosed in rectangular boxes.

5. Module D - exhaust system raw coal from the MCA and its submission to TLGU. Figure 1 presents the option of a redundant system of pneumatic transport of coal, including pipelines 35 and 36, the fan 37 with actuators and other Drainage from the MCA and the supply of raw coal in TELGU can also be performed using a hydraulic (water wash), if a variation of the cooling-extinguishing coal water system or scraper conveyors.

6. Block E - operational warehouse chips, consisting of typical sections 23, which is selected before the lah 2...4 depending on the capacity of the Specification for coal. The capacity of each partition bulk wood chips choose within 20...40 m3. Presents the option of mechanized floors, with floor scrapers 24, movable in guides 25 gender reciprocating by means of hydraulic cylinders 26 with the cross-rippers 27 and screw 28, the screw 28 delivers the chips to log into a hopper 29 for subsequent transport of the chips in the MCM and DGG.

7. Unit W - water treatment system and distribution process water consumers STU. Unit 3 - water (from a well or from a natural reservoir), not shown.

8. Blocks And K - panel APCS STU, TLGU.

9. Block L - production line of a granulation of raw coal.

10. System (power, network) supply and disposal components:

M - filing combined-cycle thermal power (PTH), consisting of: 13 - Central line feed PGT; 14 - line filing the VILLAGE in TELGU;

15 - chimney with backburner for removal of excess PTH and SMT output of TLGU (not shown);

N - tap supply of steam or steam-air mixture (FRI or OEM) of the ICA and the ICA at the stage of drying; system recycle FRI or HTP;

supply PT or OEM in TELGU; the network subsystem N working on a clean pair, not shown;

P - removal from KSU ISU non-condensable gases (stream NCG) at the stage of endothermic pyrolysis; recycling stream NKG to increase consumption at the entrance to each KU n is not shown.

P - removal from KSU ISU non-condensable gases (stream NCG) on stage exothermic pyrolysis, calcination and cooling; network P and P can be combined;

C and T - tap pyrocondensation of the MCA, separately for the stages of endo - and exothermic pyrolysis, respectively flows PRC and PRC;

prefabricated storage tanks 18 pyrocondensation included in the block B;

F - handout highway expenditure GTG, NCG and NCG used for auxiliary thermal needs out of fuel for gas burners, air heaters, systems of heat highways with zamerzayuschie components and so on).

In figure 2 the example shows the sequence diagram of cameras charcoal-burning STU with 12 ISU. Circular timeline each KU form similar simistatin cycles with the stages: 1 - load, 2 - drying, 3 - endothermic pyrolysis, 4 - exothermic pyrolysis, 5 - calcination, 6 - cooled, 7 - unloading of raw coal. In this example, the sequence diagram for each subsequent KU shifted relative to the preceding KU 0.5 period of the fourth stage. Displacement cycles it is recommended to choose in the range from 0.5 to whole period of the fourth stage. The actual boundaries of the stage will always be somewhat blurred and will vary from preset in the sequence diagram, correction is performed using feedback for temperatures T1 and T 2at the entrance and exit sections perepilivanija in each HRSG. Option cooling-extinguishing coal water figure 2 is not shown. In this embodiment, stages 6 and 7 are combined and their total time does not exceed 0.5 hours. The disadvantage is that additional consumption of water and heavy steam discharge to the atmosphere with traces of pyrolysis products.

The scheme works as follows.

The launch of the scheme carried out by starting the program and start with a run unit And diesel fuel. After the appearance of the power carrying out inspection of all systems, heating mains, including supporting systems and tools, in the scheme of figure 1 is not shown. Carry out refueling water block W, water treatment and water supply first, in block a, and then, with a certain delay, and in other systems and units. Carry out loading of wood chips, ignition DGG in the unit and the power output at rated operating conditions already on dual fuel. Fuel gas generator output on the preview mode power (˜10...20%) block B, its system of water and steam. Carry out the loading of the chips in the KU, start the charcoal burning in the first ICU in the sequence diagram, close to the nominal, then a delay in the second ISU, etc. Uses the contours of the recycling of steam or steam-air carrier is exercised by the accumulation of pyrocondensation in prefabricated containers 18,and the non-condensable pyrolysis gases fed to the oxidation in the block B. Serves GTG, NCG and NCG in the network f, initiate cogeneration system Documentation. Gradually the whole scheme output at rated operating conditions. It is implemented in the second cycle the MCA No. 1, at the moment the overlap time of the fourth stages first and last μa, see figure 2.

In nominal mode, the station operates as follows. With cumulative warehouse, located next to the Warrants, or directly from the cutting area, within a radius of 5-10 km, according to the agreed time schedule of delivery, chips tipper technical means bring on Colds and unloaded at the operational warehouse (block E) alternately in section 23. Further, all operations are performed in an automated mode in accordance with the program of work STU and under the control of two operators console APCS out of blocks And K).

Floor scrapers 24 chips move to the transverse auger 28 section warehouse, tossing her rotary cultivator 27 and screw 28 through the hopper 29 is served on the conveyor 30, which fills the chips receiving hopper of the air compressor 31 pneumatic transport system (block G). To download chip in the MCA in the work will involve one of the two branches of the pneumatic loop pipeline 32, for example upper circuit in Fig 1, are equipped with a three position flaps-off valves 33 with pneumatic drives. All dampers which the pipeline is installed in the neutral position, not impede the movement of wood chips, except one, which overlap the section of the pipeline at the location of the removal of the chips on the specific MCA and simultaneously open the valve-gate 34 in the drain and the gate at the entrance to KU (not shown). Chips comes in sections KU, air through the auxiliary drain with drain valve and filter is discharged from the TOP to the atmosphere. The chips at the top level sections rake with hydraulic drive mounted in the lid KU. The load sections KU controlled by light sensors. They signal the valve in the outlet consistently close, tract draining blow air towards the TOP, and the valve-stopping mechanism 33 in the loop of pipeline installed in the neutral position. The supply of wood chips from a warehouse interrupts at a time determined by the sequence diagram, and the remaining chips in the loop pneumoperitoneum purge air and return in the second, the bottom of the scheme in figure 1, a hopper fan 31 of the pneumatic system, or through individual allotment balances chips served in operational silos DGG the block a in the diagram figure 1 shows only the removal of pneumoperitoneum 32).

The subsequent operation is carried out in accordance with the above description of the essential features of the method according to points 5 and 12 and 6 percentage points (a, b, C, d and e), 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. Namely: drying steam or the steam is stuffy coolant at T 1=150...250° (C or T1=120...150°respectively; endothermic pyrolysis, exothermic pyrolysis and calcination steam-cooled with T1=250...300°S, T1=300...400°C and T1=370...400°respectively; the extinguishing of raw coal with water, combine with unloading, or two-stage cooling of the raw coal in sections KU, initially steam or steam-air cooled c T1=120...150°C, and then recirculated stream of cold non-condensable gas NCG with T1=50°C. When this circular cyclopropane any two adjacent KU common sequence diagram STU mutually shifted by a value of 0.5 during their stages exothermic pyrolysis, which ensures the continuity of the allocation of Pirogov and pyrocondensation used, along with wood chips as fuel in reactors a and B of the Specification.

In winter, when the download is complete chip, prior to the main stage of drying, it is advisable to undertake a short preheating designs KU and dumping chips flue gas with T1up to 200...250°C for about 0.5 hour. To receive flue gases using an auxiliary burner and heat exchange device (1 not shown)running on fuel gas generator from the network F.

Unloading of raw coal from sections KU and feeds it into TLGU carried out, as is written above, significant elements of the device according to claim 6 (b).

All ISU (units) operate in cycles, similar to the predefined circular mission profile (see figure 2), but with feedback on T1and T2in each RL, the mapping of values by means of APCS used for the correction of the moments of the end of the heat exchange stages. The inspection is carried out according to the difference values of T1and T2that should not exceed a certain specified for this stage of the values ΔT module.

The characteristic times of stages perepilivanija depend on the parameters of the chip (dimensions, humidity, type of wood), modification KU and other factors and approximately lie within: download - 0,5...1 hour (whichever is greater - in option with the warm flue gases); drying - 5...10 hours; endothermic pyrolysis - 2...4 hours; exothermic pyrolysis - 2...4 hours; calcination of 0.5...1.0 hour; cooling of 0.5...1.0 hour; coal unloading of 0.5...1.0 hour.

To reduce the overall cycle time to the minimum of the specified range will need to intensify the heat transfer and the multiplicity recyclo, to increase the consumption of wood chips for energy supply.

For the granulation of raw coal used known methods and devices listed above. Complete workflow granulation of raw coal is in the range 2...3 hours and is mainly determined by drying the granules, thevisitor their size and moisture content.

The device of the Specification and scope of work provide a complete environmental safety, because:

- all water clogged drains cleaned in charcoal filters 4 and charcoal filters disposed in DGG block A;

- all pyrogas and pyrocondensation disposed in DGG and UGG blocks a and B a way to fire at temperatures of approximately 1000°C;

all gaseous emissions containing solid particles (ash, soot), NOx, CO and CH4, due to security conditions of their formation and schematic solutions for cleaning, oxidation, etc. that meet the requirements of the SES.

As an example, the basic absolute and specific indicators STU 12000, its key blocks, modules and systems, compliance with which ensures that Students, given the description text. Summary of key parameters STU 12000, as one of the examples of implementation of the proposed technology presented in the attached table. For Students other capacity, within the range of 5000...15000 tons of coal/year, specific technical indicators remain roughly the same as that of the STU 12000, and the absolute change in proportion to changes in costs.


The main characteristics of Autonomous bulk stations charcoal-burning capacity of 12,000 tons of coal per year (STC 1200)
DescriptionUnit value noteThe size, type, method
Charcoal burning-Multicam, simistatin at atmospheric pressure, in a circular mission profile in each cell of charcoal-burning, with a shift cycles in adjacent KU 0,5...1,0 time period stage exothermic pyrolysis.
1. The General scheme of charcoal-burning
2. Raw materials for charcoal-burning - chips, average size (the wedge shape, And××)mm30...50×30...50×0...10
3. Specific consumption of wood chips, including:dense (square)7,0
- charcoal burningM3/t coal6,0
- supplyPLM3/t PLM3/t1,0
4. The consumption of wood chips:
- APRpl. m3/year84000
- per hourpl. m3per hour10,5
5. The initial average moisture content of wood chips:
- relative%50
- absolute%100
6. Density recognize the Noah chips (mixture of species: birch, aspen, spruce, pine)t/pl. m30,845
7. Volumetric porosity of the filling chips-0,65
8. The output of saleable coal (in granules) with a calorific value of 7000 kcal/kg:
- APRt/year12000
- per hourt/h1,5
9. The grain size (D×N)mm20...30×50...75
10. The density of the granulest/m30,7
11. Number of identical, three rectangular chambers charcoal-burning (KU) STUpieces12
12. The geometry of one section KU:
- useful volume of the section (for placing chips)m320
- dimensions of section (A××)m3,5×to 2.5×2,5
13. The total time of one cycle of charcoal-burning in a typical KUwatch20,0
14. Technology stages charcoal-burning:

(1) Loading in a typical KU (operational warehouse chips);
-Pneumopathology or conveyors.
- download time of one To the watchnot more than 0,5

Table (continued 1)
DescriptionUnit value noteThe size, type, method
(2) Drying of wood chips simultaneously in 5 KU, internal heating dumping chips in versions:
pure steam (recycle pair)
- consumptiont/h (kg/s)58,1 (16,1)
- the multiplicity of recycling-1,0
hydraulic resistance dumping chipsATM

less than 0.1

the time stage (average)MW4,05
- useful heat output steam flow
- power blower (gas) in the circuit of recyclingkWthe 5.25
- Vapor mixture at a volume ratio of steam/air =1/1 (recycle coolant)
- the multiplicity of recycling-1,0
the flow of the mixture,kg/s23,4
- steam consumptionkg/(m3/(C)8,9(19,8)
- air flowkg/(m3/(C)14,5(19,8)
the temperature of the mixture°150
hydraulic resistance dumping chipsATM


the time stage (average)8...10
useful thermal capacity of the coolant flowMWto 4.62
- compressors (blowers) in the circuit of recyclingkW9,15
(3) Endothermic pyrolysis with internal heating wood chips steam-cooled (PGT):
- the number of KU, which simultaneously is the third stageunits t/h


6.87 in(1,9)
- the total consumption of the VILLAGE to the stage on all KU°200...400
the temperature of the VILLAGE at the entrance to KUwatch4,0
the time stage (average)MW0,49
- p what was the heat flow power VILLAGE
(4) Exothermic pyrolysis with internal cooling dumping coal steam-cooled (PTH), with recycling of URBAN and non-condensable pyrolysis gases with the third stage (NCG):t/h (kg/s)6.87 in(1,9)
the flow of "fresh" the VILLAGE on all KUt/h (kg/s)6.87 in(1,9)
- consumption recycling (NCG)°300...370
- temperature "fresh" VILLAGE-1,0
- the multiplicity of recyclingwatch4,0
the time stage (average)
- power blower (gas) in the circuit of recycling "NKG" one KUkW1,6

Table (continued 2)
DescriptionUnit value noteThe size, type, method
(5) calcining blowing dumping coal steam-cooled (PGT):
- consumption of the VILLAGE (in percentage consumption of the VILLAGE on the 4th stage)-0,1...0,3
the temperature of the VILLAGE at the entrance to KU°370...400
the time stage (average)watch0,5
(6 and 7) Cooling and unloading of coal from KU in a variant of "extinguishing" coal water, combined with unloading:
- water consumptionM3/h1,0
finite temperature coal°30...50
- the total time of both stages (average)watch1,0
Granulation coal
15. Similarily cycle: the removal of free water, the grinding of coal and separation of foreign bodies that enter binders (starch, etc. and mixing, extrusion granules, drying the granules, loading into the transport container.Technology traditional press rotary type
16. The full cycle time of granulationwatch3
17. The capacity of all drives technological pellet coal.kW95
18. Consumption binder (starch and other)kg/t coal20,0
19. The cost of heat transfer for drying granules (output CU):
- consumptiont/h (kg/s)1,3 (1,19)
- steam + air (1:1):
- consumptiont/h (kg/s)11,3 (3,13)
- vapor coolant:
- consumptiont/h (kg/s)of 13.75(3,82)
Self-provision of electricity and heat for technological needs STU
20. Energy for blocks a and B STU: chips (for block a)PLM3/h1,5
pyrocondensation (PRC and PRK):
to block at/h0...0,5
block Bt/h1,15 0,65...
noncondensable gases (NCG and NKG, only to part Bnm3/h≅870
21. Integral disposable heat capacity of wood gas generators (DGG, 2...3 PCs) block and recovery generators (the BIENNIUM, 2 units) block B when the integral efficiency=0,85MW9,27

Table (continued 3)
DescriptionUnit value noteThe size, type, method
22. The ratio of the air/fuel relative to stoichiometry (α=1,0):
in the combustion chamber UGG-≅1,0
in the gasification chamber DGG-<1,0
23. Thermal power of the fuel gas generator for gas and diesel driven generatorsMW1,2...1,3
24. Disposable thermal power UGG block B for the production of fluidsMW2×4,0
25. The capacity of the power plant (2 module, 380 V, f=50 Hz)kW2×200
26. Type motor drive for electric generators-Gas-diesel
27. Consumption of wood pulp gasification in DGGPLM3/h1,5
28. The flow rate of the pyrolysis condensate fraction for gasification in DGGt/h0...0,5
29. Fuel gas consumption by two powerful diesel engine is awn 200 kW at nominal mode (calorific value gas 1100 kcal/nm 3)nm3/h≅1000
30. Consumption of diesel fuel by two diesel engine with a capacity of 200 kW at nominal mode (0,038 kg/kW·h)t/year

kg/t coal
to 121.6

31. The consumption of engine oil on all units STUt/year6,5
32. Capacity cumulative stock (sticks, cut-to-length)up to 84000
33. The operational capacity of the warehouse (4 sections, storage volume chip ≅ 3.0 volume of dense wood)SCR. m3100
34. The power of the electric warehouse equipment, conveyors and crushing of the aggregate cumulative warehousekW250
35. The consumption of fresh water for all needs STUm3/hto 12.0
36. Annual loading STUwatch8000
37. Staff per shiftpeople4

Sources of information

1. Kozlov V.N., Nesvitski A.A. Technology pyrogenic processing of wood. Goslesbumizdat, M., 1954.

2. Vyrodov, VA and other Technology-chemical industries. Ed. The forest industry, M., 1987.

3. Grandin F.G. Melting on Evesham the coal at the plant of the company "Mannesmann" in Brazil. The magazine "Black metal". Ed. Metallurgy, M, January, 1994, No. 8.

4. Copyright certificates of the USSR and patents of Russia: A.S. USSR: 344728 from 05.10.70; 1171506 from 29.11.83; 1663009 from 05.08.88; 1896984 from 04.06.90; 1834277 from 27.07.96; patents EN: 2012590 (16.08.91); 2039078; 2042704; 2083633; 2088632; 2105034; 2108361; 2115689; 2124547; 2150483; 2151785; 2163249; 2166527 (or year).

5. Foreign patents: US 5551958 from 03.09.96; JP: 09137167 from 27.05.97; 09143474 from 03.06.97.

6. Internetportal Syktyvkar machine-building plant. Installation for producing charcoal (UPDO). "Parma", website: November 2002

7. Uglevyzhigatelnuyu oven Ohr-5B, far Eastern DoylesRoom, passport Izhevsk pilot plant and Komsomolsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur repair plant, 1990

8. Internetportal Finnish company SERMET and Swedish NUTEK (STEM) in the equipment for hot water boiler wood fuel, 2001. website:

9. Cubes and other V.B. have been evaluating the effectiveness of energy equipment, working on wood waste. The magazine "Forest industry", No. 2, 2002

1. Method for the production of fuel and charcoal, which includes operations of receiving raw materials to the warehouse, supply of raw materials from a warehouse in several similar modular cameras charcoal-burning (ISU, KU) periodic actions, multistage process of charcoal-burning in each HRSG at a pressure close to almost momu, includes sequentially drying of raw material, its temperature pyrolysis, calcination and cooling of the coal, the coal is discharged from KU with all KU operated simultaneously by the same type of circular mission profile, pyrolysis and calcination is performed by applying at the KU combined cycle thermal power (PTH), produced by burning a small part of the raw material supplied from a warehouse, and gas-vapor flows with phase pyrolysis withdrawn from KU, characterized in that is used as raw material chips mainly medium in size, all operations carried out in an automated mode, commodity coal get in granular form, fluids and electricity for carrying out processes drying, pyrolysis, calcination, cooling and granulating get in balance of the unit, drying of wood chips conducting superheated steam, including mixtures with air (HTP), which is fed from the unit in standalone collector network N with temperature T1at the entrance to all KU, adjustable within 120-150°With, in the network N provide recycling HTP on a "unit - set RL-unit" with a ratio of 2.0 to 2.5 and allotment of excess HTP from the network N to the processing line of a granulation of raw coal (TLGU) for drying granules, phase pyrolysis divided into two endothermic and exothermic, for stages of pyrolysis and calcination coal-cheese is and commodity pellets using gas-vapor coolant (PTH), produced in the unit for stand-alone collector network M with a given initial temperature T0within 400-500°at the entrance to balance the supply line to the VILLAGE this network with branches on every KU or TLGU, at the entrance to each KU and TLGU temperature IHT is reduced to a specified program management level T1entering exhaust stream VILLAGE water flow, adjustable feedback for T1for endothermic phase pyrolysis T1set within 250-300°With, for exothermic stage - T1within 350-400°for calcining raw coal and pellets - T1within 370-400°and controlling the temperature T1and the temperature of the gas-vapor flows T2the output from KU and drying chambers, TLGU, upon reaching the approximate equality T1with T2determine the moment of actual completion stages of drying, pyrolysis, calcination and cooling, the validity of the transition to the next stage or operation, the necessity of correction times issue commands on a typical mission profile of this KU or drying chambers, TLGU, the flow of the VILLAGE away together with the products of pyrolysis are two Autonomous paths, in addition to the idler path network N (vapor coolant), the first path uses on stage endothermic pyrolysis and the second stages of the exothermic piroli is a, baking and cooling, both streams are separately cooled in a water heat exchangers-condensers, served on the separators, the output of which flows non-condensable gases, respectively NCG and NCG separate current collector grids P and P or on the public network through the receivers and stabilizers flow is directed to partial combustion in the unit costs NCG and NCG at the entrance to the unit stabilizes, the excess is directed to a network f on the heating needs of the plant, from the output of the separators flows pyrocondensation (PRC and PRK) sent for incineration and gasification in the unit, from the network NCG part of the flow using the scheme with recycling for the final cooling of the coal in RL, after the first stage of cooling steam, cutting off at this stage finish filing the VILLAGE and the OEM of the networks M and N in this KU, part of the flow PRK if necessary, away from the collector network T, from its team's capacity for use as a binder in the granulation of the raw coal or as a trademark intermediate.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the circular timeline each KU shift time so that the end stage exothermic pyrolysis in each KU coincides roughly with the beginning of this stage in the adjacent KU or blocked it by up to half the time period of this stage and to meet this John is erval offset circular cyclograms related KU their total number as part of the Specification chosen in the range from 6 to 20, preferably 10-12.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the unit STU is made of two parts - a and B, while in the unit And carry out the gasification of wood chips in an amount of about 5-10% of its expenditure on charcoal burning, which is conducted together with the costs of pyrocondensation PRC and PRC, and the fuel gas generator (GTG) after cooling and cleaning (ash, soot, and other) using automatic divider divided into two streams and less stabilized divider part - TGG, up to 20% of the total consumption, direct gas-diesel power plant unit A, and the rest of the flow TGG sent in block B, where it is also using an automatic divider divided into two streams, its lower part is up to 20% of the total consumption TGG, is sent to the network f on the heating needs of the Students, and most of the stabilized part is directed to partial combustion with threads NCG and NCG in the reducing gas generator (VHG) to obtain a combined cycle thermal power (PTH) for the network M, the temperature lowers to a predetermined program in a consistent system of units in steam and/or vapor the superheaters (PP and HDPE), steam and water boiler (STC) and in the gas mixer (DHW), of which the first three - PP, PVP and PVA, give superheated steam, PVP for the network N and the hot water system of the heat collector networks and other what their needs STU, and DHW provide the VILLAGE with a given initial temperature T0at the entrance to balance the supply line to the VILLAGE network M within 400-500°regulating its due to the introduction of water into the flow of the VILLAGE at the output of STC, the flow of which is controlled with feedback on T0.

4. The device is large-scale production of fuel and charcoal for the implementation of the method according to claims 1 to 3, including the warehouses of raw materials and commodity coal, engineering, supply of raw materials in camera charcoal-burning (KU) and furnace unit or units, the set of modular cameras charcoal-burning (ISU), technical means for unloading coal from the MCA and its storage, characterized in that the device is enabled automated warehouse chips, divided into 2-6 similar sections with capacity of each on bulk wood chips 20-40 m3and these sections through intermediate bunkers and the scraper system of containers and/or elevators are connected with two bunkers air fan drives, which is connected handout U-shaped pipeline with branches for each ICA, which are posted on the site Students in two parallel rows or in a circle, and tap on the unit, the loop of the pipeline at the point of taps at ISU installed pneumatically three-position rotary valve cut off, is in the bends - two-position valve, near the pipeline and at the entrance to the MCA and the MCA for route of filing and receiving chips in the TOP one-, two-, three-section with the volume of each section to accommodate the chips within 10-20 m3from the top section closed common or separate sealed covers, and the bottom has a supporting neprovalnoy bars with drop-down doors, under which is placed a common gas manifold for supplying the coolant, and below is shared or partitioned hopper, equipped with augers and gateways for unloading raw coal in an external pneumatic or hydro-product pipeline supply of raw coal in TELGU, in the upper part of the TOP or cover is made of three main Autonomous drainage pocketcache valves at the inlet, of which the first is connected to the plant network PVP - network N through the receiver it is connected to the input of the PVP block B, the output of which PVP is served in the inlet manifold of fluids each ICU and at the entrance to TLGU, second and third branches of the MCA is connected respectively to the first and second condensing-separating devices XU and XU, gas outputs which are connected to a standalone station networks P and P non-condensable gas streams NGC and NCG respectively, or to the public network, having in its composition receivers and stabilizers costs NCG and NKG, with what herauskam of excess capacity in the network f of cogeneration system, as the liquid exits XU and XU connected to a stand-alone station networks and Tons of pyrocondensation, threads PRC and PRC respectively, which included teams capacity of these networks, intended for subsequent submission to the GOK for combustion and gasification in the unit, in addition, for the final cooling of the coal in each ICU provides the outline of the recycle stream NKG 2 enter it in the input gas manifold coolant KU and with the conclusion of the KU through the third gas-vapor outlet at the other closed carts and outlets, there is also diversion of part of the flow PRK from the appropriate team of network capacity T to the warehouse and (or) to feed into the mixer, TLGU as a binder for molding granules.

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the block And modular design of mine DGG, in their upper zone around the charging port (gateway)introduced the collector irrigation chips by pyrolysis condensate fraction and all of these collectors are connected to the collecting tanks, sewer networks and Tons of pyrocondensation PRC and PRC, in addition, the block And the output flow of contaminated water from the scrubber module cleaning GTG connected to the input station in the battery charcoal filters, and the output GTG from the scrubber module has an adjustable flow divider GTG, one output of which is connected to the gas in the ode diesel power unit And, the second is connected with the block B, in which the supply line GTG has a similar, both in unit And adjustable flow divider GTG, one output of which is connected to the mixer at the entrance to the combustion chamber of the gas generator VGG, and the second to the entrance of the collector network f fuel gas for cogeneration systems Documentation.


Same patents:

FIELD: refining of hydrocarbon oils by electric or magnetic means, by irradiation or by using microorganisms, particularly for complex oil conditioning.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises level sensor connected with control valve through regulator. The valve is installed in water discharge line, which draws water from separator sump. The water level sensor is located in vertical expanded section of pressure water pipe having lower end arranged in water accumulation area. The water level sensor is connected to the regulator. Signal characterizing predetermined water level in pressure water pipe is supplied to the second input of water level sensor. Regulator input is connected to control valve installed in water discharge line. Upper part of pressure water pipe is linked to gas zone of separator sump through gas equalizing line.

EFFECT: increased quality and reliability of process control due to increased accuracy of parameter to be regulated measuring.

1 dwg

FIELD: sugar making industry branch, possibly automatic control of clarification of raw sugar material.

SUBSTANCE: method for automatic control of clarification of sugar by means of sugar-containing solution in successively joined auger and horizontal sectional clarifying agitator at supplying sugar to auger comprises steps of controlling flow rate of sugar-containing solution to clarifying agitator depending upon concentration of dry matters in clarified product; supplying to auger catholyte with pH 10 - 11.5 and feeding to first section of clarifying agitator milk of lime; controlling flow rate of catholyte in such a way that in those section of clarifying agitator where clarifying process is going on for 4 - 6 min concentration of dry matters is in range 12 -18% and controlling flow rate of milk of lime in such a way that pH in the same section is in range 10.8 - 11.5; supplying sugar- containing solution to next sections of clarifying agitator along motion direction of sugar in it; measuring concentration of dry matters in order to control flow rate of sugar-containing solution in last section of clarifying agitator. Automatic control system for controlling clarification of sugar in successively joined auger and horizontal sectional agitator includes circuit for stabilizing concentration of dry matters of clarified product with use of pickup for measuring concentration of dry matters. Auger is provided with branch pipes for feeding catholyte into it. Clarifying agitator includes branch pipe for feeding lime of milk to first section. Pickup for measuring concentration of dry matters is arranged in last section of clarifying agitator. System includes in addition circuit for controlling quality of clarification having pickups for measuring pH and concentration of dry matters, both placed in one section of clarifying agitator and pickup for measuring catholyte flow rate; regulators and valves. One valve is mounted inline for feeding milk of lime and other valve is mounted inline for feeding catholyte.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sugar clarification due to favorable conditions for decomposing reducing compounds, improved stability of concentration of clarified product.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; control over processes of production of polyethers and demulsifying agents on their basis.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the methods of control over the chemical-technological processes of production of polyethers and demulsifying agents on their basis. The method of control over process of production of the alkaline polyethers and demulsifying agents is conducted in the mixers and in the reactor-etherificator at realization of reaction of the oxypropropylation and oxyethylation with utilization of the allocated zones of regulation and contours of circulation of the reaction mixture. Conduct corrective actions of control over the steam and a condensate consumption moisture and at that additionally install a can with a bubbler for a polyether and a detector of methanol consumption, a reactants stirring device, sensor units of consumptions, measuring tools and other equipment. For production of demulsifying agents from polyethers use cans with stirring devices with measurers and batchers components, screens for removal salts and the mechanical impurities, connected by corresponding pipelines with formation of contours of circulation of the reaction mixture equipped by means of measuring and control. The technical result is formation of the interrelated process control of production of polyethers and demulsifying agents. The invention allows to reduce power inputs and to expand the assortment of the produced products.

EFFECT: the invention allows to form the interrelated process control of production of polyethers and demulsifying agents, to reduce power inputs and to expand the assortment of the produced products.

3 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg

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EFFECT: higher precision, higher efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: control and monitor system for oil product discharge with the use of circulation heating systems, particularly in terminal station of petroleum storage depot.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining temperature of outer tank car wall by measuring thereof in lower tank car case portion, which is the nearest to tank car bottom; comparing the measured temperature with one estimated from heat calculations performed with the use of control computer. The temperature is calculated from well-known correlations with taking into consideration previously measured temperature of ambient air and wind velocity, technical characteristics of tank cars, physical properties of oil product to be discharged and air.

EFFECT: increased efficiency due to reduced amount of residual oil product and reduced flow rate of heating agent due to determining time point optimal for heater deactivation.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: building equipment, namely apparatuses for controlling process of heat treatment of concrete, possibly automatic control of manufacturing process at construction of monolithic houses.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes heaters for heating placed concrete mixture, pickups for detecting concrete mixture temperature, temperature regulator that limits temperature of surface layer of concrete and in addition it includes pickups for detecting temperature of outer air and wind speed, pickups for detecting concrete temperature in zones of its contact with heaters, concrete strength pickup and second temperature regulator. First temperature regulator controls temperature of heat transfer agent of outer board and second temperature regulator controls temperature of inner board.

EFFECT: possibility for creating optimal conditions for setting concrete.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry branch, possibly processes that may be realized only at keeping accurate relation of initial components.

SUBSTANCE: automatic starting of manufacturing plant is realized according to predetermined algorithm with use of controller on base of microprocessor system. At first preset flow rates of components in starting pipelines of reactor, of plug or of sanitary system are set with use of flow rate regulators. Then operation mode of said regulators is changed to automatic one. Then flows of components are fed with the aid of cut off valves controlled by means of controller. Conditions simulating hydrodynamic mode of plant are realized in starting pipelines at time moment of feeding components.

EFFECT: enhanced safety of process at time moment of starting plant.

4 dwg

FIELD: biotechnology and microbiological industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns governing periodical air-intake biotechnological process carried out in bioreactor. Method comprises measuring oxygen content in effluent gas, working volume of culture medium, concentration of biomass, and concentration of intermediate product of its vital activity. Measured parameters allow specific oxygen consumption rate and velocity of intermediate product concentration change to be determined to enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration, supplying nutritional medium, and agitating culture medium. Moreover, temperature of culture medium, temperature of supplied and withdrawn cooling agent, and consumption of the latter are measured to use these parameters for determining biomass heat release rate and velocity of intermediate product amount change. The two latter parameters enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration and supplying nutritional medium. The following characteristics are thus improved: elevating power by 8.1%, maltase activity by 7.9% and resistance by 7.4%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of governing biotechnological process and improved qualitative characteristics of process.

2 ex

FIELD: automatic malting process.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing continuous malting process in rotating drum; measuring and stabilizing temperature of malt by changing air flow rate for cooling of grain under germination procedure; additionally measuring malt moisture content and regulating it depending on changing of malt moisture content as compared to set values by changing water supply for grain moistening during germination process; also, regulating water supply for cooling air and correcting changing of air flow rate for cooling of grain under germination process depending on changed temperature of malt as compared to set values.

EFFECT: improved quality of malt and optimized controlling of malting process.

1 dwg

FIELD: operative manufacture planning.

SUBSTANCE: method is based on use of computer system, including an optimizer, tables for selection of goal function, block for determination of optimization method. Database for recording inputted information and received results is used as well as block for importing data concerning initial state of reservoir fleet and mixing task. Graphic user interface is used to indicate and alter current data during creation of timetable, parameters for optimizer adjustment and indication of textual and graphical system reports. Block for controlling trustworthiness of initial data for forming the best timetable, block for generation of optimization task matrix and block for interpretation of results of optimization task solution are used. Data concerning amount of components, admixtures and product oils in all mixing reservoirs at the moment of beginning of timetable creation, concerning planned tasks for readiness of product oils at certain time moment in accordance to shipment graph, concerning mixing receipts and certification time for each oil, concerning mixing time and readjustment of mixing reservoir during transfer from one oil type to another, concerning speed of feeding of each component and admixture from appropriate reservoirs, concerning configuration of area of mixing and amount of mixing reservoirs are all transferred to computer system from data import block. After check of physical possibility, linear programming matrix is generated for use by optimizer, which automatically selects an optimization method for determination of the best timetable, which is interpreted in form of series of mixing of given product oils, beginning and ending time for each mixing, transfer of each component and admixture from appropriate reservoirs for mixing of each oil, beginning and ending time for feeding of prepared oil directly after mixing and certification into appropriate product reservoir, time of switching feeding of component after filling of one component reservoir to another by results interpretation block.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; production of titanium, silicon and phosphorus.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading the blanks into resistance batch-type furnace for graphitization of electrode blanks. Carbonic material, anthracite for example is used as charge. Carbonic material is charged into peripheral and central zones of furnace separately; peripheral zone is loaded with material subjected to preliminary heat treatment. Heat treatment of material is performed due to heat liberated by blanks in the course of passage of electric current through them during graphitization process. Rate of temperature rise does not exceed 25°C/h within range of 400-900°C. During unloading the material from furnace, carbonic material is separated by quality due to separate unloading from central and peripheral zones of furnace.

EFFECT: reduced power requirements; improved quality of material and enhanced homogeneity.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: plants for reworking carbon-containing raw materials by means of pyrogenesis; reworking of non-ground automotive-tractor tires.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes circular pyrolysis chamber, heating gas supply and discharge branch pipes, pyrolysis product discharge unit, gas generator working on commercial carbon and combustion chamber made in form of several shells equipped with spiral plates for turbulization of heating gas; shells of combustion chamber are mounted on the outside and inside of non-detachable circular pyrolysis chamber which is turnable around horizontal axis by means of bearing unit and winch; it is used for loading non-ground automotive-tractor tires.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of pyrolysis.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Charcoal kiln // 2256686

FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

1 dwg

The invention relates to the field of processing solids polymer structure, in particular carbohydrate or hydrocarbon, with the aim of obtaining energy and various fuels

The invention relates to the field of pyrolysis of wood and its waste and other raw materials containing organic substances

The invention relates to the field of control automation pyrolysis of wood in a mobile uglevyzhigatelnuyu furnaces

The invention relates to the field of producing charcoal in chemical production

The invention relates to the field of processing liquid organic substances in the liquid and gaseous fuel, in particular, to technology and technology pyrolytic conversion of hydrocarbon oils

The invention relates to equipment in the chemical industry, in particular to a device for producing charcoal from wood or plant materials in Kuskovo form

The invention relates to the field of thermal processing of shredded wood waste or peat briquettes in a clean producer gas plants with steam-blown in the forest, turf, agriculture, etc

Charcoal kiln // 2256686

FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

1 dwg