Method of noncontact dynamic monitoring of rolling stock wheels parameters

FIELD: transport engineering; rail vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring facilities and it can be used for checking condition of rail vehicle wheels 1. According to propose method, axle-box of wheel 1 to be checked and rail 3 with contrast mark 9 are exposed to flow of radiation, and image is received by radiation receiver. Radiator and matrix receiver are placed at a distance from rail track. Axle box and rail are irradiated with flow in form of train of short pulses with frequency proportional to wheel speed. Position of maximum of correlation functions obtained at correlation of standard fragment of image of axle box or rail mark with image in current frame is determined and changes in radii and parameters of wheel are judged by changes of vertical coordinates of maxima of correlation functions of axle boxes and rail in image frames.

EFFECT: improved reliability, enlarged functional capabilities.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used to control the technical condition of the wheels of rolling stock.

A known method of monitoring the surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles (patent RU № 2122956, the IPC 61 K 9/12).

The method is based on forming a raster of M spaced along the direction of motion of the wheel of the fan of rays N rays in each fan, irradiation at the time of measuring wheelset, reception of the reflected beams with M·L photodetectors, the measurement of time intervals between M·N·L responses of the photodetectors and dimensioning Tolerancing wheelset from the reference shape by comparing the measured interval with a known distribution of values of the intervals for the reference form.

The disadvantages of the above control method are its sensitivity to the weight of the car, vibration and temperature change. In addition, the implementation of the method involves changing the design of railway track, which leads to a decrease in its strength.

Closest to the proposed method is a method of non-contact dynamic control wear of the wheels of the rolling stock (patent RU № 2147729, IPC G 01 11/24, 61 K 9/12).

The method consists in the fact that during degeneralization composition is irradiated with controlled surface rolling wheels and the crest of the optical beam in a sequence of short pulses of a certain frequency and receive the reflected picture of the photodetector, radiator with focusing the luminous flux optics, matrix photodetector lens placed on a common ground, stabilize the spatial position of the optical axes of the transmitter and receiver, thereby providing the possibility of control. The frequency of the light pulses is specified by the value proportional to the speed of the wheel, which is determined by the amount of movement contrast image elements of the wheels on the photodetector matrix for a certain period of time. On the lateral surface of the rail, put the accent mark in the form of narrow strips, the delay of the signal from the tag is judged about the changes in the height of the rail head and the difference of the received light sequence, adjusted the height of the rail head relative to the optical axes of the emitter and receiver, and the reference light sequence means is judged on the degree of wear of the working profile of the rolling surface of the wheel.

The characteristics of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed invention are radiation element of the controlled wheel (in the prototype of the wheel rolling surface) radiation flux as a sequence of short pulses with a pulse frequency modulation proportional to the speed of the wheel, the reception of the reflected pattern of the radiation receiver and the Oia, the premise contrast marks on the side of the rail.

For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known method adopted for the prototype include:

- low informative way, as the control wheel is only one section, and, therefore, no way to control the out of round wheel, i.e. to detect Navara, floaters, and other defects, leading to shock loads on the wheel pair;

- the complexity of the design of the device that implements the specified method associated with the need to stabilize the spatial position of the optical axes of the emitter and the receiver.

low operational reliability of the method, which is a consequence of the proximity of the transmitter and receiver to the railway track and the strong influence of external influencing factors (dust, water, snow).

Proposed by the authors, the invention sets itself the following objectives:

- contactless dynamic control of parameters of railway wheel around the entire circumference;

- simplify the design by eliminating the need for stabilization of the spatial position of the optical axes of the emitter and the receiver.

- improved reliability of the control.

During implementation of the invention can be who learned the following technical result: operational, highly reliable, non-contact monitoring of wear of the wheel around the perimeter (ovality, Navara, slider).

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by the fact that in the present method contactless dynamic control parameters of the wheels of the rolling stock is irradiated buxu controlled wheel and the rail, take the reflected picture of the light receiver, the emitter driver of the flux matrix and the receiver lens is placed at a distance from the track. On the lateral surface of the rail, put the accent mark. Buxu controlled wheel and the rail is irradiated by the radiation flux in the form of a sequence of short pulses of a certain frequency, the frequency modulation set value proportional to the speed of the wheels, which determine, in part, on the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays that contain contrasting elements for a certain period of time. The value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays determined by the difference between the horizontal coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with images of two successive frames. Determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions, p is obtainable in the correlation between the reference image slice pan with the image in the current frame, determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference slice image of the rail containing the image contrast marks, with the image in the current frame, the change in vertical coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions of the axle boxes and rails in frames of images are judged on changes of the radius of the wheel, and hence the wheel parameters.

Distinctive features of the prototype features are: placement of radiation source and radiation receiver away from the track, the irradiation by the radiation source overlays controlled wheel and rail, the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with the image in the current frame, determining the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference slice image of the rail containing the image contrast marks, with the image in the current frame. To change the vertical coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions of the axle boxes and rails in frames of images are judged on changes of the radius of the wheel, and, consequently, the parameters of the wheel. The speed of the wheel is determined by the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays that contain contrasting elements for a certain elapsed the time, and the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays determined by the difference between the horizontal coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with images of two successive frames.

The achievement of the technical result is possible due to the removal of the irradiating and receiving systems at a considerable distance from the railway (rail), pulsed nature of the radiation with frequency depending on the speed of the motion, correlation methods, data processing, and then calculate the profile of the test surface based on the calculation of the coordinates of the maxima of the correlation function.

The invention is illustrated figure 1-4, where figure 1 presents a diagram of the device that implements the inventive method; figure 2 - image of the radiation detector; figure 3 - reference slice image overlays; figure 4 - reference slice image of the rail.

The implementation of the method proposed, for example, in the device represented in figure 1.

The wheel 1, the parameters of which are controlled by, associated with panel Jack 2, rolls along the rail 3. Away from the rail is a pulsed light source 4 with a shaper of the light flux 5 and matrix photodetector 6 and lens 7 and the optical Phi is trom 8. In the field of view of the lens 7 are wheel 1 with panel Jack 2, rails 3 coated with a contrasting line 9. The output matrix of the photodetector 6 is connected to the input of the input device 10. The output of the input device 10 is connected to the input of the computer 11. The output of the computer 11 is connected to the input of a synchronization device 12. The first output of the synchronization device 12 is connected with the light source 4, the second output of the synchronization device 12 is connected to the control input of the photodetector 6.

Presented in figure 1, the device operates in accordance with the inventive method, as follows.

The source of infrared radiation 4, located at some distance from the railroad tracks, irradiates pulsed radiation flux wheel 1 with panel Jack 2 and rails 3 with marked accent mark 9. Shaper radiation 5 forms the directivity of the radiation flux so that Buchs 2 and rails 3 with contrasting label 9 is uniformly irradiated on the path L, equal to the full scan wheelset

where DKthe diameter of the wheel tread surface.

Reflected radiation from the pan 2 and rails 3 with mark 9 through the optical filter 8, the blocking external parasitic light, through the lens 7 is projected onto the receiving space of the matrix of the radiation detector of the camera 6, the adjacent istochnikom radiation 4. Registered during the radiation pulse, the image of Fi,jcamera 6 (figure 2) is read using the input device 10 to the computer 11. In memory of the computer 11 of the pre-recorded reference image slices Gi,jaxle box 2 (figure 3) and Hi,jrail 3 with a marked accent mark 9 (figure 4). During reception of the next frame of the image computer 11 is correlation [Shibasoku. Radio circuits and signals. - M, High school, 1983] registered digital image Fi,jwith the reference image Gi,j

where Kl,kdiscrete correlation function;

l, k - coordinates of the correlation function;

i, j coordinates in the image;

M×N is the size of the reference image of the fragment of the axle box 2, in pixels.

Also, the computation of the discrete correlation functionregistered image Fi,jwith a reference image of Hi,j

where- correlation function depends only on the vertical coordinate offset rail 3 with accent mark 9;

q - the vertical coordinate of the correlation function;

And×the size of the reference image portion of the rail 3 with contrasting label 9.

contrasta label is applied to increase the sharpness of the correlation peak.

The change in the vertical coordinates Δkmaxthe maximum of the correlation function To al,kdirectly proportional to the change in the vertical position overlays

where α - magnification optical system.

In turn, changes the vertical coordinates pan ΔyBincludes the change of the radius of the wheel ΔRKat the point of contact of the wheel with the rail and the deflection of the rail at this point ΔyP.

The magnitude of the deflection of the rail ΔyPdirectly proportional to the change in the vertical coordinates of the maximum of the correlation function

From expressions (4-6) is determined by the current change of the radius of the wheel ΔRTodue to the presence of defects in the form of a wheel,

Similar operations are performed with subsequent image frames of the wheel 1 with panel Jack 2 and rails 3 with accent mark 9 until the wheel 1 is located on a plot of L.

During the horizontal movement of the axle box 2, associated with the movement of the composition and vertical movement of axle boxes on the rail 3, is associated with the presence of defects in the wheel according to the results of processing all image frames Fi,jobtained during the passage of section L, is constructed for aImost where ϕK- the angle of rotation of the wheel, ϕKtakes discrete values in the range of angles 0-360° incrementwhere n is the number of frames that were captured during the passage of section L; n is the value specified and is determined by the minimum size of detectable defects of wheels, usually n≥50 [US patent No. 20030103216].

To the number of frames n, required to register full sweep of the wheel 1 on the roll surface was constant at different speed trains, it is necessary to change the frequency of recorded frames fKDa consequently, the frequency of pulse irradiation fandproportional to the speed of composition

where V is the velocity of the stock;

LKDthe path traversed by the composition at the time between frames.

With a sufficiently high accuracy, we can assume that V=const on the interval L.

The speed of the composition is determined by changing the horizontal coordinates of the axle box 2 for the time ΔT1,2between the first and second frames of images from the camera 6

where l1max, l2maxthe coordinates of the maxima of the correlation function To al,kon the horizontal axis respectively in the first and second frames.

The time between frames ΔT1,2is determined by the initial is the average frame rate

wherewhere Vcf- the average speed of trains on the control plot (determined on the basis of statistical data).

The pulse duration of the radiation from the source 4 is set to the minimum blur image in the camera (1 pixel).

Thus, the computer 11 during the first and second frames is the determination of the velocity V of the composition on the control plot. After determining the velocity V of the composition, the computer 11 generates trigger signals for synchronisation unit 12 with a frequency proportional to the speed V, in accordance with (8).

A synchronisation unit 12 generates the duration and level of the pulses of the external triggering of the camera 6 and the infrared ray source 4 and the radiation pulses are generated during the signal accumulation on the chamber 6.

As the matrix of the radiation receiver 6 in the device can be used CCD camera Hitachi KP-M1AP, resolution 795×596 pixels, with a pixel size of 11×11 μm. For reception of the infrared signal, it is necessary to remove the optical filter installed in the camera before photodetector matrix. The camera can be installed at a distance of about 6 m from the railway track.

As the input device 10 can be used framegrabber Leutron Vsion PicPort Mono H4.

The radiation source 4 can be made of the infrared diodes type ICP-84/30-940 [http://microvideo.ru/ir/illuminators/illum_ikp84_940.htm] with a wavelength of 940 nm, which includes the imaging unit of radiation flux 5.

Filter infrared radiation, reducing external parasitic light, can be made from glass, mark the COP-19.

A synchronisation unit 12 can be performed on the timer type CREW, TO-BCOT-85 [http://www.vniiki.ni/].

1. The method of non-contact dynamic control parameters of the wheels of the rolling stock, namely, that put the accent mark on the side surface of the rail, irradiated element of the controlled wheels radiation flux as a sequence of short pulses, the frequency of the pulse modulation specify a value proportional to the speed of the wheels, take the reflected picture of the radiation detector, wherein the radiation source and the radiation detector is placed at some distance from the track, the light source is irradiated buxu controlled wheel and the rail, determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with the image in the current frame, determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image fragment rail, the soda is containing the image contrast marks, with the image in the current frame, the change in vertical coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions of the axle boxes and rails in frames of images are judged on changes of the radius of the wheel, and consequently the wheel parameters.

2. The method of non-contact dynamic control parameters of the wheels of the rolling stock according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of the wheel is determined by the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays that contain contrasting elements for a certain period of time, the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays determined by the difference between the horizontal coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with images of two successive frames.



 

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