Method of noncontact dynamic monitoring of rolling stock wheels parameters
FIELD: transport engineering; rail vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring facilities and it can be used for checking condition of rail vehicle wheels 1. According to propose method, axle-box of wheel 1 to be checked and rail 3 with contrast mark 9 are exposed to flow of radiation, and image is received by radiation receiver. Radiator and matrix receiver are placed at a distance from rail track. Axle box and rail are irradiated with flow in form of train of short pulses with frequency proportional to wheel speed. Position of maximum of correlation functions obtained at correlation of standard fragment of image of axle box or rail mark with image in current frame is determined and changes in radii and parameters of wheel are judged by changes of vertical coordinates of maxima of correlation functions of axle boxes and rail in image frames.
EFFECT: improved reliability, enlarged functional capabilities.
2 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used to control the technical condition of the wheels of rolling stock.
A known method of monitoring the surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles (patent RU № 2122956, the IPC 61 K 9/12).
The method is based on forming a raster of M spaced along the direction of motion of the wheel of the fan of rays N rays in each fan, irradiation at the time of measuring wheelset, reception of the reflected beams with M·L photodetectors, the measurement of time intervals between M·N·L responses of the photodetectors and dimensioning Tolerancing wheelset from the reference shape by comparing the measured interval with a known distribution of values of the intervals for the reference form.
The disadvantages of the above control method are its sensitivity to the weight of the car, vibration and temperature change. In addition, the implementation of the method involves changing the design of railway track, which leads to a decrease in its strength.
Closest to the proposed method is a method of non-contact dynamic control wear of the wheels of the rolling stock (patent RU № 2147729, IPC G 01 11/24, 61 K 9/12).
The method consists in the fact that during degeneralization composition is irradiated with controlled surface rolling wheels and the crest of the optical beam in a sequence of short pulses of a certain frequency and receive the reflected picture of the photodetector, radiator with focusing the luminous flux optics, matrix photodetector lens placed on a common ground, stabilize the spatial position of the optical axes of the transmitter and receiver, thereby providing the possibility of control. The frequency of the light pulses is specified by the value proportional to the speed of the wheel, which is determined by the amount of movement contrast image elements of the wheels on the photodetector matrix for a certain period of time. On the lateral surface of the rail, put the accent mark in the form of narrow strips, the delay of the signal from the tag is judged about the changes in the height of the rail head and the difference of the received light sequence, adjusted the height of the rail head relative to the optical axes of the emitter and receiver, and the reference light sequence means is judged on the degree of wear of the working profile of the rolling surface of the wheel.
The characteristics of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed invention are radiation element of the controlled wheel (in the prototype of the wheel rolling surface) radiation flux as a sequence of short pulses with a pulse frequency modulation proportional to the speed of the wheel, the reception of the reflected pattern of the radiation receiver and the Oia, the premise contrast marks on the side of the rail.
For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known method adopted for the prototype include:
- low informative way, as the control wheel is only one section, and, therefore, no way to control the out of round wheel, i.e. to detect Navara, floaters, and other defects, leading to shock loads on the wheel pair;
- the complexity of the design of the device that implements the specified method associated with the need to stabilize the spatial position of the optical axes of the emitter and the receiver.
low operational reliability of the method, which is a consequence of the proximity of the transmitter and receiver to the railway track and the strong influence of external influencing factors (dust, water, snow).
Proposed by the authors, the invention sets itself the following objectives:
- contactless dynamic control of parameters of railway wheel around the entire circumference;
- simplify the design by eliminating the need for stabilization of the spatial position of the optical axes of the emitter and the receiver.
- improved reliability of the control.
During implementation of the invention can be who learned the following technical result: operational, highly reliable, non-contact monitoring of wear of the wheel around the perimeter (ovality, Navara, slider).
This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by the fact that in the present method contactless dynamic control parameters of the wheels of the rolling stock is irradiated buxu controlled wheel and the rail, take the reflected picture of the light receiver, the emitter driver of the flux matrix and the receiver lens is placed at a distance from the track. On the lateral surface of the rail, put the accent mark. Buxu controlled wheel and the rail is irradiated by the radiation flux in the form of a sequence of short pulses of a certain frequency, the frequency modulation set value proportional to the speed of the wheels, which determine, in part, on the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays that contain contrasting elements for a certain period of time. The value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays determined by the difference between the horizontal coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with images of two successive frames. Determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions, p is obtainable in the correlation between the reference image slice pan with the image in the current frame, determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference slice image of the rail containing the image contrast marks, with the image in the current frame, the change in vertical coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions of the axle boxes and rails in frames of images are judged on changes of the radius of the wheel, and hence the wheel parameters.
Distinctive features of the prototype features are: placement of radiation source and radiation receiver away from the track, the irradiation by the radiation source overlays controlled wheel and rail, the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with the image in the current frame, determining the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference slice image of the rail containing the image contrast marks, with the image in the current frame. To change the vertical coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions of the axle boxes and rails in frames of images are judged on changes of the radius of the wheel, and, consequently, the parameters of the wheel. The speed of the wheel is determined by the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays that contain contrasting elements for a certain elapsed the time, and the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays determined by the difference between the horizontal coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with images of two successive frames.
The achievement of the technical result is possible due to the removal of the irradiating and receiving systems at a considerable distance from the railway (rail), pulsed nature of the radiation with frequency depending on the speed of the motion, correlation methods, data processing, and then calculate the profile of the test surface based on the calculation of the coordinates of the maxima of the correlation function.
The invention is illustrated figure 1-4, where figure 1 presents a diagram of the device that implements the inventive method; figure 2 - image of the radiation detector; figure 3 - reference slice image overlays; figure 4 - reference slice image of the rail.
The implementation of the method proposed, for example, in the device represented in figure 1.
The wheel 1, the parameters of which are controlled by, associated with panel Jack 2, rolls along the rail 3. Away from the rail is a pulsed light source 4 with a shaper of the light flux 5 and matrix photodetector 6 and lens 7 and the optical Phi is trom 8. In the field of view of the lens 7 are wheel 1 with panel Jack 2, rails 3 coated with a contrasting line 9. The output matrix of the photodetector 6 is connected to the input of the input device 10. The output of the input device 10 is connected to the input of the computer 11. The output of the computer 11 is connected to the input of a synchronization device 12. The first output of the synchronization device 12 is connected with the light source 4, the second output of the synchronization device 12 is connected to the control input of the photodetector 6.
Presented in figure 1, the device operates in accordance with the inventive method, as follows.
The source of infrared radiation 4, located at some distance from the railroad tracks, irradiates pulsed radiation flux wheel 1 with panel Jack 2 and rails 3 with marked accent mark 9. Shaper radiation 5 forms the directivity of the radiation flux so that Buchs 2 and rails 3 with contrasting label 9 is uniformly irradiated on the path L, equal to the full scan wheelset
where DKthe diameter of the wheel tread surface.
Reflected radiation from the pan 2 and rails 3 with mark 9 through the optical filter 8, the blocking external parasitic light, through the lens 7 is projected onto the receiving space of the matrix of the radiation detector of the camera 6, the adjacent istochnikom radiation 4. Registered during the radiation pulse, the image of Fi,jcamera 6 (figure 2) is read using the input device 10 to the computer 11. In memory of the computer 11 of the pre-recorded reference image slices Gi,jaxle box 2 (figure 3) and Hi,jrail 3 with a marked accent mark 9 (figure 4). During reception of the next frame of the image computer 11 is correlation [Shibasoku. Radio circuits and signals. - M, High school, 1983] registered digital image Fi,jwith the reference image Gi,j
where Kl,kdiscrete correlation function;
l, k - coordinates of the correlation function;
i, j coordinates in the image;
M×N is the size of the reference image of the fragment of the axle box 2, in pixels.
Also, the computation of the discrete correlation functionregistered image Fi,jwith a reference image of Hi,j
where- correlation function depends only on the vertical coordinate offset rail 3 with accent mark 9;
q - the vertical coordinate of the correlation function;
And×the size of the reference image portion of the rail 3 with contrasting label 9.
contrasta label is applied to increase the sharpness of the correlation peak.
The change in the vertical coordinates Δkmaxthe maximum of the correlation function To al,kdirectly proportional to the change in the vertical position overlays
where α - magnification optical system.
In turn, changes the vertical coordinates pan ΔyBincludes the change of the radius of the wheel ΔRKat the point of contact of the wheel with the rail and the deflection of the rail at this point ΔyP.
The magnitude of the deflection of the rail ΔyPdirectly proportional to the change in the vertical coordinates of the maximum of the correlation function
From expressions (4-6) is determined by the current change of the radius of the wheel ΔRTodue to the presence of defects in the form of a wheel,
Similar operations are performed with subsequent image frames of the wheel 1 with panel Jack 2 and rails 3 with accent mark 9 until the wheel 1 is located on a plot of L.
During the horizontal movement of the axle box 2, associated with the movement of the composition and vertical movement of axle boxes on the rail 3, is associated with the presence of defects in the wheel according to the results of processing all image frames Fi,jobtained during the passage of section L, is constructed for aImost where ϕK- the angle of rotation of the wheel, ϕKtakes discrete values in the range of angles 0-360° incrementwhere n is the number of frames that were captured during the passage of section L; n is the value specified and is determined by the minimum size of detectable defects of wheels, usually n≥50 [US patent No. 20030103216].
To the number of frames n, required to register full sweep of the wheel 1 on the roll surface was constant at different speed trains, it is necessary to change the frequency of recorded frames fKDa consequently, the frequency of pulse irradiation fandproportional to the speed of composition
where V is the velocity of the stock;
LKDthe path traversed by the composition at the time between frames.
With a sufficiently high accuracy, we can assume that V=const on the interval L.
The speed of the composition is determined by changing the horizontal coordinates of the axle box 2 for the time ΔT1,2between the first and second frames of images from the camera 6
where l1max, l2maxthe coordinates of the maxima of the correlation function To al,kon the horizontal axis respectively in the first and second frames.
The time between frames ΔT1,2is determined by the initial is the average frame rate
wherewhere Vcf- the average speed of trains on the control plot (determined on the basis of statistical data).
The pulse duration of the radiation from the source 4 is set to the minimum blur image in the camera (1 pixel).
Thus, the computer 11 during the first and second frames is the determination of the velocity V of the composition on the control plot. After determining the velocity V of the composition, the computer 11 generates trigger signals for synchronisation unit 12 with a frequency proportional to the speed V, in accordance with (8).
A synchronisation unit 12 generates the duration and level of the pulses of the external triggering of the camera 6 and the infrared ray source 4 and the radiation pulses are generated during the signal accumulation on the chamber 6.
As the matrix of the radiation receiver 6 in the device can be used CCD camera Hitachi KP-M1AP, resolution 795×596 pixels, with a pixel size of 11×11 μm. For reception of the infrared signal, it is necessary to remove the optical filter installed in the camera before photodetector matrix. The camera can be installed at a distance of about 6 m from the railway track.
As the input device 10 can be used framegrabber Leutron Vsion PicPort Mono H4.
The radiation source 4 can be made of the infrared diodes type ICP-84/30-940 [http://microvideo.ru/ir/illuminators/illum_ikp84_940.htm] with a wavelength of 940 nm, which includes the imaging unit of radiation flux 5.
Filter infrared radiation, reducing external parasitic light, can be made from glass, mark the COP-19.
A synchronisation unit 12 can be performed on the timer type CREW, TO-BCOT-85 [http://www.vniiki.ni/].
1. The method of non-contact dynamic control parameters of the wheels of the rolling stock, namely, that put the accent mark on the side surface of the rail, irradiated element of the controlled wheels radiation flux as a sequence of short pulses, the frequency of the pulse modulation specify a value proportional to the speed of the wheels, take the reflected picture of the radiation detector, wherein the radiation source and the radiation detector is placed at some distance from the track, the light source is irradiated buxu controlled wheel and the rail, determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with the image in the current frame, determine the position of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image fragment rail, the soda is containing the image contrast marks, with the image in the current frame, the change in vertical coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions of the axle boxes and rails in frames of images are judged on changes of the radius of the wheel, and consequently the wheel parameters.
2. The method of non-contact dynamic control parameters of the wheels of the rolling stock according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of the wheel is determined by the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays that contain contrasting elements for a certain period of time, the value of the horizontal moving portion of the image overlays determined by the difference between the horizontal coordinates of the maxima of the correlation functions obtained by correlation of the reference image slice pan with images of two successive frames.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises light source and light receiver provided with means for processing information. The light source and receiver are made in block that is made of a tube. The scanning unit is provided with two channels optically connected with the tube and system of mirrors, which allow the light to pass from the tube to the outer or inner surface of the article through the channels. The scanning unit is optically connected with the tube so that the optical axis of one of the channels is in coincidence with the optical axis of the tube.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has coherent emission source, first condensing filter, consisting of condensing lens, first and second light-splitting elements, objective, interferometer, consisting of standard and controlled surface, device for measuring optical beam drive length, first projection system, registering block and system for processing interference image, system for projecting auto-collimation images. Also provided is additional condensing filter, mounted in focal plane of objective, device for changing optical length of beam drive is positioned behind the laser, made in form of two transparent diffraction grids, one of which can move in direction, perpendicular to grid rows, first diffraction grid divides emission on two beams, each of which gets on to lenses of condensing filters, while controlled and standard surfaces are deflected relatively to normal line to optical axis.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing that receives electric lamp, toroidal lens, conical mirror of ring vision, lens, and scaling grid arranged in series. The device is additionally provided with aperture with ring and central round recesses positioned in front of the lamp, ring and round color filters mounted in front of the recesses, and second mirror cone positioned behind the aperture. The top of the cone points to the lamp. The semi-transparent mirror, color filter, measuring grid, and first TV camera are arranged along the longitudinal axis of the housing behind the lens. The second color filter, second measuring grid, and second TV camera are arranged in series along the perpendicular to the axis of the housing behind the lens.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be controlled on the movable traverse gear having two extent of freedom, illuminating the surface of the article by light, receiving the light reflected from the surface of the article with the use of a photodetector, moving the article parallel to the X-axis, determining coordinates of the light spots on the photodetectors of the current values of the heights of the article shape, locking the position of the table, scanning the main section of the article shape, comparing it with the reference one , and determining the quality of the article shape. The main section is scanned by moving the article parallel to the Y-axis, when the traverse gear is in a position determined from the formula proposed. The device comprises unmovable horizontal base, vertical cantilever secured to the base, unit for measuring the article shape mounted on the vertical cantilever, two carriages that define a traverse gear and provided with the individual drives controlled by a computer, and pickup of linear movements. The first carriage moves parallel to the X-axis, and the second carriage is mounted on the first one and moves parallel Y-axis.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises directing a coherent light beam at the surface to be tested, producing and recording interferogram of the light path difference, and processing the interferogram. The tested and reference surfaces are exposed to the second coherent light beam, and the second interferogram of the light path difference is created. The second interferogram is provided with the additional light path difference with respect to that of the first interferogram, which is equal to the one fourth of the beam wavelength. The light path difference of the first interferogram is determined at specific points of the surface to be tested from the signal of illumination in one of two interferograms. The device comprises source of coherent light, first filter-condenser, first and second light-splitting units, interferometer composed of tested and reference surfaces, unit for measuring optical length of the beam, first projecting unit, recording unit, observing unit, and unit for processing the interferogram. The device also has two light-splitting units between which two pairs of transparent diffraction lattices are interposed. The filter-condenser, the second light-splitting unit, and λ/4 lattice are arranged in series in the direction of the beam.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device for automatic measuring coordinates of string plummets of hydraulic structures has reflecting screen, illumination source, two optical systems each of which is blocked with corresponding electro-optical array, device for measuring coordinate of string's projection, digital serial communication desk. Device also has resolver that has in turn two input serial communication desks, which have their outputs connected with controller, and indicator.
EFFECT: high precision of measurement of coordinates of string plummets.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method includes lighting object by collimated parallel beam of coherent monochromatic light, directed at angle of raising of screw surface relatively to object axis, as which object with screw surface is used, receiving optical image of its profile and following processing of received profile of image to perform further calculations of its parameters, while lighting of object is performed concurrently on two portions by collimated parallel beams of coherent monochromatic light, directed at raising angle of screw surface relatively to object axis, while these two beams are positioned symmetrically relatively to longitudinal axis of object and two images of said profile are received, mutual position of separate elements in which does not depend on presence of vibrations and shaking.
EFFECT: higher quality.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.
EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring instruments.
SUBSTANCE: the interferometer for controlling of the form of prominent, concave spherical and flat surfaces of large-sized optical components has a source of monochromatic radiation, a collimator and an objective, one after another located a beam divider, a flat mirror and an aplanatic meniscus with a reference surface and also an observation branch located behind the beam divider in beam return and a working branch consisting out of a spherical mirror with a compensator which form a focusing system. Depending of the form of a controlled surface focusing of the working branch of the interferometer is executed at replacing the compensator and the basic block of the interferometer which has an illuminating branch. A beam divider, a flat mirror, an aplanatic meniscus and an observation branch relative to a fully stabilized spherical mirror along an optical axis on such a distance at which the beams reflected from the spherical mirror fall on the controlled surface transversely to its surface.
EFFECT: expansion of nomenclature of controlled surfaces, decreasing large-sized dimensions of the interferometer.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be tested on the working table, moving the nonflatness meter, determining the amplitude of nonflatness, and determining coefficients of nonflatness. The device comprises source of light, multielement photodetector, objective, and computer.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; measuring facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used automatic control of condition of wheelset and its position relative to rail track. According to proposed method of monitoring of wheelset parameters and its position relative to rail track, working surface of wheel is radiated by light and wheel profile and position of wheelset relative to rail track is determined basing on received radiation. Scattered radiation from points on irradiate working surface of wheel is used with measurement of coordinates of said points, and, using received coordinates, completed profile of wheel is formed which is compared with standard profile of wheelset. Basing on results of comparing decision is made on whether wheelset can be operated or should be rejected.
EFFECT: possibility of monitoring irrespective of condition of surfaces under checking.
FIELD: definition of the diameter of wheel pairs.
SUBSTANCE: the mode and photolaser arrangement for definition of the diameter of wheel pairs of a railway mobile train in conditions of its moving is based on the principle of measuring with the help of a photolaser arrangement of sizes which characterize the changing of the diameter of wheel tread and a degree of deterioration(wear) of the wheel pair band and also is based on the principle of computing the diameter of the wheel according to a wheel rolling circle according to the formula characterizing the changing of the diameter depending on current meaning of a chord of the wheel tread and the magnitude of a wheel tread wear. The execution of the mode of measuring of the chord and of the wheel tread wear is made by way of using of laser sources of light installed along one side of the track, horizontal and vertical photoreceiving mould "toolbars" installed on the other side of the inset in the rail and the track. Precision of measuring of geometric sizes of the wheel pair in the range of ±0.1 mm is achieved at the expense of using of laser sources of light and of photoreceivers in the shape of the mould "toolbars".
EFFECT: increases quality of precision of measuring; using of a laser commutation system and reliability of measuring elements under any weather conditions.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; instrument technology.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wear checking system contains optical receiving projection system and converting-and-calculating unit. It includes also car position pickup and car counter whose outputs are connected to inputs to inputs of converting-ands-calculated unit. Optical receiving projection system consists of sets of stereo modules. Rigid structure of each module includes two CCD television cameras and lighting unit. Outputs of stereomodules are connected to corresponding inputs of converting-and-calculating unit. Stereomodules are rigidly installed relative to each other.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
3 cl, 2 dwg