Power train

FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.

SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.

EFFECT: improved layout of power train.

19 cl, 8 dwg

 

The present invention relates to power transmission vehicle type amphibious vehicle that includes the engine and installed in the transmission line, in which the PTO unit is located between the motor vehicle and installed in the transmission line in layout view, known as the scheme with intermediate PTO. The present invention also relates to a vehicle of a type of amphibian that has such a powertrain.

In a power transmission of an ordinary vehicle that contains the engine and located in a transmission line, the input or primary shaft of the transmission is driven from the flywheel through the clutch. Alternatively, in cases where the transmission includes an automatic transmission, the input shaft may be driven in rotation from the fluid coupling, known as a torque Converter. In the known arrangements with intermediate PTO input shaft of the transmission is made longer, and the tool actuator is made in the form of a gear is installed between the clutch or fluid coupling and the housing of the transmission. Gear is the gear of the PTO unit using a belt or chain.

In this known arrangement significantly increases the length of the engine and the transmission unit, and t is buesa to use additional sets of bearings for mounting the elongated input shaft before the gear box in place, the space which is limited. However you also have to make the cut in the conical casing or housing of the gearbox in order to install the chain or belt.

The present invention is directed to a power transmission with intermediate PTO, which can be manufactured using fewer processing operations of parts and which is largely adapted to various configurations of the power transmission than options intermediate PTO prior art.

In accordance with the first aspect of the present invention proposed a power transmission for a vehicle type amphibious vehicle, including the engine, containing the crankshaft, the clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed, in General, in line with the crankshaft of the engine, and the transmission includes an input shaft driven in rotation from the flywheel, and power transmission further comprises a PTO unit, designed to drive the output shaft, which is arranged to transfer power to the propulsion-propulsion unit, intended for the passage of the vehicle through the water, characterized in that the PTO unit includes a tool drive attached to the end of the crankshaft, which fitted the n flywheel, moreover, the tool actuator is configured to transfer power to the PTO.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the tool actuator is installed on the surface of the external circuit of the flywheel. This layout tool actuator includes a set of teeth made on the outer contour of the flywheel, so that through these teeth is driven by the shaft through a chain or toothed belt.

In another preferred embodiment, the tool actuator is installed between the end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel, and the flywheel. This layout tool actuator includes a pinion gear that drives the shaft through a chain or toothed belt. Gear can be installed on the end of the crankshaft between this end and the flywheel and can be maintained in the desired position by means of fasteners, with which the flywheel is mounted at the end of the crankshaft. Alternatively, the tool actuator may include a tapered gear which is installed on the end of the crankshaft is installed on the flywheel. Bevel gear mounted on the end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel is connected with the second bevel gear, which can be set for the rotation system-easy installation the I output shaft or intermediate shaft, which is set to bring the rotation of the output shaft. The intermediate shaft can be configured to drive the output shaft through a connection with a constant speed (PS) or other rotating swivel. Alternatively, the intermediate shaft can be installed third bevel gear, which is connected with the fourth bevel gear mounted for rotation PTO.

When power is transmitted from the drive means to the shaft via a chain or toothed belt, a chain or timing belt can be done with actuator driven gear for transmitting power to the shaft. Driven gear may be mounted for rotation together with the shaft PTO, or when the engine and transmission is made with the possibility of transverse installation in relation to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, the driven gear is made to rotate together with the intermediate shaft, which drives the shaft through a pair of bevel gears.

Between the conical casing of the transmission and the engine casing has an intermediate casing. Intermediate casing may have an extending portion that sets the driven gear, the pinion or the unity with PS, as well as a chain, toothed belt or shaft (shaft) power.

Alternatively, a conical casing of the transmission can be performed with the option to install driven gear and chain or timing belt.

In the engine-propulsion unit designed for transportation on water, can be installed in the separator.

The particular advantage of power transmission, in accordance with the present invention is that it provides the opportunity to convey the power of the engine of the motor-propulsion unit designed for transportation on water.

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention, the proposed vehicle type amphibian, in which power transmission in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention.

The present invention will be described below only with reference to the drawings, in which:

the figure 1 shows a section of the part of power transmission in accordance with a first variant implementation of the present invention;

the figure 2 shows a section along the line a-a indicated in figure 1;figure 3 shows a section view of a part of power transmission in accordance with a second preferred implementation of the present invention;

the figure 4 shows a section along the line b-B indicated in figure 3;

the figure 5 shows the RA is the cut parts of power transmission in accordance with a third preferred implementation of the present invention;

the figure 6 presents the cut parts of power transmission in accordance with the fourth preferred implementation of the present invention;

the figure 7 presents the cut parts of power transmission in accordance with the fifth preferred implementation of the present invention; and

the figure 8 presents the cut parts of power transmission in accordance with the sixth preferred implementation of the present invention.

Let us first consider figures 1 and 2, which presents a first embodiment of a power transmission in accordance with the present invention, which includes the engine 11 and the transmission 26, installed in-line with the crankshaft 12 of the engine. The engine and transmission bring in rotation, at least the rear wheels (not shown) of the vehicle type amphibious vehicle designed to travel on the road (not shown)through a differential (not shown)in the usual way. Drive for propulsion-propulsion unit designed for transportation on water, transport vehicles, such as jet pump 50, is provided with the help of the PTO unit, which is generally designated numeral 10.

The crankshaft 12 of the engine passes through a hole made in the end portion of the casing 14 of the engine. The seal 16 is installed in the hole in order to ensure sealing between the crankshaft 12 and the casing 14 of the engine. The gear 18 of the drive and the flywheel 20 is installed on the end of the crankshaft 12, near the outer part of the casing 14 of the engine and fixed to the crankshaft 12 by means of bolts 22, arranged in a circle. The gear 18 is fixed between the end of the crankshaft 12 and the flywheel 20. The clutch sleeve 25 mounted in the usual manner on the end face of the flywheel 20, actuates the input or primary shaft 24 of the transmission 26.

Conical casing 28 of the transmission 26, which during normal layout could be bolted directly to the end part of the casing 14 of the engine, is located at some distance from the casing of the engine by using the intermediate casing 30. The bolts 32 pass through the conical casing 28 and the intermediate casing 30 and includes in the usual threaded hole made in the casing 14 of the engine.

Intermediate casing 30 includes an expanding portion 30A on one side of the casing 14 of the engine. In the expanding portion 30A mounted driven gear 34, mounted on the shaft 36 of the PTO. The shaft 36 PTO and driven gear 34 mounted for rotation in the expanding part 30A by means of bearings 38, 40. Leading gear 18 and the ring gear 34 is connected via a chain or toothed belt 42 for transmitting power between them.

The shaft 36 PTO is installed to drive the motor-digitalnow the Assembly 50, made in the form of a jet pump to provide the driving force of the vehicle type amphibians when moving on the water. The shaft 36 of the PTO may operate the jet pump directly or may be connected (not shown), which may be connected an additional shaft for driving the jet pump. In the transmission line drive between the shaft 36 of the PTO and the jet pump can be installed in the separator, which allows you to turn off the jet pump using the vehicle for movement on land.

In the present embodiment, the transmission 26 is a transmission with manual shifting, however, it should be understood that the transmission 26 can also include an automated gearbox with manual transmission, automatic or semi-automatic transmission, or a transmission with infinitely-variable transmission, and that the friction clutch 25 clutch, accordingly, may be replaced by a fluid coupling such as a torque Converter.

The second preferred embodiment of the present invention is described below with reference to figures 3 and 4. The same reference positions are used to designate common parts with the parts of the first version of the runtime.

Power transmission according to the second preferred option is carried out similar power transmission in the first embodiment perform, except that instead of the drive for power in the form of a gear between the end of the crankshaft and the flywheel, the tool actuator in this embodiment contains many teeth 23, made on the outer contour of the flywheel. The teeth 23 are set in motion by the driven gear 44 mounted on the shaft 36 of the PTO via a chain or toothed belt 42. The shaft 36 PTO is arranged to actuate the motor-propulsion system designed for movement water (not shown) of the vehicle type amphibians, similar to that described in relation to the first variant of execution.

Since there is no extra gear between the flywheel and the end of the crankshaft, eliminates the need for intermediate casing between the conical casing 28 and the casing 14 of the engine. Accordingly, the conical casing 28 is made with the possibility of installing a chain or belt 42 and the driven gear 44. Driven gear 44 and shaft 36 PTO mounted for rotation in a conical casing 28 by means of bearings 46, 48.

The ring gear 52 mounted on the end surface of the flywheel and is intended for connection to the engine starter, as is known in the art.

In variants of execution described above, bigatel and transmission is made with possibility of installation on the vehicle in the form of a direct link, which side of the timing of the engine facing the front of the vehicle while the transmission is located towards the back. With this arrangement, the shaft 36 of the PTO is turned in the direction of the transmission to ensure the drive jet pump, which is installed in the rear of the vehicle. However, it should be understood that the engine and transmission can be performed with possibility of installation in the form of a reverse link when the side of the timing of the engine facing the rear of the vehicle, and the transmission goes towards the front. In this case, it is necessary that the shaft 36 PTO was facing in the opposite direction with respect to the engine and transmission, that is, facing toward the engine for driving the jet pump, which is installed in the rear of the vehicle.

The present invention can also be used for power transmission in which the engine and transmission are made with the possibility of installation across the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. To this end, in General, it is necessary to carry out the drive PTO is rotated 90 degrees to actuate jet pump installed in the rear of the vehicle. This is can be done through various ways, but a particularly simple and effective way is to implement actuation of the jet pump through a pair of bevel gears. One example of such a configuration is shown in figure 5, in which parts perform functions similar to the functions of the parts described with reference to figures 1-4, have reference position, but increased by 100.

The figure 5 shows the end of the crankshaft 112 is installed on the flywheel of the engine 111, mounted transversely. On the crankshaft is fixed leading gear 118, designed for PTO and flywheel 120. In this preferred embodiment, the flywheel is made in the form of a torque Converter, which, although it is not shown in figure 5, is driven by the input shaft of the automatic box 126 transmission.

Leading gear 118 and the flywheel 120 is mounted at the end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel, use adapter 119, which is fixed on the crankshaft 112 using a variety of bolts 122. The adapter contains a splined shaft I installed the flywheel 120 and the leading gear 118 to rotate with the crankshaft.

Intermediate casing 130 is installed between the conical casing 128 of the transmission and the casing 114 of the engine. In this preferred embodiment, the intermediate casing formed of two parts 130A, B, which is connected together with a set of bolts 131. An intermediate housing and a transmission connected to the motor housing using additional sets of bolts 132. In the intermediate housing 130 mounted driven gear 134, which is fixed on the intermediate shaft 136. The intermediate shaft 136 and the driven gear 134 mounted for rotation in the intermediate casing by means of a pair of bearings 138, 140. Leading gear 118 and driven gear 134 connected by a chain or timing belt 142 for transmitting power between them.

The first bevel gear 154 mounted for rotation with the intermediate shaft 136 so that it is connected with the second bevel gear 156. The second bevel gear mounted for rotation with the shaft 158 of the PTO, the axis of which is, in General, at an angle of 90 degrees relative to the axis of the intermediate shaft 136. The shaft 158 of the PTO is mounted for rotation in the expanding part of the intermediate casing 130 through the bearings 160, 162, and is installed on the bracket 164, which may be connected to the additional drive shaft for driving the jet pump located in the rear of the vehicle.

In each of the above embodiments, the tool actuator contains teeth, designed for connection with a chain or timing belt for transmitting the drive to the PTO. However, the tool actuator which can be made in the form of a gear transmission, which transmits the drive to the shaft through one or more additional gears. For example, in figures 6-8 shows preferred embodiments of the present invention, in which the bevel gear 218 is installed on the end of the crankshaft is installed on the flywheel. In each of the described preferred embodiments the conical gear 218 and a flywheel mounted on the crankshaft with an adapter similar to the adapter 119 in the embodiment shown in figure 5.

In the preferred embodiment, is shown in figure 6, a bevel gear 218 is connected with the second bevel gear 219 which is installed to rotate the shaft 236 of the PTO, which is a direct drive motor-propulsion unit 250, intended for transportation on water, which is installed in the rear of the vehicle. The shaft 236 PTO rotates on bearings 238 and 260, which are installed in holders 237 and 259 mounted on the intermediate casing 230.

The preferred embodiment of shown in figure 6, particularly adapted for transverse installation of the engine, where the Central line of the propulsion-propulsion unit 250, intended for transportation on water, is located on a level with the axis of the crankshaft is th shaft. However, if the unit motor-propulsion, intended for transportation on water, installed above or below the axis of the crankshaft, it is necessary to adjust the height of the output shaft 236. There are several ways to provide such adjustments, which are obvious to a person skilled in the art. For example, the height of the output shaft can be adjusted with additional chain, belt or gear transmission. However, the preferred arrangement for changing the height are shown in figure 7.

In this fifth preferred embodiment, the intermediate casing 230 is rotated to provide power at a higher level. The intermediate shaft 342 mounted in the housing 230 on the inner and outer bearings 238, 260, contains bevel gear 219 which is connected with a bevel gear 218 mounted on the crankshaft. The intermediate shaft 342 is connected to the shaft 336 of the PTO by connecting 333 with constant speed (PS), which is driven by the shaft 336 of the PTO under the required angle, in accordance with the layout block 350 drive intended for transportation on water. Although the connector with the SS is a preferred form of rotary swivel can be used with any suitable type of rotary hinge connection is in.

The last preferred embodiment of the PTO unit, which includes a tool drive, made in the form of bevel gears, shown in figure 8. This option is performing particularly suitable for longitudinal engine installation or installing the engine in line. Bevel gear 218 on the crankshaft is connected with the second bevel gear 219, located on the first end of the intermediate shaft 442. The third bevel gear 434 is installed on another end of the intermediate shaft and connected with the fourth bevel gear 435, which is fixed on the shaft 436 of the PTO. The intermediate shaft 442 is mounted for rotation on the holders 437, 459 in the housing 430 by using the inner and outer bearings 438, 460.

By means of the actuator, which is designed for power transmission to the PTO end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel, in accordance with the present invention, it becomes possible to generate power transmission with intermediate PTO, in which the total length of the engine and transmission kept to a minimum. This condition may be important when designing vehicle type amphibian, in which the space for installing the engine and transmission may be severely limited. This arrangement also ensures the AET power transmission to the PTO unit directly from the crankshaft of the engine, and not through a clutch or a fluid coupling. This means that all the power of the engine can be transmitted to the PTO unit with minimal losses. This arrangement also has a simpler construction than the known composition of the prior art, which reduces production costs and increases the reliability of the structure.

Taking into account that the present invention has been described with reference to embodiments of the, currently considered as the most practical and preferred, it should be understood that the present invention is not limited to the described arrangement, but rather is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent constructions included within the scope and essence of the present invention. For example, propulsion-propulsion unit designed for transportation on water, does not necessarily have to be made in the form of a water-cannon, but can be any means of the appropriate type, such as a marine propeller.

1. Power transmission for vehicle type amphibious vehicle comprising an engine (11; 111), containing the crankshaft (12; 112), a clutch or a fluid coupling (20; 120) and the transmission (26; 126)set, in General, in line with the crankshaft of the engine, and the transmission includes an input shaft (24), driven in rotation from the flywheel, moreover, the powertrain further comprises a node (10; 110) PTO designed for drive shaft(36; 158; 236; 436;) PTO, which is arranged to transfer power to the propulsion-propulsion unit (50; 250; 350), intended for the passage of the vehicle through the water, characterized in that the PTO unit contains means (18; 23; 118; 218) actuator mounted on the end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel, and the tool actuator is configured to transfer power to the PTO.

2. Power transmission according to claim 1, wherein the tool actuator is installed on the surface of the external circuit of the flywheel.

3. Power transmission according to claim 2, characterized in that the tool actuator includes a set of teeth (23), performed on the outer contour of the flywheel, and through these teeth is driven by the shaft through a chain or toothed belt (42).

4. Power transmission according to claim 1, wherein the tool actuator is installed between the end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel, and the flywheel.

5. Power transmission according to claim 4, characterized in that the tool actuator includes a gear (18; 118), which actuates a shaft via a chain or toothed belt (42; 142).

6. Power transmission according to claim 5, characterized in that the gear is installed on the end of the crankshaft on which the mouth is oflen flywheel between the said end and the flywheel.

7. Power transmission according to any one of p, 5 or 6, characterized in that the drive of the driven gear (34; 44; 134) to drive the output shaft via a chain or toothed belt.

8. Power transmission according to claim 7, characterized in that the driven gear (34; 44) mounted for rotation together with the shaft (36) of the PTO.

9. Power transmission according to claim 7, characterized in that the engine and transmission is made with the possibility of transverse installation in relation to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and driven gear (134) is arranged to rotate together with the intermediate shaft (136), which actuates a shaft (158) PTO, through a pair of bevel gears (154, 156).

10. Power transmission according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the tool actuator includes a conical gear (218), mounted on the end of the crankshaft (212)is installed on the flywheel.

11. The power transmission of claim 10, characterized in that the bevel gear (218), mounted on the end of the crankshaft on which you installed the flywheel is connected with the second bevel gear (219)mounted for rotation together with the shaft (236) PTO.

12. The power transmission of claim 10, characterized in that the bevel gear (218), mounted on the end of the crankshaft, the and installed the flywheel, connected with the second bevel gear (219)mounted rotatably together with the intermediate shaft (342; 442), and the intermediate shaft is arranged to actuate the shaft 336; 436) PTO.

13. The power transmission section 12, characterized in that the intermediate shaft (342) made with the possibility of the drive shaft (336) PTO through a connection with a constant speed or other rotating swivel (333).

14. The power transmission section 12, characterized in that the intermediate shaft (442) provides the third bevel gear (434), which is connected with the fourth bevel gear (435)mounted for rotation together with the shaft (436) PTO.

15. Power transmission according to any one of claims 4 to 14, characterized in that the intermediate casing (30; 130; 230; 430) installed between the conical casing of the transmission and the engine casing.

16. Power transmission 15 when dependent on claim 7, characterized in that the intermediate casing has an expanding portion (30A), which includes a driven gear and a chain or toothed belt.

17. Power transmission 15 when dependent on any of PP-14, characterized in that the intermediate casing (230; 430) has an expanding portion, which is a plot PTO and/or the intermediate shaft.

18. Power transmission according to claim 7 clause and dependent clause 3, characterized in that the conical casing (28) the transmission is made with the ability to install driven gear and chain or timing belt.

19. Vehicle type amphibious, characterized in that it comprises a power transmission in accordance with any of claims 1 to 18.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: power takeoff case in all-wheel-drive vehicles is mounted in separate housing, being installed on chassis frame on its own suspension brackets between gearbox and transfer case and is connected through propeller shaft with flange of gearbox drive shaft and through second propeller shaft, with transfer case. According to second designed version, power takeoff case is also mounted in separate housing and installed on chassis frame on its own suspension brackets between gearbox and rear axle of vehicle, being connected by propeller shaft with flange of gearbox main shaft and by second propeller shaft, with rear axle of vehicle. Drive shaft of power takeoff case is made sectional and is provided with engagement clutch connecting members of shaft. And clutch for connection of driven gear with shaft is arranged on output shaft.

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Amphibian // 2268160

FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibian vehicles, particularly, to post of hydraulic systems suspension. According to invention, vehicle has at least one wheel shifted out from vehicle body to support vehicle when it is used on the ground and retracted for use on water. Vehicle is furnished additionally with hydraulic cylinder containing hydraulic fluid, piston installed for movement inside cylinder and dividing the cylinder into first and second chambers, device to connected piston with suspension lever mechanism connected with wheel, first two-position valve designed to control fluid flow between first and second chambers at least on section of working stroke of piston, and second two-position valve connected only with one of first and second chambers. When first valve is open, and second valve is closed, post provides functions of suspension and/or damping of wheel vibrations. When first valve is closed and second valve is open, post serves as drive to move wheel between extended and retracted positions.

EFFECT: provision of retraction and extension of wheel through distance exceeding that required for normal riding.

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FIELD: shipbuilding; designing amphibians.

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FIELD: watercraft.

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FIELD: transport engineering.

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FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians on pneumatic wheels.

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Amphibian vehicle // 2248280

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for creating amphibian with open seat and common drive for simultaneous or in-turn operation of ground and water propulsion drives. Proposed amphibian vehicle with open seat is furnished with drive engine to operate, either in turn of simultaneously, ground propulsion or water propulsion drive made in form of jet drive by means of two independent clutches. Ground propulsion drive is made as all-wheel-drive. Drive engine is installed between ground propulsion axles under seat. Front and/or rear wheels are made for turning opposite to direction of vehicle movement when moving over water. According to proposed method, ground propulsion drive is engaged at water movement, and front and/or rear wheels are set into rotation opposite to direction of movement. At movement over water control is effected by means of rotary reactive nozzle and by control of front wheels.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: armored equipment, in particular, armored caterpillar vehicles.

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EFFECT: enhanced speed and stability of motion afloat.

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Vehicle // 2245259

FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has trimaran water displacement body, wheeled propulsive device and water propulsor. Two pressure chambers with fans are installed in bow of body. Surface of body bottom part is provided with bend having two slot-like holes connected with pressure chambers to let out air jets created by fans and forming air cushion in under-bottom space. Wheeled propulsive device is of rolling type and it has individual drive from geared motors. Wheels of propulsive device are made in form of cylindrical housing with flanges on outer surfaces of which round-shape cross slots are milled in number corresponding to number of support and rest flexible members of rim secured by pins in holes of flanges for turning through angle of roll out to form, together with wheel rim and inner engagement of support-and-drive device of vehicle, mechanism with three degrees of freedom implementing rolling system with negative friction providing translational movement of vehicle owing to upward-forward (backward-up-ward) displacement of center of masses. Support-and-drive device can be furnished with covers interconnected by studs. End of upper stud can be made in form of cylinder fitted into extensible grip installed in upper part of vehicle body on its side to change mode of operation of wheel. Water propulsor can be made in form of paddle wheels installed on vertical posts for vertical displacement and containing cylindrical housing fitted in bearings on axle and paddles of rectangular shape or paddles with bevels to build additional traction force and increase efficiency when moving in water or negotiating bogged terrains.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.

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The invention relates to vehicles-amphibians, primarily to floating excavators, Valet cleaning and dredging of reservoirs

Vehicle // 2245259

FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has trimaran water displacement body, wheeled propulsive device and water propulsor. Two pressure chambers with fans are installed in bow of body. Surface of body bottom part is provided with bend having two slot-like holes connected with pressure chambers to let out air jets created by fans and forming air cushion in under-bottom space. Wheeled propulsive device is of rolling type and it has individual drive from geared motors. Wheels of propulsive device are made in form of cylindrical housing with flanges on outer surfaces of which round-shape cross slots are milled in number corresponding to number of support and rest flexible members of rim secured by pins in holes of flanges for turning through angle of roll out to form, together with wheel rim and inner engagement of support-and-drive device of vehicle, mechanism with three degrees of freedom implementing rolling system with negative friction providing translational movement of vehicle owing to upward-forward (backward-up-ward) displacement of center of masses. Support-and-drive device can be furnished with covers interconnected by studs. End of upper stud can be made in form of cylinder fitted into extensible grip installed in upper part of vehicle body on its side to change mode of operation of wheel. Water propulsor can be made in form of paddle wheels installed on vertical posts for vertical displacement and containing cylindrical housing fitted in bearings on axle and paddles of rectangular shape or paddles with bevels to build additional traction force and increase efficiency when moving in water or negotiating bogged terrains.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.

3 cl, 6 dwg

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