Milling method by adaptable tool

FIELD: machine engineering, working profiles of rolling surfaces of wheel pair of railway road transport vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of imparting rotation and feed motion along worked surface to blank and to milling cutter in body of which cutters having round cutting tips of hard alloy are mounted. In order to enhance efficiency and quality of working milling cutter is provided with damping member in the form of washer like corrugated spring. Body of milling cutter has trapezoidal radial grooves enlarged to axis of milling cutter and designed for placing said cutters with cutting tips of hard alloy engaged with damping member. Surfaces of radial grooves are faced with bronze porous self-lubricating plates. All said plates except one lateral plate are plane-parallel and they are fixed to body. Said lateral plate is in the form of wedge and it is designed for adjusting gap between it and cutter with use of screw. Cutters in the form of trapezium reciprocal to radial groove of milling cutter body are mounted in said grooves by sliding fit and they are hold in grooves by means of first lid at one end and by means of damping member and second lid at other end. Lids are secured to body by means of screws designed for adjusting elasticity of damping member.

EFFECT: enhanced operational reliability, increased vibration resistance of milling cutter.

2 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to metal working, mechanical engineering technology, in particular, to processing profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.

There is a method of milling surfaces of rotation, in which the workpiece and the milling cutter, comprising a housing with cutters with mechanical fastening of the cutting circular plates of hard alloy, according to the rotational motion and the movement of the feed along the treated surface [1].

The disadvantages of this method are the limited technological capabilities, as the cutter, which implements the method does not allow for smooth and vibration resistance of the process of cutting and further processing - all this makes the milling expensive and inefficient.

The objective of the invention is the expansion of technological capabilities in the processing of solids of revolution and surfaces of complex shape using CNC machines, copiers and the like, as well as simplifying the design tool, build and configure it, improving performance, quality and tool life by ensuring a smooth process of cutting, vibration and translation kinetic energy of the impact in the potential energy of bending of elastic plates.

The problem is solved using the proposed method of milling surfaces of the rotation system-easy installation the I, in which the workpiece and the milling cutter, comprising a housing with cutters with mechanical fastening of the cutting circular plates of hard alloy, according to the rotational motion and the movement of the feed along the processing surface, and the cutter provide damping element made in the form composed of washer-like corrugated spring, when the cutter body is made with radial grooves of trapezoidal form with expansion to the axis of the cutter, which posted the said cutters are mounted on them cutting plates made of hard alloy, interacting with the damping element, the surface of the radial grooves lined with porous bronze self-lubricating plate, performing the functions of bearings, plates, except for one side, made plane and fixed to the body motionless, as mentioned side plate is moveable in the form of a wedge and is designed to control the gaps between it and the cutter by means of a screw screwed into the screw hole, the axis of which passes through the plane of the touch side plate in the form of a wedge with the body and half drilled in the plate, and the other half in the body, and the thread cut only in half of the Cabinet slot, while the cutters are made of trapezoidal form, the response form radial grooves of the casing cutters, set them on a sliding fit and held in the housing with one end cap, and the other damping element and the second cover, with the cover attached to the chassis with screws, wrapping or twisting producing regulation of elasticity of the damping element to enhance vibration resistance and reliability of the cutter.

Furthermore, the method is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows a milling cutter, which is implemented the way, the kind with a spring-loaded end; figure 2 is a view As in figure 1, rotated; figure 3 - cross section B-B in figure 1; figure 4 - cross section b-b In figure 1; figure 5 - diagram of the processing and the forces acting on the cutting edge; figure 6 is composed of washer-like corrugated spring, front view; figure 7 is composed of washer-like corrugated spring, end view.

The proposed method is intended for milling of surfaces of revolution, in which the workpiece and the milling cutter, comprising a housing with cutters with mechanical fastening of the cutting circular plates of hard alloy and a damping element, according to the rotational motion and the movement of the feed along the treated surface. However, the method can be used in the processing of flat surfaces.

The cutter, which implements the proposed method, includes a housing 1 with the cutters 2 mechanical mounting is by cutting round plates 3 hard alloy and the damping element 4. The housing 1 has a radial trapezoidal shaped grooves 5 extending from the axis of rotation, the surface of which is coated porous bronze self-lubricating plates 6, 7 and 8 functions bearings.

Plane-parallel plates 6 and 7 are fastened by known methods, for example, glued or with screws) on the body motionless. Side plate 8 is made in the form of a wedge with the angle a, is movable and is used to control the gaps between the cutters 2 and the plates 6, 7 and 8.

Regulation of the gap is carried out by means of a screw 9 screwed into the screw hole, the axis of which passes through the plane of the touch wedge plate 8 with the housing 1 at an angle α to the axis of rotation and half drilled in the plate 8, and the other half in the housing 1, and the thread cut only in half of the Cabinet holes. Half-drilled holes in the plate 8 is a hollow, threaded half of the holes in the housing 1 is a cross-cutting. When the adjustment screw 9 abuts against the end of the blind hole of the plate 8 and forces it to move it in the longitudinal direction

The cutters 2 are made of trapezoidal form, the response form grooves 5, is made in the case. The cutters 2 installed in the housing 1 on the plates 6, 7 and 8 on a sliding fit and are held therein by caps 10 and 11.

From one end of the cover 10 is eposredstvenno fixed to the body 1 by screws 12, and the other end of the cover 11 through composed of washer-like corrugated spring 4 is also fixed to the housing 1 by screws 12. When the protrusions of the corrugation of the spring 4 is in contact with the cutters 2. The number of projections of the spring must be equal to the number of cutters cutters.

The combined cutter that implements the proposed method allows to semiadaptive to the heterogeneity of the processed material, the fluctuation of the magnitude of the allowance, and other thermo-mechanical damage and to reduce the shock load on the teeth of the tool in the machining process, which will increase the durability of the cutting elements, instrument reliability and vibration resistance process. An additional degree of freedom allows the tooth under the action of forces Pxto move along the guide plates in the axial direction, contacting with the elastic element and overcoming his resistance. After leaving contact with the machined workpiece elastic element returns the tooth to its original position. To increase the reliability of design one side guide plate is made wedge-shaped and movable that allows you to select and regulate technological gaps.

The cutter shown in figure 1-7, is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport. However, this design can be eff is active used for milling any of the surfaces of various workpieces.

For machining when restoring profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport is different in design cutting tools with cutting part use different shape and composition of the removable plate. The main obstacle to the effective use of the tool are thermomechanical damage to the wheel rim that occur during operation [2]. The tightness of the elastic element 4 is secured by screws 12.

Thus, before processing to regulate the elasticity of the damping element 4 depending on the value of retiring allowance, the hardness of the processed material, the nature of thermomechanical damage, etc. by wrapping or screwing out the screws 12 that secure the cover 11 and composed of washer-like corrugated spring 4 to the housing 1 with the aim of improving the vibration resistance and reliability. Determining the value of the specific elasticity of the damping element is made empirically. According to the proposed method while rotating the cutter at a constant speed at the time of cutting tooth in detail in the place of high hardness is the axial displacement of the cutting tooth due to bending elastic corrugations of the spring and reduces the width of the removable chip. This ensures a smooth process of cutting and the transition will throw the political impact energy to potential energy of bending of the elastic spring. After the tooth is out of contact with the workpiece deformirovanii to this elastic element comes in its original condition, restoring the tooth to its original position.

Due to the presence of elastic supports of the tooth and its axial displacement due to the bending elastic corrugated springs are provided with smoothly-intermittent input and output of the teeth of the cutter out of contact with thermo-mechanical damage of the treated surface.

Example. The upgraded pit machine mod. QOL 1836 (made in Kramatorsk KZTS) was processed in the rolling surface of the pair of wheels of railway transport with thermomechanical damage the workpiece diameter wheels - 1009 mm, the diameter of the finished wheel after processing - 995 mm, the treatment was carried out in one pass, so the milling depth is 7 mm Before machining of the surface was carried out induction annealing, the average hardness of the rolling circle after heat treatment amounted to 289 HB. The wheel is made of steel grade 2 in accordance with GOST 10791-89, chemical composition of steel: From 0.60 Percent; Mn - 0,78%; Si - 0,31%; P - 0,03%; S - 0,03%, the rest of the iron. The machining conditions: rotation speed billet wheels - VC=5 m/min (nC=1,6 min-1); the speed of rotation of the cutter - Vand=342 m/min (nand=320 min-1); feed per revolution - So=2.7 mm/Rev. FR is for the proposed design had a number of teeth z=10; the outer diameter of 340 mm; Cup plate RPUX2710MO carbide TC.

Experiments have shown that, subject to the same performance, tool life, working on the proposed method, increased 2.1...2.5 times compared with traditional processing mills, improved surfaces and increased vibration resistance process.

Sources of information

1. DE 4418823 FROM 1 TO 23 WITH 3/04. (NILES-SIMMONS INDUSNRIENLAGEN GMBH). The method of milling surfaces of rotation. 27.07.1995 prototype.

2. Bogdanov A.F., and other Recovery profile wheelset wheelset: textbook / Afroganic, Iaianou, Msica. - SPb.: PSTU, 2000, P.44.

1. The method of milling surfaces of rotation, in which the workpiece and the milling cutter, comprising a housing with cutters with mechanical fastening of the cutting circular plates of hard alloy, according to the rotational motion and the movement of the feed along the workpiece, characterized in that the cutter provide damping element made in the form composed of washer-like corrugated spring, when the cutter body is made with radial grooves of trapezoidal form with expansion to the axis of the cutter, which posted the said cutters are mounted on them cutting plates made of hard alloy, interacting with the damping element, the surface for the selected grooves lined with porous bronze self-lubricating plates, functions bearings, plates, except for one side, made of plane-parallel and fixed to the body motionless, as mentioned side plate is moveable in the form of a wedge and is designed to regulate the gap between it and the cutter by means of a screw screwed into the screw hole, the axis of which passes through the plane of the touch side plate in the form of a wedge with the body and half drilled in the plate, and the other half in the body, and the thread cut only in half of the Cabinet slot, while the cutters are made of trapezoidal form, the response form radial grooves of the casing cutters, set in them on a sliding fit and held in the housing with one end cap and the other of the damping element and the second cover, with the cover attached to the chassis with screws, wrapping or twisting producing regulation of elasticity of the damping element to enhance vibration resistance and reliability of the cutter.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it is designed to handle profile wheelset wheelsets of rail transport.



 

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