Method for defoliation of cotton plants

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing, may be used in preparing of cotton for harvesting.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating sown crops with mixture of chemical substances; harvesting raw cotton. Upon ripening of 20-30% of balls, crops are sprayed with para-aminobenzoic acid and 10-15 day later upon ripening of 50-60% of balls, crops are sprayed with bast defoliant mixture and reglon used in an amount of 1.5-2 kg/hectare of each of said components.

EFFECT: reduced toxicity of defoliants.

2 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly crop production, and may find application in the preparation of cotton harvesting.

The known method of defoliation of cotton plants, which carry out the processing of crops by defoliant for 7-14 days before treatment with mival, reaching high depolymerase activity (autospid. 1715278, a 01 N 55/00, 1992).

In the known technical solution, the defoliant containing chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) in a mixture of chloromethyl-silatranes are toxic to the environment.

The known method of defoliation, when increasing the activity of defoliants used a mixture of 2 components in a certain ratio. While increasing the effectiveness of defoliants and increases the rate synergies of applied components (autospid. 1561230, a 01 N 57/24, 1988).

In the method prototype used a high dose defoliants mixture (6-8 kg/ha), containing also chloroethylphosphonic acid. Used mixture increases the toxicity of agro-ecosystems. Especially harmful acid containing chlorine, which is harmful for the soil microflora. Intake of organochlorine compounds from soil into plants may reach 30%, and in the air more than 20%.

Absorbed by soil chemicals stored for a long time and negatively affect the placenta is outlined in the rotation culture.

The purpose of the invention is the reduction of toxic defoliants.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the crops of cotton treated with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABK) during maturation 20-30% of the bolls, and after 10-15 days when ripe, 50-60% of the bolls of the plants are sprayed with a mixture of defoliants Basta and region at a dose of 3-4 kg/ha

The method is as follows.

PABK - one of the leading factors in stress protection of plants and microorganisms studied agroecosystems. Therefore, processing the crops of that substance on the eve of the use of defoliants (10-15 days), plants acquire adaptive properties to toxic substances.

PABK is a precursor of folic acid, participating in the synthesis of purines, which are part of nucleic acids. This acid is a vitamin H, which is synthesized by microorganisms in the form of folic acid, is widely distributed in plants.

Unlike other stimulants PABK considered phenotypic activator of living organisms, including plants.

The processing of crops aqueous solution PABK in a concentration of 0.1% has a positive effect on the overall metabolism of plants. This increases the intensity of photosynthesis, yield, disease resistance, accelerate the pace of opening boxes.

Made in phase 20-30% maturity corobot is to, PABK strengthens plants with simultaneous acceleration of physiological processes and shortens the growing season. Treatment of crops with a mixture of defoliants in the maturation phase 50-60% of the bolls after 10-15 days further reducing the vegetation.

At the beginning of the Boll maturation (20-30%) goes further development of sympodial branches and make PABK enhances adaptation and accelerates ripening.

We defoliants (reglan, Basta) in the phase 50-60% Boll maturation contribute to accelerated abscission of leaves of the cotton plant (defoliation) and dehydration plants (dessication), which facilitates the harvesting of Mature bolls.

In contrast to known doses of defoliants (Basta and reglan 4-5 kg/ha each) in the claimed technical solution proposed component used for 1.5-2 kg/ha Synergistic mixture allows the use of 3 - 4 kg/ha while strengthening defoliation and gestational activity. When this toxic load on the agro-ecosystem is reduced by reducing the dose of a chemical and preliminary processing of crops PABK.

The results of the studies summarized in tables.

Table 1
The effects of defoliants on the activation of the abscission of leaves and maturing cotton varieties POSS-1
Options experienceThe number of leaves after processing PABK, PCThe leaf number on day 7 after treatment, %The growth of open bolls %
Seele

nye
sex

dry
dryopal

high
the sum of who

action

Vija
Reglan 3-5 kg/ha4622718277412
Basta 3-4 kg/ha5052012407717
Basta+reglan 4-5 kg/ha4831618488528
The proposed mixture Basta+reglan 3-4 kg/ha502325528236

From the given data table. 1 shows that the proposed mixture in low doses allows you to get higher results than each individual component, and the growth of bolls was 36%, which is higher than the other options experience. Higher doses of the mixture (4-5 kg/ha) due to the negative impact of reducing the number of open corobo the EC.

The justification of the selected parameters of the method in terms of processing chemicals is given in table. 2, from which it follows that the number of beneficial microorganisms (actinomycetes) as the most sensitive to toxic substances under the influence of defoliation (without processing PABK) decreased 1.9 times. This increases the number of bolls from 16.5 to control to 28.7 per the proposed version.

Table 2
Influence PABK to reduce toxicity and yield of cotton
Options experienceThe yield of raw cotton, t/haNumber of bolls per plantThe number of actinomycetes in 1 year, million abs.-dry soil
A mixture of reglone and Basta without processing crops PABK10,816,51,2
PABK during maturation 10-15% of bolls with subsequent defoliation14,321,81,8
Offer18,028,72,3
PABK when ripe, 35-40% of bolls with subsequent defoliation12,819,41,9

The shortening of the processing of crops after spraying defoliants PABK not on the art of positive results, since the required period for Boll maturation 50-60%, that is, when applied chemicals to accelerate ripening.

Example 1. When ripe, 20% of the bolls were in the processing of crops 0.1% solution PABK at the rate of 30 g per 300 l of water (hectare norm). 10 days later (when ripe 50% bolls) crops cultivated defoliants mixture (reglan 1.5 kg/ha and that of 1.5 kg/ha). After 7 days spent picking cotton.

Example 2. The method was carried out as in the first example. When ripe, 30% of the bolls crops sprayed with 0.1% solution PABK, 15 days later when ripe 60% of bolls have used a mixture of reglone (2 kg/ha) and Basta (2 kg/ha). After 7-8 days spent cleaning.

The way the defoliation of cotton plants, including the treatment of crops with a mixture of chemicals, followed by the cotton harvest, characterized in that during maturation 20-30% of bolls crops are sprayed with para-aminobenzoic acid, and after 10-15 days in the ripening period of 50-60% of the bolls are treatment of crops with a mixture of defoliants Basta and reglone in the amount of 1,5-2 kg/ha each.



 

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