Magnetic-cumulative method and device for producing a voltage pulse

FIELD: pulse equipment engineering, in particular, technology for magnetic accumulation of energy, related to problem of fast compression of magnetic flow by means of metallic casing, accelerated by air blast produced by detonation of explosive substance; technology for forming high voltage pulses, which can be used for powering high impedance loads, like, for example, electronic accelerators, lasers, plasma sources, UHF-devices, and the like.

SUBSTANCE: method for producing voltage pulse includes operations for creating starting magnetic flow, compressing it under effect from explosive substance charge explosion products in main hollow, output of magnetic flow into accumulating hollow and forming of pulse in load and, additionally, compression of magnetic flow is performed in accumulating hollow, forming of pulse is performed in additional forming hollow, and main, accumulating and forming hollows are filled with electro-durable gas. Device for realization of magnetic-cumulative method of voltage pulse production includes spiral magnetic-cumulative generator, having coaxial external spiral-shaped conductor and inner conductor with charge of explosive substance, the two forming between each other aforementioned main hollow for compressing magnetic flow, and also accumulating hollow and load. Device additionally has pulse forming hollow, positioned between additional hollow and load. Accumulating hollow is formed by additional spiral conductor, connected to spiral conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator and to portion of inner conductor. In accumulating hollow coaxially with inner conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator, ring-shaped conical dielectric element is positioned. All hollow are connected to system for pumping electric-durable gas. Ring-shaped conical dielectric element is made with outer cylindrical surface, adjacent to inner surface of additional spiral conductor, and to inner conical surface. Angle α between outer surface of portion of inner conductor, positioned in accumulating hollow, and inner surface of conical ring-shaped dielectric element is made in accordance to relation 7°≤α≤30°.

EFFECT: increased power, increased current pulse amplitude, shorter pulse duration, increased electric durability.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of pulse technique, in particular to magnetic concentration of energy, i.e. to the quick compression of the magnetic flux by means of a metal shell, dispersed shock wave explosives (he), and to the formation of pulses of high voltage, which can be used for powering high-impedance loads, such as electronic accelerators, lasers, plasma sources, microwave devices, etc. in Addition, the high voltage pulses can be used to study the behavior of an object subjected to such effect.

The known method and device, the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, see the collection of scientific papers "problems of modern experimental and theoretical physics / edited Afalexander - Leningrad: Nauka, 1984, p.260, Fig.21. The method includes the steps of creating an initial magnetic flux, its introduction into the deformable contour, the initial compression of the magnetic flux through the shock wave of the explosive charge and excretion of magnetic energy in the load is shunted by a coaxial resistive membrane (foil, electrically-blowing conductors (PCI), etc. that change their resistance in the process of heat flowing through her shock. This compression of the magnetic flux produced in the metal pin is re (coaxial cavity) by deformation of the diverging shock wave from the BB with decreasing cavity size. The removal of magnetic energy to the load and its aggravation is carried out in the process of diffusion of the generated magnetic field through the outer coaxial shell, which during the whole time of cumulation is heated (up to electric explosion), which leads to a considerable increase in its resistance.

To increase the power of the generated pulse and efficient energy transfer in high-impedance load with the impedance measured by the units and tens of Ohms, it is necessary to change the inductance of the loopthis generator was significantly faster than the growth of the ohmic resistance R of the entire electric circuit of the circuit during the entire time of cumulation, i.e. it is necessary that.

This magnetic flux compression generator (ICG) has a relatively low primary inductance, the value of which about one hundred nanohenry. This does not allow for a relatively short time (of the order of ten microseconds) to provide relatively high speed output (changes) of its inductance. In addition, for enhancing energy required to remain after deformation inductance, which is a kind of inductive energy storage was small (unit nanogen the and). This in turn does not allow for end-stage extract energy in the load to have a large resistance of the resistive shell that you want to negotiate MCG with high-impedance physical devices. In this case, because of the small value of inductance of the drive will be a large attenuation of the current in its circuit, even for the time, measured in units of nanoseconds. For the solution of many physical and engineering problems, the input energy must derive from several tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. In reality, for the effective realization of how similar the resistance of the resistive shell should not be more than a few hundredths of an Ohm.

The disadvantage of this method and device is the low primary inductance device and the speed of the output inductance, which does not allow a given current amplitude of a certain length for efficient energy transfer and increase the power of the generated pulse in a high-impedance load.

Closest to the claimed magnetic flux compression is the method and the device receiving the voltage pulse, see proceedings of the conference "The 28thIEEE International Conference on Plasma Science and The 13thIEEE International Pulsed Power Conference/Ed. Robert Reinovsky and Mark Newton - Las Vegas, Nevada 2001, the report of the "Study of Fast Compact Helical MCG", str 1". The way the prototype includes surgery is the initial magnetic flux, compression under the action of the products of explosion of the explosive charge in the main cavity, the output of the magnetic flux in the accumulator cavity and the formation of a pulse in the load.

The device prototype Figure 1 contains a helical magnetic flux compression generator, consisting of a coaxial outer helical conductor 1 and the inner conductor 2 with the explosive charge 3, forming between the main cavity 4 of the compression of the magnetic flux, and cumulative cavity 5 and the load 6. The load 6 is shunted by an array of electrically exploding conductors 11 (PCI)that changes its resistance in hundreds of times in the process of heat flowing through them current. Themselves PCI placed in storage cavity 5, where the formation of the impulse.

The operation of the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out in the main cavity, the inner side of the limited internal cylindrical-conical conductor, and the outer spiral guide (solenoid). During the operation of compression products explosion deform only axisymmetric inner conductor. Due to the use of the spiral conductor, which is part of the circuit of Figure 2, it is possible to significantly increase the inductance of the primary cavity LIthe speed of withdrawal of its inductanceand the value is inductively L IIcumulative cavity, which works MCG. The presence of large values of LII(for example, of the order of 1 mH) you can use this conductor, which at the end of the work of the IAG will change its initial resistance in the process of electric heating in hundreds of times, providing a large resistance value (units, tens of Ohms), required for the efficient formation of the pulse in the load. Although this resistance is large, and its value is not critical (will not have a significant impact on the process of decay of the current in the circuit side of the storage cavity) for those times (of the order of a hundred nanoseconds), which will result in the transfer of energy in a high-impedance load to her aggravation. The result will manage to create a powerful pulse of energy in the load.

The disadvantage of the method and device according to the prototype is the insufficient level of the generated magnetic energy and power, due to increasing in the process of working voltage UG, the maximum value is limited by electrical breakdown, i.e. electrical strength. And the insufficient level of the generated voltage pulse to change the resistance, located in the side of the storage cavity, associated with a significant reduction in the rate output range of complete is Yunosti MCG at the final stage due to a substantial increase in the pitch of the helix, leads to constraints on the amplitude and duration of the current pulse in the load.

This invention solved the problem of creating a method and device that would allow to use the powerful pulses of magnetic energy in the high-impedance loads with a duration of much less than a microsecond in research, experimental and applied fields.

Technical result achieved in the solution of this task is to increase the power, the amplitude of the current pulse, reducing the pulse duration, as well as to improve electrodiagnostic.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in comparison with the known magnetic flux compression method for obtaining a voltage pulse includes creating the initial magnetic flux compression under the action of the products of explosion of the explosive charge in the main cavity, the output of the magnetic flux in the accumulator cavity and the formation of a pulse in the load, additional compression of the magnetic flux produced in the accumulation cavity, and pulse shaping is carried out in the additional cavity formation, and the main cumulative and cavity formation fill elektroprogram gas such as sulfur hexafluoride SF6or its mixture with other gases. In some cases, main, drive the left and cavity formation fill various electroprecizia gases or their mixtures at different pressures.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in comparison with the known device for the magnetic flux compression method of obtaining a voltage pulse comprising a helical magnetic flux compression generator, containing a coaxial outer spiral conductor and an inner conductor with an explosive charge, forming between the main cavity of the compression of the magnetic flux, and cumulative cavity and the load, it further comprises a cavity forming pulse located between the accumulation cavity and the load. Cumulative cavity formed additional spiral conductor is connected with a spiral conductor MCG, and part of the inner conductor. In cumulative cavity coaxially with the inner conductor MCG is an annular conical dielectric element. All cavities are connected with the pumping system elektroprogram gas. Annular tapered dielectric element is made with the outer cylindrical surface adjacent to the inner surface of the additional spiral conductor, and the inner conical surface. Angle α between the outer surface of the internal conductor located in cumulative cavity, and the inner surface of the conical annular dielectric element issue is LAN in accordance with a ratio of 7° ≤α≤30°.

In the inventive method, the compression of the magnetic flux carried out additionally in cavity formation. Thus, the device contains 3 cavity Figure 4: basic I, II and cumulative cavity formation III.

The main and cumulative cavity formed adjacent helical coils arranged in the zone of deformation of the inner conductor (liner), the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out continuously during the entire process. The high inductance of the spiral conductor in combination with a sufficiently high output inductance additional spiral conductor cumulative cavity ensures the achievement of a high rate of change of inductance and displacement of the magnetic flux over the entire operating time UG.

Therefore, due to the fact that there is a change in inductance in the accumulation cavitythere is a more stringent conditionnecessary for the efficient operation of UG. In this case, the increase of resistance of the PCI in the process of all-time accumulation will lead to lower ohmic losses due to the higher quality factor of the circuit path that will provide more current and, as a consequence, and more energy. It also allows reasonable to go to the COI is whether the slightly higher resistance of PCI without significant energy loss, because a significant change in resistance value occurs for a very short period of time at the final stage of operation of the device. Thus it will be possible to reduce the duration of the pulse in the load and increase capacity.

In addition, it allows you to enter additional cavity formation, located between the accumulation cavity and the load, with a relatively small constant inductance LIII. It placed the PCI is the formation of the pulse voltage. Since the inductance LIIIcavity formation at any point in time is always less than the variable inductance LIIcumulative cavity, in the process ΜG voltage at the input cavity formation will be determined by the value of(I - current in the circuit), which is considerably less than in the prototype. However, when electrical explosion of the generator will work on the same large inductance defined by the remaining LIIand LIII. Consequently, cavity formation, there is an additional opportunity to generate greater magnetic energy, as the strength of its entrance has a sufficient reserve, allowing you to work ΜG in more saturated mode. In addition, the presence of such an important factor, as the compression of the magnetic flux in the portion of the circuit, however, is sustained fashion cavity will lead to additional electromotive force (EMF), which occurs when the deformation of the loop cumulative oral. It does the job ΜG less dependent on the settings of PCI. Therefore, there will be an increase in the final current in the circuit formation and, as a consequence, the voltage on PCI. The use of annular conical element in the accumulation cavity enables you to lock the inductance value of the remainder of this cavity (as mentioned earlier, it is changed in the process ICG) as a result of inhibition of the inner conductor is deformed products of CENTURIES, on the surface of the cone when electrical explosion. Angle α between storage elements of the cavity is selected so that it was equal to or slightly greater angle of the inner conductor (liner). Angle α between the outer surface of the internal conductor located in cumulative cavity, and the inner surface of the conical annular dielectric element made in accordance with a ratio of 7°≤α≤30°. Depending on the explosive composition, quantity, dimensions of the inner conductor in the MAG and base its flight speed of deformation of the liner may vary from 12% to 50% with respect to the velocity of detonation of EXPLOSIVES. It defines this relationship for α(0,12≤tgα≤0,5). To the ome, as this spiral conductor cumulative cavity is closed annular tapered dielectric element, it is possible to protect it from electrical breakdowns that can occur between the helical conductor and the inner conductor. This will strengthen the strength of the output device.

Filling of all cavities elektroprogram gas can further enhance the strength as ΜG together with the storage cavity, and cavity formation. It also allows you to cavity formation in the electric moment of the explosion to prevent the breakdown of pairs exploding wires, thereby providing the required voltage parameters. As elektroprenos gas most often used sulfur hexafluoride (SF6or its mixture with other gases, for example nitrogen. During operation of the device in the cavity will be different voltages. Depending on its value, you can use electroprecizia gases or their mixtures with different characteristics electric strength, to reduce inefficient use of more expensive and rare gases. If in normal conditions elektroprovodnyi characteristics of the device cannot be ensured with the help of these gases or mixtures thereof, the cavity is filled electroprecizia gases under different pressures. For example, if the gas change is ü pressure of 1 ATM, the breakdown voltage associated with the breakdown on the surface of the insulator increases by approximately 1.5 times.

All these conditions allow to increase the output energy to the load and to increase its capacity by increasing the pulse voltage and current.

1 shows a device for implementing the magnetic flux compression method according to the prototype.

Figure 2 shows a diagram of the prototype.

Figure 3 shows the inventive device for implementing the inventive magnetic flux compression method of obtaining a voltage impulse.

Figure 4 shows the inventive scheme.

The diagram in Figure 2 contains the variable inductance and the resistance of the primary cavity (LI, RI), a constant cumulative inductance of the cavity (LII), a constant inductance EVP (LPCIand AC resistance (RPCI), and a constant inductance and load resistance (LH, Rnand the key with which it connects to the MCG. Use the key that connects the load only when the on PCI predetermined voltage, can reduce the duration of the pulse, thereby affecting the formation of power.

The difference circuit 4 from the schema shown in figure 2, is that the cumulative cavity has a variable inductance and DC resistance (RII), and that the same is specified inductance and resistance (L III, RIII), which relate to additional cavity formation.

The device 3 for the implementation of the proposed method includes spiral ΜG containing coaxial outer helical conductor 1 and the inner conductor 2 with the explosive charge 3, forming between the main cavity 4 of the compression of the magnetic flux, and cumulative cavity 5, the load 6 and the additional cavity forming pulse 7. Cumulative cavity 5 formed part of the inner conductor 2 and an extra spiral conductor 8 connected with a spiral conductor 1 ΜG. In cumulative cavity 5 is coaxially relative to the conductors 1 and 2 is circular conical dielectric element 9. Cavity 4, 5, 7 are connected with the pumping system 10 elektroprogram gas. Conical annular dielectric element 9 is made with the outer cylindrical surface adjacent to the inner surface of the additional conductor 8 and the inner conical surface. Angle α between the outer surface of the internal conductor located in cumulative cavity, and the inner surface of the conical annular dielectric element made in accordance with a ratio of 7°≤α≤30°. In addition, the device contains a cavity 7 formation of PCI 11, has a system of initiation is Finance 12 charge 3 and the trailer TOCA. This specification is also the same as for Figure 1, which shows the device selected as a prototype.

Declare MK-a method of obtaining a voltage pulse includes creating the initial magnetic flux in the core cavity 4, for example, from the condenser. Next, produce the compression flow under the action of the products of explosion of the explosive charge 3 in the main cavity 4, and the magnetic flux in cumulative output cavity 5. Additionally, the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out in a cumulative cavity 5. Pulse shaping is carried out in the additional cavity formation 7. Before creating the initial magnetic flux cavity (primary 4, 5 additional and formation of 7) fill elektroprogram gas such as sulfur hexafluoride SF6or its mixture with other gases. The cavity can be filled with different electroprecizia gases or their mixtures under different pressure.

The device of figure 3 operates as follows.

The primary source of energy is connected to the top of the spiral conductor 1 of the main cavity and to the end of the spiral conductor 8 cumulative cavity. At a given point in time the primary source of energy begins to razrazhatsya. After a certain period of time, the initiation system 12 performs the undermining of charge 3. Propagate a detonation of the charge leads to deformation of nutrunner Explorer 2, associated with his strength. This in turn leads to a decrease in the inductance of the main cavity 4, i.e. to the beginning of the work of the IAG determined by the moment of closing the inner conductor 2 with trailer, DC 13. With this point of time, the magnetic flux begins to be pushed into the cavity formation 7. Generates magnetic energy and heating PCI 11 posted it. After a certain point in time, the detonation goes to the charge socket on the cumulative cavity 5, and causes deformation of that part of the inner conductor 4, which is located in this cavity. From this time begins to decrease and the cumulative inductance of the cavity 5. Expansion of the inner conductor 4 in the accumulation cavity 5 is limited to an annular tapered dielectric element 9. At this point in time, usually electric explosion of conductors 6 with the advent of high voltage. When the device is typically used two variants of connection of the load 6. Often, because the load is high impedance, it is connected in parallel PCI 11 and directly electrically connected with the cavity formation 5 (key K - closed). In this case, the main increase in the amplitude of the current in the load 6 will occur only at the final stage, when there is a sharp (more than a hundred times) policrystalline PCI 11 from a few hundredths to a few tens of Ohms. The second option is to connect the load associated with using open key (discharger configured To at a given voltage) Figure 2 and Figure 4.

In the example implementation, the devices used eight-section spiral ΜG connected directly to the variable cumulative cavity and having a side cavity formation. Spiral conductors in the generator and in the accumulation cavity was tied to a diameter of 60 mm, and the total length of the two coils was ˜250 mm Inner conductor (liner) was aluminum with a tapered extension on the part of the connection cavity formation. The maximum outer diameter of the tapered section 45 mm. the length of the conical section of the liner 120 mm, an Outer diameter of the liner on the cylindrical section is 31 mm, an internal diameter of 20 mm In the liner applied, the explosive charge from a plastic composition. The mass of the explosive charge is ˜270, Primary inductance ΜG cumulative cavity was ˜1 mH. The inductance of the cavity formation was of the order of 0.04 mH.

Cumulative cavity, the inductance of which varies in the process, closed Coliseum conical dielectric element. This box, in addition to the security section and the output of the generator from electrical breakdowns, and still need to fix the values of the inductance nakopitel the second cavity at the time of PCI. The angle of the conical holes in the dielectric element is usually selected so that it was equal to or somewhat larger opening angle of the liner. In case the angle α (3) was equal to 12°.

In the example implementation of the proposed method, the initial magnetic flux ˜0,17 WB was created from the capacitor Bank capacitance 1 UF capacitor, charged to a voltage of 9 kV. The compression was carried out in the main cavity and the cumulative cavity having a total primary inductance of 1 mH. The output of the magnetic flux in the accumulator cavity and cavity formation occurred until their total inductance is not decreased to ˜1 µh. When this pulse shaping took place in cavity formation, where he carried out the electrical explosion of conductors. Full time UG was ˜25 µs, and the characteristic rise time of the current increase at the final stage in the e-fold) in PCI ˜2,5 μs. To increase electrodiagnostic devices all cavities were filled SF6under pressure ˜5 ATM. As EVP used 16 copper wires, each with a length of 100 mm and a diameter of 0.1 mm

During operation of the inventive device in inductance ˜1000 µh, the value of which was remaining at the time of PCI inductance cumulative cavity and of the inductance of the cavity forms the simulation, was obtained magnetic energy 780 joules. When this EVP was obtained voltage 113 kV. (In the prototype, the voltage on the PCI was 74 sq.) In the load inductance of 0.03 mH and a resistance of 25 Ohms was formed pulse amplitude of 4.5 kA and duration ˜100 NS.

Thus, the inventive method and device in comparison with the prototype allows to increase the power of 2, 33 times, the amplitude of the voltage of 1.53 times the current amplitude of 1.52 times, reduce the pulse duration of 1.1 times and increase the strength of the output ΜG to about 1.5 times. In the prototype, when the cumulative cavity was not shown and it has a PCI was obtained on PCI voltage 74 kV. The initial conditions were the same.

1. Magnetic flux compression a method of obtaining a voltage pulse including the creation of the initial magnetic flux compression under the action of the products of explosion of the explosive charge in the main cavity, the output of the magnetic flux in the accumulator cavity and the formation of a pulse in the load, characterized in that the compression of the magnetic flux is additionally carried out in the accumulation cavity, pulse shaping is carried out in the additional cavity formation, and the main cumulative and cavity formation fill elektroprogram gas.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the bulk, accumulate is inou and cavity formation is filled with sulfur hexafluoride SF 6or its mixture with other gases.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cumulative and cavity formation fill various electroprecizia gases or mixtures thereof.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, characterized in that the cavity is filled electroprecizia gases under different pressures.

5. A device for implementing the magnetic flux compression method of obtaining a voltage pulse comprising a helical magnetic flux compression generator, containing a coaxial outer spiral conductor and an inner conductor with an explosive charge, forming between the main cavity of the compression of the magnetic flux, and cumulative cavity and the load, characterized in that it further comprises a cavity forming pulse located between the accumulation cavity and a load electrically exploded wires, located in cavity formation, and cumulative cavity formed additional spiral conductor is connected with a spiral conductor in the magnetic flux compression generator, and a part of the inner conductor, in addition, cumulative cavity coaxially with the inner conductor magnetic flux compression generator is an annular conical dielectric element, and all cavities are connected with the pumping system elektroprogram gas.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the annular tapered dielectric element is designed with an inner conical surface and an outer cylindrical surface adjacent to the inner surface of the additional spiral conductor.

7. The device according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the angle α between the outer surface of the internal conductor located in cumulative cavity, and the inner surface of the conical annular dielectric element made in accordance with a ratio of 7°≤α≤30°.



 

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1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; generation of extremely intensive magnetic fields by magnetic cumulation method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed for manufacturing cylindrical shell with conductors disposed along generating line includes placement of insulated conductors on main cylindrical mandrel, its potting in curing compound, and post-curing mechanical treatment of shell. Insulated conductors are wound on additional T-shaped mandrel that has cylindrical part and base perpendicular to its axis; base carries longitudinal cleats with slits on its opposite ends for winding two conductor coils at a time. Coils are placed upon trimming on main cylindrical mandrel so that conductors are arranged along generating line of mandrel, this procedure being followed by removing fixation clamps from parts.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; drive motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed permanent-magnet motor has twin stator incorporating permanent magnets in the form of U-section solenoids disposed on inner surface of stator and two rotors, one per each permanent-magnet section, in the form of arched bars rigidly coupled with axis of revolution, as well as coupling and flywheel. Rotor magnet is attracted by stator solenoid due to interaction of unlike-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets which turns rotor through definite angle until like-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets are aligned. As rotor magnet end front along its running leaves dead zone, it is pushed out of stator magnet and ensures continuous rotary motion. When rotor passes through dead zone, its rotary motion is maintained by flywheel and dc machine running as motor supplied with power from storage battery that functions to help rotor pass through dead zone. Upon leaving dead zone rotor shaft load reduces and dc machine runs as generator. In his way electrical energy is recuperated and used for booster charge of storage battery.

EFFECT: enhanced power output and efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to devices that convert one form of energy into another and can be used to generate electricity without fuel costs due to the thermal energy of the environment

The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular to rotary devices with permanent magnets

The invention relates to the field of nonlinear capacitors, according to the invention a capacitive Converter is a nonlinear voltage capacity with nonlinear dielectric, which is used as organic pyroelectric dielectric with ferroelectric polarization, capable in a cycle of charge and discharge to increase the permeability of0~ 1.2 tov~ 8 in an alternating field E so thatthereby>1, whereWp- power discharge, W3- should be put in charge

The invention relates to the field of electricity and can be used in engines and other machines used in various fields of human activity

FIELD: electrical engineering; drive motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed permanent-magnet motor has twin stator incorporating permanent magnets in the form of U-section solenoids disposed on inner surface of stator and two rotors, one per each permanent-magnet section, in the form of arched bars rigidly coupled with axis of revolution, as well as coupling and flywheel. Rotor magnet is attracted by stator solenoid due to interaction of unlike-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets which turns rotor through definite angle until like-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets are aligned. As rotor magnet end front along its running leaves dead zone, it is pushed out of stator magnet and ensures continuous rotary motion. When rotor passes through dead zone, its rotary motion is maintained by flywheel and dc machine running as motor supplied with power from storage battery that functions to help rotor pass through dead zone. Upon leaving dead zone rotor shaft load reduces and dc machine runs as generator. In his way electrical energy is recuperated and used for booster charge of storage battery.

EFFECT: enhanced power output and efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg

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