Electrooptical modulator

FIELD: optical instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: modulator has non-monochromatic radiation source, polarizer, first crystal, first analyzer, and second crystal, second analyzer which units are connected together in series by optical coupling. Modulator also has control electric field generator connected with second crystal. Optical axes of first and second crystals are perpendicular to direction of radiation and are parallel to each other. Axes of transmission of polarizer and analyzers are parallel to each other and are disposed at angle of 45o to optical axes of crystals.

EFFECT: widened spectral range.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to optical instruments, and in particular to systems for regulating the intensity of optical radiation, and can be used for light modulation, processing and transmission of optical information.

Is currently the urgent problem of creating a simple and reliable device modulation of optical radiation of arbitrary spectral composition, capable of changing the intensity of the radiation control electric field without distortion of the optical information.

Known electro-optical modulator of monochromatic radiation with transverse application of an electric field [1]. An electro-optical modulator contains the source parallel beam of monochromatic radiation, a polarizer, an anisotropic electro-optical crystal, the analyzer and the generator of the electric field. The source of radiation, a polarizer, an anisotropic electro-optic crystal, and an analyzer sequentially interconnected optical communications. In this case the electric field is directed perpendicular to the radiation. The axis of transmission of the analyzer and polarizer are parallel to each other and are angled 45 degrees to the optical axis of the crystal.

After passing through the parallel beam of monochromatic radiation through a polarizer in the anisotropic electro-optical crystal each l is h is split into two beams with orthogonal polarizations, one of which is ordinary, the other is extraordinary. Due to the fact that the angle between the axis of the polarizer and the optic axis of the crystal is 45 degrees, the amplitude of the ordinary and extraordinary waves are equal. Due to the difference of refractive indices at the output of the crystal between the ordinary and extraordinary rays occurs a phase difference Δϕ0constant in the absence of a control electric field.

Modulation is performed by an electric field. At the same time manifests a transverse electro-optic effect, which depends on the distance between the faces of the crystal. Attached to the opposite faces of the crystal control field in different ways changes the index of refraction of the ordinary and extraordinary beams due to transverse electro-optic effect. In between the ordinary and extraordinary rays, an additional phase difference ΔϕU. In the analyzer, depending on the phase difference is the addition or subtraction of projections of the vectors of intensities of the ordinary and extraordinary rays on the axis of transmission of the analyzer. Thus there is increase or decrease the intensity of the emergent radiation. At zero voltage the radiation intensity will be maximum, when the voltage to led the ins to a half-wave voltage U λ/2the beam intensity becomes minimum. At the same time on the screen for a modulator observed monochromatic light spot or dark. The radiation intensity varies from a maximum value to a minimum when the electric voltage.

The advantage of this modulator is a high modulation depth at a certain temperature and at a low value of the control voltage. This is because, firstly, the use of monochromatic radiation; secondly, the crystal has a high value of the electro-optic coefficients; thirdly, for the electro-optical light modulation in thin crystals require a lower voltage due to the transverse electro-optic effect.

However, the drawback of the modulator monochromatic radiation is the dependence of the radiation intensity at the output of the modulator temperature. In the case of temperature changes is reduced modulation depth, i.e. changing the ratio of maximum intensity to the minimum. When the temperature of the crystal in the absence of stress, the intensity of the beam is different from the maximum intensity, and when the half-wave voltage Uλ/2from minimum. This is because the temperature change in different ways changes the warranty is if the refraction of the ordinary and extraordinary rays, consequently between ordinary and extraordinary rays, an additional phase difference ΔϕT. Thus, the position of the maximum and minimum intensity shifts and modulation distortion occurs in the optical information.

Closest to the claimed solution of the essential features and the achieved result is known electro-optical modulator of monochromatic radiation with transverse application of an electric field, which reduced the effect of temperature on the characteristics of the modulator [2].

An electro-optical modulator contains the source parallel beam of monochromatic radiation, a polarizer, two identical anisotropic electro-optic crystal analyzer and generator control electric field. The source of radiation, a polarizer, two anisotropic electro-optic crystal and the analyzer sequentially interconnected optical communications. The axis of transmission of the analyzer and polarizer are parallel to each other and are angled 45 degrees to the optical axes of the crystals, which are mutually perpendicular and perpendicular to the direction of radiation. While controlling the electric field applied to the second crystal and directed perpendicular to the radiation.

After passing parallel PU is ka monochromatic radiation through the polarizer and the first crystal each beam is split into two beams with orthogonal polarizations, one of which is ordinary, the other is extraordinary. Due to the fact that the angle between the axis of the polarizer and the optic axis of the crystal is 45 degrees, the amplitude of the ordinary and extraordinary waves are equal. Due to the difference of refractive indices at the output of the crystal occurs a fixed phase difference Δϕ01between the ordinary and extraordinary rays. Then the beams pass through the second anisotropic crystal. Due to the fact that the optical axis of the second crystal perpendicular to the optical axis of the first crystal, the rays, which is common to the first crystal, become unusual, and unusual for the first - ordinary. While in the second crystal occurs a phase difference Δϕ02between the ordinary and extraordinary rays, which is equal to and opposite in sign to the phase difference Δϕ01in the first crystal. Thus, the total phase difference Δϕ0between the ordinary and extraordinary rays, due to the natural birefringence for the two crystals is equal to zero.

Modulation is the control electric field applied to the second crystal perpendicular to the direction of the parallel beam of monochromatic radiation that is pop the river electrooptical effect. After application of the control field to the opposite faces of the second crystal due to a change in refractive index, an additional phase difference ΔϕUbetween the ordinary and extraordinary beams due to transverse electro-optic effect. The analyzer depending on the total phase difference (Δϕ01+Δϕ02+ΔϕU) add or subtract vectors projections of the intensities of the ordinary and extraordinary rays on the axis of transmission of the analyzer, thus there is increase or decrease the intensity of the emergent radiation. At zero voltage the beam intensity will be maximum when the voltage rises to a value of half-wave voltage Uλ/2the beam intensity becomes minimum. In this screen there is a monochrome spot light or darkness.

When the voltage change of the spectral composition of the radiation is not changed, and changes the intensity. The width of the spectral range of the radiation is of the order of 0.1 Angstrom. The modulation depth is high. This is due to the fact that use radiation to a narrow spectral range, and the variance is virtually absent, i.e. radiation at all wavelengths in this range is almost the same showing the spruce of refraction and with the change of voltage changes in the same way.

When the temperature of the first crystal in different ways changes the refractive indices of ordinary and extraordinary rays. This leads to the appearance of an additional phase difference ΔϕT1between the ordinary and extraordinary rays in the first crystal. The same thing happens in the second crystal. Due to the mutually perpendicular orientation of the optical axes of the first and second crystals additional phase difference ΔϕT1in the first crystal is equal to and opposite in sign to the additional phase difference ΔϕT2in the second crystal. Thus, the total phase difference ΔϕTdue to changes in temperature, is equal to zero, which leads to a compensation of the temperature influence on the characteristics of the modulator and makes the intensity of the radiation at the output of the modulator is independent of the temperature fluctuations.

The advantage of the modulator is its thermal stability at high modulation depth of monochromatic radiation at a sufficiently low control voltage.

Temperature stability due to the compensation of the phase difference ΔϕTappearing when the temperature changes. This is achieved due to the perpendicular orientation of the optical axes of the crystals that leads to the fact that the passage across the crystals ordinary and extraordinary rays are swapped.

High depth of modulation of the radiation at sufficiently low control voltage due to the high values of the electro-optic coefficients of the crystal, the presence of transverse electro-optic effect in the crystal and the use of monochromatic radiation.

However, a disadvantage of the known modulator is a low depth of modulation of the radiation with a wide range, which leads to a distortion of the optical information and the lack of a control optical beam. This is because an increase in the width of the spectrum of a known modulator controls only the radiation of a narrow spectral range, the intensity of radiation at other wavelengths when changing the control field remains unchanged. Changes in the intensity of radiation of a narrow spectral range does not affect the intensity of the total radiation with a wide spectral range. Thus, the modulation depth of radiation with a wide range decreases almost to zero, and the modulation of the radiation becomes impossible. In this case, the screen always observed the light spot brightness is constant in any changes of the control field.

The problem solved by the inventor, is to develop an electro-optical modulator, optical radiation with a wide spectral range, the cat is who has a high depth of modulation without distortion of the optical information while maintaining the low value of the control electric field and thermal stability.

To solve the problem in the known electro-optical modulator with the cross-application of the control electrical field containing the source of radiation, a polarizer, two identical anisotropic electro-optic crystal, and an analyzer, connected in series between an optical connection, and the generator of the electric field applied to the second crystal, and the optical axis of the first and second crystals perpendicular to the direction of the radiation axis of the polarizer and analyzer are parallel to each other and are angled 45 degrees to the optical axes of the crystals, added a second analyzer located between the first and second crystal, the radiation source is selected nemonokhromaticheskogo, with the optical axis of the first and second crystals, and the axis of transmission of the first and second analyzers, respectively, are oriented parallel to each other.

Maintenance of the analyzer between the crystals and the parallel orientation of the optical axes of the crystal axis transmittance analyzers allow you to modulate nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation with a high depth of modulation without distortion of the optical information.

This is because the radiation containing the rays of all wavelengths and having a high total intensity is converted when the module is AI in radiation, where no rays of certain wavelengths, and the amplitude of the attendees rays is reduced, which leads to a sharp decrease in the total intensity transmitted through the modulator radiation, providing a high depth of modulation of the radiation.

Continuous spectrum nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation with a rectangular profile (with the same amplitude intensity for all wavelengths) in the analyzer, located between the crystals is converted into a spectrum with different amplitudes, intensities in the interval from zero to maximum values for different wavelengths with circumflex line, which describes the function cos2(Δϕ1), where Δϕ1the phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays in the first crystal, which for each wavelength has its own value.

This radiation output from the modulator is converted into radiation with the spectrum maxima and minima in the intensity of which remain on the same wavelength, and the envelope line is described by the function type cos2(Δϕ01)cos2(Δϕ02), where Δϕ01that Δϕ02the phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays in the first and second crystals having each wavelength has its own meaning. The total intensity of the past radiation is slightly lower is fast compared to the intensity of the radiation before the second crystal. On the screen there is a bright spot.

The application of the control field changes the refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary rays in the second crystal, which leads to the appearance of an additional phase difference ΔϕUdue to the electric field. As a result, in the emission spectrum of new maxima and minima of intensity, and the intensity of the output beams for each wavelength decreases. The spectrum of this radiation has an enveloping line, which describes the function cos2(Δϕ01)cos2(Δϕ02+ΔϕU). When the half-wave voltage Uλ/2the total radiation intensity is several times lower than in the absence of the control field. This indicates a high modulation depth. On the screen there is a dark spot.

In addition, the temperature stability is provided by the identity of the crystals and parallel orientation of their axes. When the temperature of each crystal is offset from the position of maxima and minima in the spectrum of the transmitted radiation at the same value Δλ. As a result, total intensity passing through the modulator radiation does not change with temperature, therefore the temperature change does not change the depth of modulation.

Cash is having a significant distinguishing features demonstrates compliance of the proposed solutions the patentability criteria of "novelty".

Distinctive signs in the totality of characteristics solutions lead to a new, logically resulting from the prior art result, namely the radiation of all wavelengths with equal amplitude intensity is converted into radiation with a reduced amplitude in intensity and does not contain rays of certain wavelengths, which allows you to modulate nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation. The presence of a new causal link "distinguishing features - the new result testifies to the compliance of the proposed solutions to the patentability criterion of "inventive step".

Figure 1 shows a diagram of the electro-optic modulator.

Figure 2 presents the spectra of the radiation output of the electro-optic modulator crystal LiNbO3at different values of the controlling electric field.

Figure 3 shows the dependence of the total intensity of the radiation output of the electro-optic modulator from the control electric field value for the emission spectral range from 530-590 nm.

An electro-optical modulator contains two identical anisotropic electro-optic crystal 1, 2, a polarizer 3, two analyzer 4, 5, source nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation 6 and the generator control electric field 7.

Source nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation the value 6, the polarizer 3, the crystal 1, the analyzer 4, the crystal 2, the analyzer 5 are connected in series optical connection.

The optical axis of the crystals 1, 2 are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the direction of radiation propagation, and the axis of the polarizer 3 and the analyzer 4, 5 parallel to each other and are angled 45 degrees to the optical axes of the crystals 1, 2.

The generator control electric field 7 is electrically connected to the crystal 2. Moreover, the intensity of the control field perpendicular to the direction of radiation.

As the anisotropic electro-optic crystals selected crystal LiNbO3with length l=1 cm in the direction of light propagation and thickness d=1 mm along the direction of the controlling electric field.

Electro-optic modulator operates as follows. The radiation from the source 6 nemonokhromaticheskogo and contains rays of all wavelengths in a wide spectral range (about 600 angstroms). Parallel beam nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation after passing through the polarizer 3 is distributed in the crystal 1, in which each beam of the appropriate wavelength is split into two beams with orthogonal polarizations, one of which is ordinary, the other is extraordinary. Due to the fact that the angle between the axis of the polarizer 3 and the optical axis of Christ is the llah 1 is 45 degrees, the amplitudes of the ordinary and extraordinary rays at any wavelength equal. Due to the difference of refractive index between the ordinary and extraordinary rays at the output of the crystal 1 occurs a phase difference Δϕ01defined for each wavelength.

In the analyzer 4 is the sum of the projections of the intensities of the ordinary and extraordinary rays on the axis of transmission analyzer 4 and the analyzer 4 are coming out of the resulting beam. Due to unequal phase difference for the result of rays of different wavelengths, the intensity of radiation of different and takes a specific value in the range from the maximum value to zero. For radiation with a phase difference of zero intensity after the analyzer 4 max, with a phase difference equal to π, the radiation intensity at the output of the analyzer 4 is equal to zero, and the intensity of the radiation of other wavelengths takes intermediate values between the maximum value and zero.

In General, the spectrum of radiation after passing through the analyzer 4 is an alternating maxima and minima. The radiation intensity is periodic along the spectrum. The distance between adjacent maxima or minima in the spectrum of the radiation is of the order of 0.1 Angstrom. Thus, the radiation passing through the analyzer 4 are Lu is not all wavelengths, there are no rays, the intensity of which is equal to zero.

Next, the parallel beam nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation with periodic spectrum intensity, getting in crystal 2, behaves the same as in the crystal 1. Because of the identity of the crystals 1, 2 between the ordinary and extraordinary rays at the output of the crystal 2 occurs is defined for each wavelength phase difference Δϕ02equal to the phase difference Δϕ01in the crystal 1. Of the analyzer 5 out resulting beams whose intensity is different for different wavelengths. Since the phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays in crystals 1, 2 are equal, and the axis of the analyzer 4, 5 parallel, the position of the maxima and minima of the radiation after passing through the analyzer 5 is located at the same points of the spectrum, and that after passing through the analyzer 4.

In General, the radiation intensity Iiafter the analyzer 5 for each wavelength λiin this case, is described by the formula:

where I0- the intensity of the radiation source 6 at a given wavelength, λi- the wavelength of the incident radiation, l is the length of the crystal in the direction of light propagation, naboutand nethe refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary rays.

The envelope line of the spectrum of the submitted is a function of the type cos 2(Δϕ01)cos2(Δϕ02). In the spectrum of radiation passing through the modulator in the absence of the control field is an alternating maxima and minima of the radiation intensity (figure 2, a). The full intensity of the first radiation beam at the output of the analyzer 5 is defined as the sum of the intensities at all wavelengths.

I=∑Ii

On the screen in the absence of the control field there is a bright spot. When the application of the control field, the following occurs. The control electric field voltage U changes the refractive indices of ordinary and extraordinary rays in the crystal 2 at all wavelengths due to the electro-optic effect. For each wavelength there is a reduction of the radiation intensity at the output of the analyzer 5.

The radiation intensity Iiat each wavelength in this case is described by the formula:

where λi- the wavelength of the incident radiation, l is the length of the crystal in the direction of propagation of light, d is the thickness of the crystal along the control field, U is the applied voltage, naboutand nethe refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary rays, r13and r33- electro-optic coefficients of the crystal.

For crystal LiNbO3with thickness d=1 mm wdol the direction of the control field when the length of the crystal l=1 cm along the direction of radiation, the magnitude of the half-wave voltage U λ/2is 240 C. With a half-wave voltage Uλ/2for radiation with a maximum intensity of the phase difference becomes equal to πand the radiation intensity at the output of the analyzer 5 becomes zero.

Thus, between every two neighboring minima of the intensity in the emission spectrum after the crystal 1 and the analyzer 4 appears at least, emerging after the crystal 2 and the analyzer 5.

For the other beams, the phase difference is different from π and the radiation intensity is not equal to zero. The envelope line of the spectrum when applying the electric field is described by the function type cos2(Δϕ01)cos2(Δϕ02+ΔϕU), where ΔϕU- additional phase difference appearing in the crystal 2 through the electro-optic effect. In the spectrum there are additional maxima of intensity. The intensity peaks occupy in the spectrum of an intermediate position between the minima. The spectrum of radiation passing through the modulator is an alternating wavelength maxima and minima (figure 2, b). The number of maxima and minima becomes twice. And in this case the intensity of the radiation in the region of highs several times less than in the absence of the control field. In the case of half-wave applications napryajeniya the radiation intensity is several times less than in the absence of the control field. The result on the screen in the case of application to the crystal 2 half-wave voltage Uλ/2there is a dark spot.

The total intensity transmitted through the modulator radiation is the sum of the intensities at all wavelengths, depending on the size of the controlling electric field. It is maximum in the absence of a field and a minimum at the Appendix to the crystal 2 half-wave voltage. The dependence of the total intensity on the magnitude of the control electric field is shown in figure 3.

Thus, the change of the control field from zero to half-wave voltage Uλ/2leads to changes in the intensity of radiation passing through an electro-optical modulator of the maximum value to the minimum, so there is electrooptical modulation nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation. The total radiation intensity at the output of the modulator in the absence of a voltage several times higher than the radiation intensity in the case of application to a half-wave voltage that indicates a high modulation depth.

An electro-optical modulator has a temperature stability. When the temperature of the crystals 1, 2 change the refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary rays of all wavelengths. The change is of simple refraction in the crystal 1 will lead to an additional phase difference in the crystal of 1 between ordinary and extraordinary rays at each wavelength and respectively offset by a certain amount Δλ the position of the maxima and minima in the spectrum of the radiation. Due to the identity of the crystals 1, 2 and parallel to the orientation of their optical axes in the crystal 2 will appear exactly the same additional phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays at each wavelength. Due to this, the position of the maxima and minima in the crystal 2 will move in the same way as in the crystal 1, the value of Δλ.

Generally offset by the value of Δλ spectrum radiation passing through the modulator, while the total intensity of the radiation beam remains constant at any temperature changes.

An electro-optical modulator has a low value of the half-wave voltage, due to the high values of the electro-optic coefficients crystal LiNbO3and the advantage of a transverse electro-optic effect, which consists in the fact that decreasing the value of the half-wave voltage can be achieved by reducing the thickness d of the second crystal along the direction of the controlling electric field.

The use of the invention allows, in comparison with the prototype when the half-wave voltage 240V modulation nemonokhromaticheskogo radiation range from 530 nm to 590 nm with a modulation depth of more than 80%and in the range of 540-580 nm - 87%.

Sources of information

1. Mustill ER Met the dy modulation and scanning of light / Ergostyle, Vinaren. - M.: Nauka, 1970. - P.32.

2. Magdic LN. Electro-optical light modulator with a bandwidth of 100 MHz /Linmited, Vmenkov, Iphonemania// Instruments and experimental techniques. - 1968. No. 1. - P. 166.

An electro-optical modulator with the cross-application of the control electrical field containing the source of radiation, a polarizer, two identical anisotropic electro-optic crystal, and an analyzer, connected in series between an optical connection, and the generator of the electric field applied to the second crystal, and the optical axis of the first and second crystals perpendicular to the direction of the radiation axis of the polarizer and analyzer are parallel to each other and are angled 45 degrees to the optical axes of the crystals, characterized in that it additionally introduced the second analyzer located between the first and second crystals, and the radiation source is selected nemonokhromaticheskogo, with the optical axis of the first and the second crystal and the axis of transmission of the first and second analyzers, respectively, are oriented parallel to each other.



 

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FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: at least two stable or metastable ordering of liquid crystal are realized. Switching aid which causes the switching of liquid crystal material between switches has aid intended for optical illumination of the device. Device can provide the supply of linear polarized light for inducing torsion in liquid crystal. Alternatively ordering of liquid crystal can be switched by means of aid for supplying second energy, for example, electric field. In this case light serves to generate heat which helps to switching. One or both energy sources can be used locally for switching chosen areas or pixels. Energy levels on bistable substrate can be controlled by using oligomer adding (slippery surface).

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: at least two stable or metastable ordering of liquid crystal are realized. Switching aid which causes the switching of liquid crystal material between switches has aid intended for optical illumination of the device. Device can provide the supply of linear polarized light for inducing torsion in liquid crystal. Alternatively ordering of liquid crystal can be switched by means of aid for supplying second energy, for example, electric field. In this case light serves to generate heat which helps to switching. One or both energy sources can be used locally for switching chosen areas or pixels. Energy levels on bistable substrate can be controlled by using oligomer adding (slippery surface).

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

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