Method of evaluating pesticide pollution of areas

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns evaluation of pollution of areas with pesticides involving bioassay techniques. To that end, area under control is subjected to bioindication using wild hoofed animals (mainly elks, deer, wild boars) as bioindicators. Within specified period of time, animal internals are sampled, pesticide content therein is determined, and thus obtained results are compared with maximum permissible pesticide levels for food products. Comparison data are used to estimate quality of media.

EFFECT: increased representativeness of monitoring results, enabled evaluation of a vast region or local area or local agrocenosis at lower effort.

2 cl, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to research in the field of environmental protection and rational nature management, and in particular to methods of assessment of the ecological state of the environment by biological testing. The method can be used for environmental mapping, identifying unfavorable, in the regions studied and differentiated assessment of pesticide pollution in the region.

Modern art is characterized by the following analogues of the proposed method.

Known methods of environmental monitoring regions, by creating a tracking system for the ecological status of settlements and regions, monitoring of all media in a wide range of their parameters, regardless of the sources of pollution. In the data acquisition system includes: a group of sensors environmental control state of the environment monitoring and control stations industrial wastewater enterprises, the Central control station, the space station communicating with the network of satellites and space environmental intelligence, and motor complexes operational actions with the relevant groups of sensors associated with the control point. Patent RU No. 2145120, G 08 C 19/00, 2000.01.27.

These environmental data collection systems allow you to assess the ecological condition of the whole reg is she, however, are time-consuming, multi-stage, time-consuming and extremely expensive.

There is a method of assessment of the ecological state of the environment, in particular regions, including the determination of the number of anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere, soil pesticides and pollutants in the wastewater. Then hold identification number of pollution levels; calculate the integral index of environmental pollution, the values of which determine favorable or unfavorable environmental conditions of the region. Patent RU No. 2156975, G 01 N 33/00. 2000.09.27.

The disadvantages of the method are the exclusive labor-consuming and expensive tests.

Currently, along with chemical methods of determination of various pesticides in natural objects developed a number of methods of biological evaluation of the content of these dangerous pollutants in different environments.

According to literature data, the most common methods of biotesting of water, where as the predominant test organisms use dafny (International standard Organization (ISO)/ 6341:1989 (E) "Water quality-Determination of the mobility of Dapnia magma Staus International standard Organization Publications, London. Great Britain".)

The disadvantage of this method is the fact that daphnids do not have sufficient resistance to fluctuations in the levels of p is Schildow in the environment.

Known rapid method of assessing the quality of water contaminated by industrial, agricultural and household toxicants and mixtures thereof, used for environmental assessments, mapping and monitoring of natural and groundwater. The method is based on the assessment resulting in the tested water changes behavioral responses of molluscs. As the test organisms used specially bred by inbreeding in the standard "clean" laboratory conditions shellfish "Ampulla gigas". Patent RU No. 2082167, G 01 N 33/18, 1997.20.06.

The method is very time consuming, requires a large number of test organisms, multiple repeated measurements and subsequent labor-intensive statistical processing.

One of the methods of biological monitoring is a method of biotesting of water and soil pollution by pollutants, based on the determination of phytotoxicity environment. The evaluation is made on the number of dead cells litecom duckweed after dyeing dye; build montirovochnoy scale pollution. Patent RU No. 2135994. G 01 N 33/18. 1999.08.27.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for setting up special studies and low representativeness of the results related to the application disorganized living organisms, the impossibility of assessing eco is logicheskoi situation in a relatively large region.

There is a method of determining the toxicity of the environment, taken as a prototype, based on the selection of groups of living organisms as biological indicators of environmental quality. Patent RU No. 2057337, G 01 N 33/18. 1996.03.27.

The method is carried out using the developing embryos and larvae of sea urchins, which for its environment serve as a natural indicator of anthropogenic pollution and are highly sensitive to the toxic effects of radionuclides, pesticides, heavy metals and other toxins.

The disadvantages of this method is the low representativeness and lack of selectivity in bioindication pesticide pollution of the environment.

The task to be solved by the invention is to increase the representativeness of the results of biological indication of contamination by pesticides, achieving selectivity indication pesticide contamination, the possibility to assess the significant area of the region while reducing labor costs.

The objective of the invention is an expansion of the types of biological methods adequate assessment of pesticide contamination of various environmental objects.

The task is solved by the fact that in the method of estimating contamination of pesticide and by bioindication as bio-indicators of the use of wild ungulates, produced in a given period of time sampling of internal organs of animals, determine the content of pesticides, compare the results obtained with the maximum permissible levels in food products, whose values are judged on the contamination of the environment, the pollution of the large region is determined by the excess concentration of pesticides in perinephral fat elk, pollution of agro-ecosystem - in excess of pesticide concentrations in liver and kidneys of wild boar taken in the period from August to October, and the contamination of local forest - in excess of pesticide concentrations in the liver of deer taken in the period from March to April.

Mainly as bioindicators use internal organs, mainly elk, ROE deer and wild boar.

In contrast to laboratory organisms of the lowest levels of biological organization, the proposed method uses the highest free-living mammals (elk, deer, wild boar). Consuming vegetable food as natural (wild plants)and anthropogenic (crop) origin, these types of drink water and breathe air directly to the area of contamination where the pesticides evaluated. For monitoring doesn't require much effort for maintenance of the state of the microbe is of Chelyabinsk and the Microbiology laboratory. Sampling samples of liver, kidney, perinephral fat and muscle tissue (flexure of the spine) can be easily carried out during the annual battue hunting of wild ungulates. As a result of realization of ecological monitoring of the proposed method achieved the ability to:

1. integral assessment of pesticide contamination of relatively large region as a whole;

2. assessment of pesticide contamination of the local forest;

3. assessment of pesticide contamination of the local agro-ecosystem.

Moreover, the method provides the possibility to obtain conclusions about the characteristics of the diagnosed environment, which, ultimately, allows you to choose the type and characteristics of the optimal impact and shape the environment with the required parameters.

The method is as follows.

Based on data from table 1 and specific objectives of the environmental monitoring choose the sampling period, corresponding types and organs indication of contamination by pesticides.

For monitoring administrative region "And" area of about 100 thousand hectares enough in the winter hunting of ungulates to select samples from 5 individuals. To assess the local forest and agro-ecosystem (not more than 20 thousand ha) enough to take the samples from 3 individuals. Within 1 day after production of the animals from their bodies take samples of 10 g, put them in a plastic container and fixed with 10 ml of 48%ethyl alcohol. Samples are transported to the laboratory, where they further sample preparation for further analysis in accordance with the "guidelines for the determination of trace pesticides in food, feed and the environment (the State Committee on chemical means of pest control, plant diseases and weeds under the Ministry of agriculture of the USSR. M., 1980. Part X.).

Table 1
The objective of the studyThe period of samplingIndicator bodyType-indicator
The overall assessment of the regionThroughout the yearPerinephral fatMoose
Evaluation of local forestMarch-AprilLiverROE
Assessment of agro-ecosystem (monocultures: shake, sunflower, corn)August-OctoberThe liver, kidneysThe boar

The results obtained average and compared with the data of table 2, which shows the maximum permissible levels of pesticide residues in organs and tissues of animals established by Gossanepidemnadzora of the Russian Federation.

On the average concentration of the pesticide in the indicator body or booting refers to the arithmetic average content in samples of 5 or 3 of this species (for a large region and local forest and agro-ecosystem respectively.

Table 2
BodyDDT* metabolites (Mg/kg wet weightHCH **( sum of isomers), Mg/kg wet weight
Perinephral fat1,00,2
Muscles0,10,1
Liver0,10,1
Kidney0,10,1
* - p,p'-dichlordifenyltrichlormetylmethane

** - 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane

Example:

1. The average concentration of DDT metabolites and HCH (sum of isomers) in perinephral fat elk inhabiting the territory of the administrative district "And" amounted to 0.78 and 0.16 mg/kg wet weight tissue, respectively;

2. The average concentration of the aforementioned pesticides in liver ROE (sample taken in April), living in the forest tract "Afonin Yar, was 0.09 and 1.14 mg/kg wet weight tissue, respectively;

3. The average concentration of the aforementioned pesticides in the kidneys of wild boar (in September), regularly attending a field of sugar beet JSC "Niva", was 0.11 and 0.07 mg/kg wet weight, respectively.

On the basis of the results obtained using the data of table 2 can be done following the findings:

1. The territory of the administrative district "And" not contaminated by pesticides.

2. The area of forest tracts "Afonin Yar contaminated with HCH isomers.

3. The area of arable wedge JSC "field", used for sugar beet contaminated with DDT with metabolites.

1. The way to assess contamination by pesticides by bioindication, characterized in that as bioindicators use of wild ungulates, produce in a given period of time sampling of internal organs of animals, determine the content of pesticides, compare the results obtained with the maximum permissible levels in food products, whose values are judged on the contamination of the environment, the pollution of the large region is determined by the excess concentration of pesticides in perinephral fat elk, pollution of agro-ecosystem - in excess of pesticide concentrations in liver and kidneys of wild boar taken in the period from August to October, and the contamination of local forest - excess concentrations of pesticides in the liver of deer taken in the period from March to April.

2. The way to assess contamination by pesticides according to claim 1, characterized in that as bioindicators use internal organs mainly elk, ROE deer and wild boar.



 

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