Method and device for adjusting of heat flow through surface of condensation

FIELD: heating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: space where surface of condensation locates is brought into communication with steam source and with atmosphere. Heat from surface of condensation is removed to group of individual heat consumers in such a way that heat comes to one group of consumers after another group is supplied with it due to the fact that space where surface of condensation locates is separated to a number of cavities relating in series to each other. The cavities form channel, which communicates steam source with atmosphere. Heat from parts of surface of condensation disposed at different cavities is removed separately each from another to different consumers. Device for realization of the method has vapor source connected with inner cavity of heat-exchange apparatus. The inner cavity communicates with atmosphere. Inner surface of heat-exchange apparatus communicates with atmosphere through internal cavity of at least one more heat-exchange apparatus. Heat-exchange apparatuses are connected with heat agent carriers of different consumers of heat. Internal surfaces of heat-exchanges apparatuses form at least one channel elongated in vertical direction.

EFFECT: selective heat supply from surface of condensation.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of heat, and more specifically to methods and devices for regulating quantities of heat flow in heat exchangers, heated by steam and members of the heat-mass-transfer systems.

The known method of heat flow regulation, implemented in devices that contain vapor-liquid heat exchangers, for example, regenerative type /1, 2/. In the traditional case, such devices are composed of a source of steam connected via control valve with pressurized steam cavity of the heat exchanger, which is connected through the trap /3/ with receiver condensate, and is located in the steam cavity beam tubes through which flows a heated liquid.

In such devices the control of the heat flow through the surface condensation is carried out by regulating the pressure in the steam cavity of the heat exchanger.

The disadvantages of such devices is that as the source of steam and a steam chamber of a heat exchanger under excess pressure of steam, and when the device there are fluctuations in the pressure and temperature in these elements, which leads to variable thermal and mechanical stresses in the design of the device /4/. This significantly limits the scope note is in steam heat exchangers, especially in the field of household appliances.

Closest to the claimed method is implemented in heat pipes of variable conductivity /5/ with the cold reservoir. In these pipes condensation surface is placed in a sealed volume, which is connected with a source of steam (surface evaporation), and this volume is full of steam and non-condensable gases. The disadvantage of these pipes is that the volume in which is placed the condensation surface is sealed, the mass of non-condensable gases therein remains constant, and the change of the volume concentration of these gases is only possible by changing the pressure of gas mixture. Therefore, thermal fluctuations of the power source, a pair of lead to fluctuations of the temperature and pressure of the vapor-gas medium in the volume, where the condensation surface. The negative factor of pressure fluctuations and temperature noted above. In addition, placement of surface condensation in one total is not possible (without introducing additional elements of automation) to selectively dissipate the heat flux from the surface condensation to different consumers.

Closest to the claimed method is /6/, whereby the volume, where surface condensation, leaking and communicated with the atmosphere, which ensures the maintenance of a constant atmosphere the atmospheric pressure in the inner cavity of the heat exchanger.

The technical result of the present invention is the selective supply of heat from the surface condensation to multiple consumers in a hierarchical way, i.e. so that the coolant circuit of the next consumer warmth began to act only after being heated to the maximum temperature of the coolant in the coolant circuit of the previous user. This result is achieved by the fact that the volume, which is the condensation surface, divide into two or more consistently reported parts, and heat fluxes from the surface condensation, located in different parts, assign separately from each other.

The principle of the proposed method and device based on known fact /7/that the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of the condensation is substantially dependent on the concentration of condensable pair of non-condensable gases. While this is true for vapor majority of technical liquids, the most complete information about the influence on the process of condensation of non-condensable gases in the existing literature presents for water vapor. So, for example, the presence of condensed water vapour 4% (by mass) of air reduces the heat transfer coefficient of 5 times. Besides, the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on the concentration of air is m notone decreasing throughout the range of variation of the latter. In the extreme case - in the absence of steam in contact with the condensation surface - heat transfer is by convection of non-condensable gas, and the heat transfer coefficient is thus negligible compared to the heat transfer coefficient during condensation of pure steam /8/. Hereinafter, the term" clean steam" refers to steam, free from non-condensable gases.

The invention is illustrated by figures 1...3.

Figure 1 shows a variant of embodiment of the device in the case where the condensation surface is located in a single volume, and heat is supplied to one consumer. This option corresponds to a known device patent SU 1128088, F 28 D 15/00, 07.12.1984 and is shown to illustrate the principle of operation of the claimed device.

Figure 2 shows a variant of embodiment of the inventive device, allowing selective heat to multiple consumers.

Figure 3 shows a variant of embodiment of the inventive device in the form of the capacitive water heater.

Figure 1 shows a variant of embodiment of the device. The device is composed of the evaporation chamber 1 is communicated through its upper part with a camera condensation of 2 so that these cells form a common cavity. Camera 1 partially filling the and water 3 and its outer surface is in contact with the heat source - the heater 4. The device has a housing 5, which forms with the outer wall of the chamber 2 is sealed tract filled with heated water 6 and communicated with the source 7 and user 8 of this water. The chamber 2 is communicated with the surrounding atmosphere through the pipe 9.

The device operates as follows.

From the source 7 to the consumer 8 through the path formed by the elements 2 and 5, is water duct 6, the flow rate and initial temperature which ensure full absorption of thermal capacity of the heater 4 when the camera 2 pure steam.

From the heater 4 through the wall of the chamber 1 to the water 3 is transferred to the heat flow, which supports the water 3 in the state of boiling, and leads to the formation in the evaporation chamber water vapor. This steam is supplied from the camera 1 to camera 2, the walls of which is its condensation. Released during the condensation heat of the phase transition through the walls of the chamber 2 is transferred to the water 6 and is given to the user 8. Formed on the walls of the chamber 2 condensate by gravity into the chamber 1, returning to the volume of boiling water 3.

Let at the initial moment of time the camera 2 is under atmospheric pressure and filled with a mixture of water vapor and non-condensable gases (air) in a ratio of their concentrations. Let this be implemented on the walls of the chamber 2 speed image is of the condensate is equal to the inflow of steam into the chamber 2 of the camera 1. Thus, the device is in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure in the chamber 2.

Consider how the device will react to possible fluctuations in pressure in the chamber 2. Such fluctuations may be caused, for example, changes in the heat capacity of the heater 4, and the initial values of the temperature and flow of water 6.

The purpose of the further analysis will show that as a result of such impacts will be established a new state of dynamic equilibrium with the same atmospheric pressure in the chamber 2 and without unnecessary loss of heat in a stationary mode.

Suppose that there is an increase in the pressure in the chamber 2 above atmospheric pressure. The reason is the excess inflow of steam into the chamber 2 from the chamber 1 above the outflow of steam from the chamber 2 due to condensation on the walls of the chamber 2. The result - the emergence of flow of the vapor-air mixture from the chamber 2 into the atmosphere through the pipe 9 and the substitution of this mixture of steam from the camera 1 (the blowing chamber 2 ferry), accompanied by increasing concentration of steam in the chamber 2 and the corresponding growth rate of condensation on the walls of the chamber 2. The process continues until the adjustment of the rate of condensation of steam in the chamber 2 and the rate of supply of steam in the chamber, then the pressure in the chamber 2 is equalized with atmospheric pressure, and the flow of the vapor-air mixture from the nozzle 2 in atmospherebecomes.

Suppose that there is a pressure drop in the chamber 2 below atmospheric pressure. The reason is the excess of outflow of steam from the chamber 2 due to condensation on the walls of the chamber 2 above the inflow of steam into the chamber 2 of the camera 1. The result - the emergence of air flow from the atmosphere into the chamber 2 through the pipe 9 and the substitution of steam-air mixture in chamber 2, the air from the atmosphere (capture air from the atmosphere into the chamber 2), accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of steam in the chamber 2 and the corresponding decline in the rate of condensation on the walls of the chamber 2. The process continues until the adjustment of the rate of condensation of steam in the chamber 2 and the rate of supply of steam in the chamber, then the pressure in the chamber 2 is equalized with atmospheric pressure, and air flow from the atmosphere into the chamber 2 is terminated.

Thus, the device of figure 1 has a natural mechanism for thermal control, restoring atmospheric pressure in the chamber 2 when the fluctuations of the pressure under the influence of external or internal factors. After restore atmospheric pressure in the chamber 2 is implemented by a stationary process, when the heat transfer device with the atmosphere ceases. Therefore, the stated purpose of the analysis is reached.

If the parameters of the flow of water from the source 7 to the user 8 does not provide a selection of thermal power agravates when the camera 2 pure steam, after complete removal of air from the chamber 2 extra thermal capacity of the heater 4 will flow to the atmosphere through the pipe 9 with the steam flow. Therefore, the criterion of such marginal status of the device (the maximum temperature of the heated water, which determines the temperature gradient on the wall of the chamber 2 and the rate of condensation on the wall) is the occurrence of a constant flow of steam from the pipe 9 into the atmosphere. When this situation occurs, to avoid unnecessary loss of heat and water 3 into the atmosphere either to regulate the heat output of the heater 4, or useful to use the excess capacity of the heater, and without prejudice to heat the water 6.

Figure 2 shows a variant of embodiment of the inventive device, allowing selective heat to multiple consumers in a hierarchical way (i.e. when the heat to the second consumer is only after heating of water 6 to limit temperature).

In this embodiment, the nozzle 9 is in communication with the internal volume of the second condensation chamber 10, which in turn communicated with the atmosphere through pipe 11. Thus, the camera 2 is connected with the atmosphere through the elements 9, 10 and 11. The device has a second housing 12, which forms with the outer wall of the chamber 10 germ the ranks tract, filled with heated water to the second user 13 and communicated with the source 14 and 15 consumer of this water. The lower part of the chamber 10 is connected with the lower part of the chamber 1 by a tube 16 to drain.

The device in the execution of figure 2 operates as follows.

If the parameters of the water flow 6 provide full heat of the heater 4 when the camera 2 pure steam, the operation of the device similar to the device in the execution of figure 2. The difference is that during the blowing chamber 2 steam vapor-air mixture from the chamber 2 is supplied through the pipe 9 into the chamber 10, where steam is partially condensed, and then into the atmosphere through the pipe 11. The condensate from the chamber 10 flows into the volume of boiling water 3 through the pipe 16. When capturing air from the atmosphere into the chamber 2, this air initially enters the chamber 10 through the pipe 11 and further from the chamber 10 into the chamber 2 through the pipe 9. In a stationary mode in the camera 10 is the air mass exchange through the pipes 9 and 11 missing.

If the parameters of the water flow 6 does not provide the full heat of the heater 4 when the pure steam chamber 2, the chamber 2 is filled with clean steam from the camera 1 and there is a constant flow of steam from the pipe 9 into the chamber 10. As a result, the camera 10 is the condensation of steam from the pipe 9 at a variable concentration of air in the Kama is e 10. Thus, the mechanism of condensation is similar to the mechanism of condensation in the chamber 2 in the performance of the device of figure 1 with the difference that:

- steam enters the chamber 10 of the camera 1, and out of the socket 9;

is released during the condensation heat is transferred through the wall of the chamber 10 water 13.

The efficiency of the device will be provided if flow characteristics of water 6 and 13 allows water to absorb these flows of thermal energy of the heater 4 in the presence of the cameras 2 and 10 pure steam. If you violate this condition, the nozzle 11 may be communicated with the atmosphere through a third condensation chamber associated with the third heat consumer in the same pattern, which is connected to the camera 2 and 10. For the second and third heat consumers will remain the same hierarchical scheme of heat supply, which takes place respectively for the first and second consumers. Here below the first and second means consumers consumers 8 and 15, respectively.

Figure 3 shows a variant of embodiment of the inventive device in the form of the capacitive water heater. Where this differs from option a in figure 1 is as follows:

The tract formed by the elements 2 and 5, is made in the form of cumulative capacity, which placed the volume of water 6.

- Steam flow from the chamber 1 into the chamber 2 through the PA is aproved 17, connecting the top point of these cameras.

The device is equipped with a condensate line 18 connecting the camera 1 and 2, for removal of condensate from the chamber 2 into chamber 1.

The nozzle 9 is located in the lower part of the chamber 2.

- Part of the camera 2, in contact with water 6, has a shape extended in the

the vertical direction of the channel 19, the hydraulic diameter d which is substantially less than the vertical dimension h of the channel (d/h≪1).

In this implementation, it is essential that the source 7 is connected with the lower part of the storage tank, and the receiver 8 is connected with the upper part of this vessel. When implementing performance in figure 3 it is assumed that the concentration of air in the channel 19 may be variable not only on time but also on the height of the channel. The basis for such assumptions data source /9/, whereby the diffusion capacity of the steam flow in the volume of the vapor-air mixture is proportional to the concentration gradient pair, which is inversely proportional to the characteristic size of this volume. Therefore, for channel 19, the steam flow in the vertical direction (the characteristic size h) is negligible compared to the steam flow in the direction normal to the channel walls (the characteristic size d), except for those portions of the channel, where there is no condensation of the steam (areas where no time is ity concentrations of vapor in the direction normal to the channel walls). Physically this means that the vapor molecules that are in those sections of the channel 19, the walls of which are the condensation surface, reaching the surface of the condensation before it moved in the vertical direction to a height commensurate with the height of the channel 19. As accepted above, surface condensation are those areas of the walls of the chamber 19 which, at its outer surface in contact with water 6, not heated up to the ultimate state. This feature allows you to look at different parts of the surface condensation as various heat exchangers, internal cavity which consistently reported.

Operation is performed on figure 3 from the device of figure 1 is characterized by the fact that in the absence of water flow from the source 7 to the user 8 is the accumulation of thermal energy of the heater 4 in the water 6. The heating of the water 6 in the storage tank is carried out by the mechanism of natural convection. The mechanism of natural convection provides mixing of horizontal layers of water in the accumulation tank only if the location of the heated layers below cold /10/. The exception is the temperature range 0°...5°which is not of practical interest in most cases, heating the water. This feature allow the us to carry out a selective selection of heat to the different horizontal layers of water 6, which in this case plays the role of different heat consumers.

When the device is vapor from the chamber 1 through the steam pipe 17 enters the upper part of the channel 19 by heating in contact with the channel 19 water 6. In accordance with the assumptions made, only after heating of the upper layers of the water to the maximum temperature of the vapor starts to flow through the channel 19 down, Progresa the lower layers of water in the accumulation tank. Therefore, the movement of steam from the top down through the channel 19 allows layer-by-layer heating the water in the accumulation tank is also top-down, when the mixing of the upper and lower water layers 6 is missing. This corresponds to the substitution of steam-air mixture in the channel 19 pure steam from the camera 1 and the displacement of part of the steam-air mixture from the pipe 19 to the atmosphere through pipe 9. Formed on the stacks channel 19 condensate by gravity in the lower part of the chamber 2, where the condensate line 18 is returned into the chamber 1.

It should be noted that when the draining of condensate on the walls of the channel 19 will be heat exchange between the condensate and water 6 regardless of the concentration distribution of the steam in the channel 19. Thus, the partial heating of the lower layers of water in the accumulation tank will occur before the upper layers of the water will heat up to the ultimate state.

However, the heat capacity of the condensate Priego cooling from 100° With up to 20°With 15% of the energy of the phase transition at atmospheric pressure, which allows to neglect this heat capacity of the qualitative analysis process. The heat transfer from the flowing condensate can significantly reduce well known technique /11/ equipment surface condensation kondensatootvodchiki caps that can be used in the proposed device.

When the device is at the height of the channel 19 will be some distribution of the concentration of air in the pair and the corresponding velocity distribution of steam condensation. The concentration of air is maximum at the pipe 9 and the minimum point of the steam supply into the chamber 2 from the steam line 17. If you take a certain value of concentration of air in a pair for a conventional boundary of steam and air, as the warm upper water layers 6 in cumulative capacity up to maximum temperature will be offset this borders on channel 19 down with heating deeper layers of the water. This leads to variable concentrations of air and steam in the channel 19 as time and height of this channel.

Therefore, implementation of the device will allow you to split the water in the accumulation tank top hot bottom and cold region with a hierarchical advantage of the hot region. On m is d work of the heater 4, the boundary of these areas will be moved down by the height of the storage tank. When you enable the consumer 8 this will allow you to get the first portion of water 6, guaranteed to be heated to the maximum temperature, even with a limited time of operation of the heater 4, which is the purpose of equipping the camera 2 plot in the form of a long vertical channel 19.

A comparison of the proposed device with the prototype device, a source of steam associated with the internal cavity of the heat exchanger, which is communicated with the atmosphere, showed that the inventive device is characterized in that the internal cavity of the heat exchanger communicates with the atmosphere through the internal cavity of the at least one heat exchanger, and heat exchangers associated with the contours of fluids of different heat consumers. Thus, the proposed device complies with the sign of "significant differences".

A comparison of the proposed system is not only the prototype, but with other analogues are not allowed to reveal in them the traits that distinguish the claimed device from the prototype. Thus, the proposed device complies with the sign of "novelty."

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. Arsenyev GV Power plant. M: "High school", 1991, s.

2. Industrial power engineering and heat engineering. The Handbook. // edited Waheguru and Vimsatika. M: "Energoatomizdat", 1983, p.383.

3. Industrial is Teploenergetika and heat. The Handbook. // edited Waheguru and Vimsatika. M: "Energoatomizdat", 1983, p.131, 132.

4. Industrial power engineering and heat engineering. The Handbook. // edited Waheguru and Vimsatika. M: "Energoatomizdat", 1983, pp.109, 112.

5. Dan P.D., D.A. ray Heat pipes. M: Energy, 1979, s-179.

6. USSR author's certificate SU 1128088, CL F 28 D 15/00, 07.12.1984, bull. No. 45.

7. Handbook of industrial engineer. // edited Nsaturday. M: "State scientific and technical publishing house engineering literature", Vol. 2, 1960, s.226.

8. Ibid, s.

9. Isachenko VP Heat transfer during condensation. M.: "Energy", 1977, s.

10. Kutateladze S.S., Heat transfer and hydro-dynamic resistance. The Handbook. M: "Energoatomizdat", 1990, s.

11. Isachenko VP Heat transfer during condensation. M.: "Energy", 1977, p.72.

1. The method of regulating the heat flow through the condensation surface, consisting in the fact that the volume, which is the condensation surface, according to the source of steam and with the atmosphere, characterized in that the heat from the surface of condensation is removed to a group of individual consumers of heat so that the heat to some consumers were enrolled after providing warmth of other consumers due to the fact that the volume, which is the condensation surface, divided into a number of series reported cavities, and these Palast the channel, informs a source of steam to the atmosphere, and the heat from the surface area of the condensing located in different cavities, assign separately from each other to different consumers.

2. Device containing a source of steam associated with the internal cavity of the heat exchanger, which is communicated with the atmosphere, characterized in that the internal cavity of the heat exchanger communicated with the atmosphere through the internal cavity, at least one heat exchanger, and heat exchangers associated with the contours of fluids of different heat consumers.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the internal cavity of the heat exchanger to form at least one extended in the vertical direction of the channel, the hydraulic diameter d and height h which are related by d/h≪1, and the atmosphere and a source of steam communicated respectively with the lower and upper parts of the channel, and the heat consumers form at least one closed volume which is in contact through the wall of the internal cavities of heat exchangers.



 

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