Fuel-air burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine

FIELD: the fuel-air burner refers to heat engineering arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-air burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine has a fuel injector, an axle and tangential air swirlers fulfilled in the shape of channels with open butt-ends and blades inside. The fuel-air burner additionally includes a air-inlet-mixer, located between the body of the injector and the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The low along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is fastened together with the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The upper along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is made open. The fuel injector is provided with openings of feeding and dispersion of gas fuel located inside the air inlet-mixer before the input edges of the axle swirler.

EFFECT: allows to increase economy, completeness of burning of fuel and reduce ejection of detrimental substances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, in particular to the structures of the main combustion chambers.

Known air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber containing bunk swirl in the inner layer of which has axial vane swirler with open inlet and outlet end. At the inlet end of the axial vane swirl is a wall blocking a portion of the input end. Wall plays the role of a turbulizer air flow, which intensifies the mixing and leads to higher combustion efficiency by accelerating the preparation of the fuel-air mixture. Also partition allows to increase the area of the ignition of the combustion chamber by increasing the recirculation zone in the flame tube. The disadvantage of this device are large emissions of harmful substances due to the fact that the fuel is for axial swirler and the process of mixing fuel with air begins at the outlet of bunk swirl and continues in the recirculation zone of the flame tube [1].

Closest to the claimed is the air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber containing a fuel injector and a bunk swirl with the inner layer consisting of axial vane swirl with open inlet and outlet ends. Between corpus the nozzle and the inlet end of the axial swirl is the stabilizer of air flow, attached to the nozzle body. The outer contour of the stabilizer exceeds the cross-section of the axial swirl and form a slotted channel with its input end. This construction of the air-fuel burner allows you to provide uniform air inlet in the axial swirl through the stabilizer that eliminates the disruption of air flow caused by the nozzle body [2].

The disadvantage of this device are increased losses of total pressure caused by the air flow into the gap formed by the stabilizer and the input end face of the swirl followed by the reversal of flow. The fuel is fed for axial swirler, and the process of mixing fuel with air begins at the outlet of bunk swirl and continues in the recirculation zone of the flame tube, which cannot provide high uniformity of the air-fuel mixture required completeness of its combustion leads to an increase of harmful emissions and low efficiency of the combustion chamber.

The technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to increase the fuel efficiency of the combustion chamber and decreasing the toxicity of products of combustion of the fuel due to the intensification of mixing and a homogeneous air-fuel mixture.

The essence of the technical solution is Thu the air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, containing fuel injector, axial and tangential swirler air, made in the form of channels with open ends and blades inside, according to the invention, additionally includes the inlet-mixer disposed between the nozzle body and the input end of the axial swirler. The lower downstream end of the inlet-mixer connected with the input end of the axial swirl, and the upper flow end of the inlet-mixer is made open. Fuel injector provided with feed holes and spray gas fuel located inside the inlet-mixer in front of the entrance edges of the axial swirl.

Placement of the inlet-mixer between the nozzle and the inlet end of the axial swirl, when the lower downstream end of the inlet-mixer connected with the input end of the axial swirl, and the upper flow end of the inlet-mixer is made open, allows pre-mixing of air with fuel, aligning the plot of the velocity and pressure of the stream of fuel-air mixture before entry into the axial swirler. The distance from the plane of the accommodation holes of the spray of fuel gas to the input ends of the blades of the axial swirl L is equal to or greater than the maximum axial distance between input and output CR is mkami blades of axial swirl L 1that allows for more evenly to carry out the mixing of the flows of fuel and air, as well as to maximize the homogeneity of the mixture.

Fuel injector provided with feed holes and spray gas fuel located inside the inlet-mixer in front of the entrance edges of the axial swirl, which allows the fuel supply before the axial swirler into the internal cavity of the inlet-mixer, pre-mixing the air with fuel. In the combustion zone of the flame tube air-fuel mixture enters uniform, resulting in more complete combustion and therefore leads to increased fuel efficiency of the combustion chamber and reduce the toxicity of the combustion products.

The execution of the inlet-mixer cut from the body of the fuel injector facilitates the flow of compressed air through the upper flow end of the inlet-mixer and intensifies the process of mixing.

The drawing shows a section of an air-fuel burner along the nozzle and the axial swirl of air.

Air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine includes a fuel injector in the form of a housing 1 with an opening 2 fuel supply 3 and the hole 4 of the spray of fuel 3, and the axial swirler 5 air 6 with QCD is item end 7 input 8, with the open end 9 to the outlet 10 and blades 11. Air-fuel burner further comprises an inlet-mixer 12, is placed between the body 1 of the nozzle and the open end 7 input 8 axial swirl 5. The lower downstream end 13 of the inlet-mixer 10 is bonded to the open end 7 input 8 axial swirl 5, and the upper downstream end 14 of the inlet-mixer 10 is made open. On the upper stream side 14 of the inlet-mixer 12 is cut 15 from the side of the body 1 of the injector. Holes 4 spray fuel 3 located in front of the end face 7 input 8 of the swirler 5 inside the inlet-mixer 10. The distance L from the plane of the placement of the holes 4 of the spray of fuel 3 to the end face 16 of the blades 11 of the axial swirl 5 at least equal to the maximum axial length L1between the end 16 of the blade 11 and the end face 9 output 10 axial swirl 5. In addition, the drawing shows the wall 17 of the flame tube and the cavity 18 of the combustion flame tube.

Air-fuel burner of the gas turbine engine operates as follows.

Fuel 3 through the opening of the fuel 2 is supplied to the holes 4 of the spray of fuel and then the inside of the inlet-mixer 10. Simultaneously compressed by the compressor air flow 6, flowing around the body 1 of the injector enters the inlet-mixer 10. In the oduhotvorenie-mixer 10 begins the process of mixing air 6 and fuel 3 with the formation of an air-fuel mixture, and alignment plots of the velocity and pressure of the air-fuel mixture in front of the open end 7 input 8 of the swirler 5. The air-fuel mixture passing through the axial swirler 5, twists, intensifitsiruya the process of mixing, the mixture is fed into the cavity combustion 18 of the flame tube 17 is fully mixed with the homogeneous composition in which complete combustion of the mixture.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2199700, F 23 R 3/4, publ. 27.02.2003, (similar).

2. RF patent №2134839, F 23 D 11/00, publ. 20.08.1999, (prototype).

1. Air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing fuel injector, axial and tangential swirler air, made in the form of channels with open ends and blades inside, characterized in that it further includes an inlet-mixer disposed between the nozzle body and the input end of the axial swirl, the lower downstream end of the inlet-mixer connected with the input end of the axial swirl, and the upper flow end of the inlet-mixer is made open, while the fuel injector is provided with feed holes and spray gas fuel located inside the inlet-mixer in front of the entrance edges of the axial swirl.

2. Air-fuel burner according to claim 1, characterized t is m, what is the distance from the plane of the accommodation holes of the spray of fuel gas to the input ends of the blades of the axial swirl, at least equal to the maximum axial distance between the inlet and outlet edges of the blades of the axial swirl.

3. Air-fuel burner according to claim 1, characterized in that the inlet-mixer is made with a cut from the body of the fuel injector.



 

Same patents:

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, in particular to the structures of the main combustion chambers

The invention relates to an injector (10) for liquid fuel intended for burners in gas turbines, of the type used inside burners, equipped with a camera (62) pre-mixing element (13) for creating turbulence in the flow of compressed air derived from the compressor of a gas turbine

Afterburning fuel // 2150597

The invention relates to aircraft engine industry, in particular to the combustion chambers of gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen

FIELD: the fuel-air burner refers to heat engineering arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-air burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine has a fuel injector, an axle and tangential air swirlers fulfilled in the shape of channels with open butt-ends and blades inside. The fuel-air burner additionally includes a air-inlet-mixer, located between the body of the injector and the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The low along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is fastened together with the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The upper along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is made open. The fuel injector is provided with openings of feeding and dispersion of gas fuel located inside the air inlet-mixer before the input edges of the axle swirler.

EFFECT: allows to increase economy, completeness of burning of fuel and reduce ejection of detrimental substances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed low-emission combustion chamber of gas turbine operating, mainly, on compressed gas with low effluents of nitrogen oxides and carbon contains prechamber and cylindrical fire tube with air inlet holes arranged over circumference of fire tube. Prechamber consist at least of two modules with space for preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Ration of distance between axes of neighbor modules to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.4-0.5. Ratio of length of preliminary mixing space of each module to diameter of its exit nozzle is 0.6-0.8. Fire tube has fuel-air mixture burning space and space for mixing not gases with air. Fire tube contains solid inner wall and perforated outer envelope with ring channel in between to feed cooling air into mixing space. Ratio of length of burning space to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.9-1.1. Air feed holes are made in mixing space.

EFFECT: reduced emission of harmful substances owing to organization of "rich-lean" burning of fuel by preliminary mixing of fuel with air in prechamber and prevention of delivery of cooling air into burning zone.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: gas turbine combustion chamber consists of an outer and inner casings and a flame tube incorporating a front device made as a tapered blade-type swirler with its blades arranged between its inner and outer walls. The said swirler inner and outer walls are furnished with closed interconnected spaces in the blades with their outer edge provided with an open channel communicating with the aforesaid closed space. The swirler outer wall accommodates a bracket with an open space communicating with the aforesaid swirler outer wall space and a flange to be attached to the combustion chamber outer casing flange.

EFFECT: utilisation of pit-shaft petroleum gas by combusting it in the ground gas turbine combustion chamber.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: fuel atomiser (2) for aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to combustion chamber of turbomachine. Atomiser includes main tubular structure (4) with XX' axis open streamwise on lower end (4a) for supply of air-and-fuel mixture, and tubular fuel pipeline (6). Fuel pipeline is located inside main structure (4) with possibility of interacting with it in order to form annular channel (8) and is open streamwise on lower end to main structure (4) through spraying plug (10) of fuel with possibility of supplying fuel under pressure PC to the main structure. Atomiser also includes at least one air supply channel (12) connected to turbomachine compressor stage and open to annular channel (8) so that air can be supplied under pressure PA to this channel. In addition, fuel atomiser includes tubular gas channel (16) located inside fuel pipeline (6) and having a lot of holes (18) open to the above fuel pipeline for gas to be injected to it under pressure PG in order to create foaming of the fuel introduced to main structure (4). Pressure PG exceeds pressure PA and exceeds pressure PC. Holes (18) of gas channel (16) are located at least in one transverse plane and open to fuel pipeline (6) through spraying plug (10) of fuel. The above fuel atomiser can be a part of aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to turbomachine combustion chamber the centre of which is located on YY' axis of injection system, which, in addition, includes air injecting device located downstream the fuel atomiser.

EFFECT: invention allows minimising hazardous emissions owing to decrease of time characteristics of fuel spraying and its evaporation at all operating speeds of turbomachine.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: air-and-fuel burner of combustion chamber of gas turbine engine includes fuel-spray nozzle made in the form of body with fuel supply and spray holes, air flow stabiliser, axial and tangential air swirlers equipped with confuser-diffuser nozzles with inner and outer path walls. Annular cavity is located between walls of axial swirler nozzle and outer path wall of the nozzle of tangential swirler. Perforation is made on diffuser part of the nozzle of axial swirler.

EFFECT: improving reliability of combustion chamber and increasing fuel economy of gas turbine engine at decreasing soot emission in exhaust gases, decrease of smoking and avoiding soot deposition on the burner surface owing to depletion of air-and-fuel mixture in local areas of the burner.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: pylon includes front and rear bodies of aerofoil section. Pylon bodies are tubular. Pylon includes at least two tubes located one after the other with rounded front edge. One end of tube is fixed on combustion chamber wall through the support, and free ends of tubes are plugged. Tubes are inclined to axis of chamber at sweep angle. Pylon also includes fuel supply system to combustion chamber. Air and fuel is supplied to combustion chamber during the start. At subsonic and supersonic air flow velocities the temperature of the air coming onto the pylon increases over self-ignition temperature of fuel-air medium. It leads to fuel-air mixture ignition.

EFFECT: simpler pylon design, providing fuel supply, mixture formation, ignition and combustion of fuel-air mixture throughout the front of combustion chamber in cruising mode of engine operation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Afterburner chamber // 2447364

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: afterburner chamber of combined-cycle plant is installed in transitional gas flue connecting gas turbine exhaust with waste heat boiler. Chamber contains several orders of flame tube heads of diffusion stabilising type, including angle stabilisers or gas collectors with fuel feed spray injectors located inside them. Flame tube heads are assembled of modules on top of which there are transversal angle bars inclined to output side spaced with pitch equal to distance between burner units. Transversal angle bars have shot fuel collectors in-between, which are connected with main collector. Flame tube heads arranged along the chamber length. Burner unit is the first unit installed upstream in the centre of afterburner chamber; it should be switched on first of all at start-up.

EFFECT: provision of temperature field uniformity before heat exchanger within all range of loads, reduction of hydraulic losses in gas flue, reduction of labour and installation content.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: flame stabiliser for augmenter of bypass turbojet including first and second circular inner circuits 3, 5. Primary flow passage 4 is arranged there between. Outer circular circuit 2 and first inner circular circuit 3 makes passage 1 for secondary flow. Besides, it comprises at least one support of strut 8 made from metal for attachment to said outer circular circuit 2 by top plate 9 and at least one flame stabiliser strut 7. Said flame stabiliser strut 7 features monoblock structure of composite and is composed of two rigidly interconnected walls 28a, 28b arranged to make a neck with V-shape profile. Top parts 31a, 31b of said walls located in secondary flow have means 34a, 34b for attachment to strut support 8. Top parts 31a, 31b of said walls are flat and opposed.

EFFECT: perfected design.

17 cl, 7 dwg

Reheat burner // 2550294

FIELD: power industry.

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6 cl, 8 dwg

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2 cl, 2 dwg

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