Reactor having a circulating fluidized layer and a system of selective catalytic reduction

FIELD: chemical industry; reactor having a circulating fluidized layer and a system of selective catalytic reduction.

SUBSTANCE: the offered invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry. A combination of a device consisting of a reactor or a combustion chamber with a circulating fluidized layer and a selective catalytic reduction system contains the reactor chamber with a circulating fluidized layer, the primary solid particles separator, a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the primary solid particles separator to the reactor chamber, at least one surface of heat transfer of a vapor overheater or an intermediate vapor overheater, a system of the selective catalytic reduction, a dry scrubber located below on the production chain in respect to the system of the selective catalytic reduction and a means for introduction of ammonia in the flow of a smoke gas-solid particles. According to one of the offered versions the given device contains a multicyclone dust separator and a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the multicyclone dust separator to the reactor chamber. The given engineering solution ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.

EFFECT: the invention ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.

11 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl

 

DESCRIPTION

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the PRESENT INVENTION the Present invention relates, in General, to the reactor or combustion chambers with circulating fluidized bed (SRS), and more specifically to the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed with a system of selective catalytic reduction (SCR)used below downstream from the reactor or furnace combustion circulating fluidized bed to achieve a high capacity recovery of oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

Prerequisites FOR the CREATION of the PRESENT INVENTION

Environmental protection and control of solid, liquid and gaseous discharges or emissions are the main elements in the design of steam generating systems that use heat generated by the combustion of fossil fuels to produce steam. Currently, the most significant of such emissions are sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOxand the particles of the aerosol.

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) refer to total emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and small quantities of other substances released in the combustion process. As soon as the fuel is selected, the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) minimize, using the technology of combustion with n is scimi emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO xand processing technology of products of combustion. If some modifications combustion is not sufficient, there may be used such technologies of processing of products of combustion, as selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In systems selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduced to nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O) through a series of reactions with the chemical reagent is introduced into the flue gas. Ammonia and urea are the reagents most commonly used systems of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), whereas ammonia is often used in systems selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

The fluidized bed has certain advantages for burning solid fuels and regeneration energy to produce steam, and the main driving force behind developments in the United States of combustion chambers for combustion in the fluidized bed is actually reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Typically, this technology can be used for burning coal with high sulfur content and lower levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2 without the need of additional equipment to remove sulfur output. Steam boilers with fluidized bed are designed so that the working temperature of the layer was in the range of 1500-1600°F (815,6-871,1°C), resulting in low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). These low operating temperatures also provide the ability to burn low-grade fuels (which usually leads to high zashlakovyvaniya and external contamination) without many of the operational difficulties that typically occur during the combustion of such fuel.

In reactors and combustion chambers with circulating fluidized bed (SRV) reactionary and research considers non reactive solid particles are captured in the chamber of the reactor ascending gas stream, which carries the solid particles to the exit in the upper part of the reactor chamber. There solid particles, usually are caught, the primary particle separator pulse type or cyclone-type and return to the lower part of the reactor chamber directly or through one or more pipelines. The primary particle separator pulse type, installed on the outlet of the reactor chamber, detects from 90% to 97% of the circulating solids. In accordance with the requirements of the process below the downstream lane from the ranks of the particle separator pulse type can be installed additional collector of solid particles to capture additional solid particles for their possible return to the chamber of the reactor.

Known reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (SRS) (see, for example, U.S. patent No. 5343830 issued to Alexander and others)that have two or more rows of cutting elements located in the chamber of the furnace or reactor, followed by the second matrix installed in a checkerboard pattern cutting elements, which further separate the particles from the gas stream and return them to the channel and means for returning the particles without internal and external recirculation piping.

System selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) were used to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOxfrom the steam-generating systems that burn pulverized coal. System selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) has also found application in steam generators, fluidized bed, and it was proposed to combine the steam generator with circulating fluidized bed (SRS) combustion of petroleum coke with a system of selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

A SUMMARY of the PRESENT INVENTION

The present invention in General relates to reactors or combustors with circulating fluidized bed (SRV) and provides the receiving system to achieve n is skih emissions of nitrogen oxides at the lowest operating costs. Combustion technologies provide a fluidized bed combustion temperatures that are much lower (1550-1600°F (843,3-871,1°)) at the point of intake fuel than in the systems of combustion of pulverized coal, where the temperature combustion can be 2500-3000°F (1371,1-1648,9°). This temperature difference makes a contribution to a big drop in uncontrolled emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO2from fluidized bed. Nekontroliruemyhe emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOxwhen using pulverized coal as a rule, are in the range of 0.3 to 0.7 lb/106British thermal units, but the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOxwhen using fluidized bed is several times smaller and, as a rule, are of 0.12 to 0.2 lb/106British thermal units. However, regulations regarding emissions more stringent and, as a rule, are of the order of 0.10 lb/106British thermal units. This degree of recovery of oxides (NOxhas the use of technologies based on the use of fluidized bed systems with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) (spraying ammonia in those places where the gas temperature is in the range 1450-1650°F (787,8-898,9° (C), and technologies based on the use of pulverized coal systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) (R is spalanie ammonia in those places, where the gas temperature is in the range 750°F (398,9°). However, the experience of using technology selective catalytic reduction (SCR) showed that the recovery of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) less ammonia and unreacted ammonia, leaving less than using the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) (usually 5×10-6when using technology selective catalytic reduction (SCR) compared with 25×10-6using the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)). Because the original content of nitrogen oxides (NOxin fluidized bed less after system selective catalytic reduction (SCR) nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be much lower with only minimal use of the catalyst and ammonia.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention is the combination of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The combination includes a chamber reactor with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) for flow flue gas-solid particles, the primary particle separator for separating solid particles from a flow of the fumes from the first gas-solids, and means for returning the solid particles, caught a primary separator particles into the chamber of the reactor. At least one surface of the heat transfer to the superheater or reheater is located below the processing chain from the primary separator of particles relative to the flow of flue gas-solids. Mnogochislennye dust collectors that are lower in the processing chain, at least one heat transfer surface of the superheater and reheater, intended for additional separation of solid particles from a stream of flue gas-solids, together with means for returning the solid particles trapped mnogochislennymi the collector, into the chamber of the reactor. System selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is located below the processing chain from mnogochiclennyx precipitators for removal of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a stream of flue gas-solids, and scrubber dry cleaning is located below the processing chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Finally, there are means for introducing ammonia into the flow of flue gas-solids above process chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to induce chemical reactions that reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).

R is lichnye novelty items, which distinguish the present invention, are described, in particular, in the attached claims, which form an integral part of this description. For a better understanding of the present invention, its operating advantages and specific advantages obtained by its use, the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the present invention, made with reference to the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 - schematic diagram of the combination of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), corresponding to the first variant implementation of the present invention.

Figure 2 - schematic diagram of the combination of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), corresponding to the second variant of implementation of the present invention.

Figure 3 - schematic diagram of the combination of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system and selective catalytic reduction (SCR)corresponding to the third variant of implementation of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION PREDPOCHTITELNEI of embodiments of the INFUSION IS HIS INVENTIONS

The term "combustion chamber with circulating fluidized bed (CPB)"used in this application, refers to the type of reactor with circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is the process of burning fuel. Although the present invention is directed, in particular, steam boilers or steam generators, which use combustion circulating fluidized bed (CFB) as a means of ensuring the generation of heat, it is obvious that the present invention can easily be used in another form of the reactor of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB). For example, the present invention can be used in the reactor used for carrying out chemical reactions, instead of the combustion process, or where the mixture of gas and solid particles from the combustion process carried out elsewhere, served in the reactor for further processing, or where the reactor only provides a chamber in which particles or solid particles are fond of gas, which is not necessarily a byproduct of the combustion process.

General principles of operation of the reactor of the combustion chambers with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) described in Chapter 16 of the book of Stolze and Kitto Water vapor. its generation and use", fortieth edition, Eds, Copyright © 1992, The Babcock & Wilcox Company, and in U.S. patent No. 5343830 issued by Alexander and others, included in this application by reference. Data about the prior art in the technology of recovery of oxides of nitrogen (NOxand, in General, the apparatus and, in particular, systems of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is set out in the above mentioned book Schultz in her head 34, the text of which is also incorporated into this application by reference.

Now refer to the drawings in which the same reference numbers indicated similar or functionally similar elements, and in particular to the drawings, shown in piggy-3, which illustrates the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB)specified in the General reference number 10 containing chamber 20 of the reactor, with the upper part 30. The camera 20 of the reactor typically has a rectangular cross-section and is bounded by walls with liquid cooling, usually consisting of pipes transporting water and/or steam, separated from each other by a steel membrane for receiving the sealed chamber 20 of the reactor.

The 40 fuel, for example coal, 50 sorbent, such as limestone, and the 60 air for combustion is fed into the chamber 20 of the reactor, using means that are well known qualified specialists in this field of technology. The combustion process taking place in the lower part of the chamber 20 of the reactor, thus, generates the OK 70 flue gas-solids, served up from the camera 20 of the reactor, passing through several stages of removal of solid particles and heat, as will be described in this application, before releasing it into the atmosphere.

In the upper part 30 of the chamber 20 of the reactor in the flow direction 70 flue gas-solids is the primary separator 80 particles, which is intended for trapping solid particles from the stream 70 flue gas-solids so that they could be returned to the lower part of the chamber 20 of the reactor. Preferably, the primary separator 80 particles contained matrix installed in a staggered pulse separators (not shown). Installed in a staggered pulse separators are non-planar; they may be U-shaped, E-shaped, W-shaped or other shape, which has a Cup-shaped or concave configuration of the surface for the passage of the incoming stream 70 flue gas-solids. In an alternative embodiment, the primary separator 80 particles may contain a cyclone separator of known construction (not shown); in this case, as a rule, do not provide mnogochislennyi a dust collector (as described above)that are installed below the processing chain.

Solid particles 90 removed from stream 70 flue gas-solids, is returned into the chamber 20 of the reactor or through an L-valve, J-Lupanov, either through internal recirculation, for example, as described in U.S. patent No. 5343830 issued to Alexander and others, and thus, this refund is only schematically shown in the reference drawings.

Thereafter, the flow 70 flue gas-solids transported to and through one or more batteries, the heat transfer surface containing surface 100 of the superheater (SH) and/or reheater (RH), and then, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2, the second stage particle separation, typically using mnogochislennyi the dust collector (MDC) 110. Solid particles 120, deleted by mnogochislennogo dust collector (MDC) 110, back into the chamber 20 of the reactor by pipe 130 and thereafter, the flow 70 flue gas-solids are transported to and through one or more batteries of the surface 140 of the heat economizer (EC) before serving system 150 selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

In an alternative embodiment, illustrated in figure 3, the placement mnogochislennogo dust collector (MDC) 110 and the economizer (EC) 140 may be suseno in reverse order, so that the thread 70 flue gas-solids are transported from the surface 100 of the superheater/intermediate superheater (SH/RH) to the economizer (EC) 140 and then to mnogochislennogo the dust collector (MDC) 110. In any of the variations is tov implementation illustrated on piggy-3, and is also known by qualified professionals in this field of technology used by a particular value of the surface 140 of the heat economizer (EC) will depend on the desired temperature of the flue gas entering the system 150 selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for appropriate processing. From there the stream 70 flue gas-solids will be transported to the system 150 selective catalytic reduction (SCR), as before. Also provided means 160 to the input of ammonia in stream 70 flue gas-solids at the location above in the processing chain from system 150 selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

As illustrated in figure 2, to provide additional recovery of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) is it possible to combine input of urea or ammonia in an appropriate location (with respect to temperature and so on) in the stream 70 flue gas-solids.

When you exit the system 150 selective catalytic reduction (SCR) stream 70 flue gas-solids, usually served to and through another battery of the surface of the economizer (EC), this moment of clarity is indicated by the reference number 170, and then to the coil 180 of known construction. The heater 180 may be regen is exploring or regenerative type. Then, in the flow direction 70 flue gas-solids provides the ultimate collector 190 particles, which may contain bag dust collector or electrostatic filter. Particles 200 are captured by the collector 190 particles can also be returned into the chamber 20 of the reactor through a pipeline 210. Below downstream from the manifold 190 particles can also be provided by the system of the reactor scrubber dry cleaning (DSR), indicated overall by the reference number 220, intended to capture sulfur from a stream 70 flue gas-solids. System scrubber dry cleaning and General principles of their work are described in Chapter 35 of the book of Stolze and Kitto "steam, its generation and use". fortieth edition, Eds, Copyright © 1992, The Babcock & Wilcox Company, the text of which is included in this application by reference. Finally, fan 250 forced draught will flow 70 flue gas-solids, and give it to the exhaust pipe 260 in a known manner.

In the present invention is that the calcium oxide (Cao)produced in the layer of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB), potentially harmful to the catalyst used in the system 150 selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Below are the results of the analyses of the content of the stream of flue gas and solid particles, which can aidat the lower downstream from mnogochislennogo dust collector (MDC) 110.

The results of the gas analysis (vol%)

CO214-15
H2O7-15
About23-4
SO20,002-0,004
N2rest

The results of the analysis of solids (wt.%)

CaO4-14
CaSO48-16
6-10
Ashrest
Note: the main components of ash are SiO2, Al2About3, Fe2O3

However, if the recovery of sulfur is carried out with the use of limestone supply, the flow of flue gas-solids content of calcium oxide (Cao) must be less than when in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is less than the ratio of Ca/S for the sulfur content. In addition, the use to capture sulfur scrubber 220 dry cleaning as the only means or together with the supply of sorbent into the chamber 20 of the reactor may have an additional beneficial effect on the reduction in the content of calcium oxide (Cao) in the ash particles entering the system 150 selective catalytical the CSO reduction (SCR), additionally slimming in accordance with this, the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOxsince calcium oxide (Cao) works as a catalyst in the allocation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, although the scrubber 220 dry cleaning illustrated in the accompanying drawings below downstream from the manifold 190 particles, it may be desirable to change the order of these two elements 190 and 220 in the processing chain on the back to reduce emissions into the atmosphere, and also to provide the possibility of introducing at least part of unused sorbent (Cao), which may be contained in the stream 70 flue gas-solids in the scrubber 220 dry cleaning so as to provide an additional source of sorbent for use in the process of recovering sulfur oxides having place in the scrubber 220 dry cleaning.

Although to clarify the application of the principles of the present invention has been described and illustrated variant is characterized by the implementation of the present invention, it should be obvious that without deviating from these principles may be offered other options for implementation. For example, the present invention can be applied when designing a new structure containing the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CF) or for repair, replacement or modification of existing reactors and combustion chambers with circulating fluidized bed (CFB). In some embodiments, implementation of the present invention can be used some elements of the present invention without the use of other features. Accordingly, all such modifications and embodiments of properly fall within the scope of the present invention, which is limited by the attached claims.

1. The combination device of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (SRS) and system selective catalytic reduction (SCR)containing chamber of the reactor of the circulating fluidized bed (SRS)designed to transport through her stream of flue gas and solid particles, the primary particle separator designed to separate solid particles from a stream of flue gas-solids, and means for returning the solid particles are captured by the primary separator of particles into the chamber of the reactor, at least one surface of the heat transfer to the superheater or reheater, which is further down the processing chain from the primary particle separator during the flow of flue gas-solids, mnogochislennyi the dust collector located below the processing chain, m is Nisha least from one heat transfer surface of the superheater or reheater, to separate solid particles from a stream of flue gas-solids, and means for returning the solid particles trapped mnogochislennym the collector, into the chamber of the reactor system selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which is further down the processing chain from mnogochislennogo dust collector for removing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a stream of flue gas-solids scrubber dry cleaning, located below the processing chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and a means for entry of ammonia into the flow of flue gas-solids located above the processing chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

2. The combination according to claim 1, in which the primary particle separator contains a matrix staggered pulse separators particles having a cross-sectional U-shaped or E-shaped or W-shaped configuration.

3. The combination according to claim 1, additionally containing surface heat economizer above on the technological chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR)to achieve the desired temperature of the flue gas entering the system is in selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

4. The combination according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one surface of the heat transfer and the heater located below the processing chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

5. The combination according to claim 1, additionally containing a heater located below the processing chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and the collector particles below downstream from the heater.

6. The combination according to claim 5, further containing a means for returning the solid particles captured from the flow of flue gas-solids collector particles and scrubber dry cleaning, into the chamber of the reactor.

7. The combination according to claim 5, in which the collector particles below downstream from the heater, includes bag dust collector or electrostatic filter.

8. The combination according to claim 1, further containing a means for input of ammonia or urea into the desired temperature range of about 1450-1650°F (787,8-898,9°and (C)above on the technological chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in the vicinity of at least one heat transfer surface of the superheater or reheater.

9. The combination according to claim 1, additionally containing in the chamber d is Chora, at least one surface of the heat transfer to the superheater, or reheater, or boiler.

10. The combination according to claim 1, in which the primary particle separator includes a cyclone separator.

11. The combination device of the reactor or combustor circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system and selective catalytic reduction (SCR)containing chamber of the reactor of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB)designed for transportation through her stream of flue gas and solid particles, the primary particle separator designed to separate solid particles from a stream of flue gas-solids, and means for returning the solid particles are captured by the primary separator of particles into the chamber of the reactor, at least one surface of the heat transfer to the superheater or reheater, which is further down the processing chain from the primary particle separator during the flow of flue gas-solids system selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which is further down the processing chain from the reactor chamber with a circulating fluidized bed (CFB)for the removal of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a stream of flue gas-solids scrubber dry cleaning, located below the processing chain from system selection the th catalytic reduction (SCR), and means for input of ammonia in the stream of flue gas-solids located above the processing chain from system selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

Priority items:

13.02.2000 according to claims 1-11.



 

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