Method for creating of lawn
FIELD: manufacture of plant covers used for beautification of streets, squares, construction of sportive grounds, as well as for landscape designing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves spraying organic adhesive onto fine-mesh basalt net by means of specially designed equipment for filling meshes to thereby create strong carrier base. Net is perfectly ecologically safe and allows seeds to be uniformly sown over the entire area of lawn. Adhesive used for providing lawn is functioning as nutritive compound for seeds and is used simultaneously for protecting seeds from external influence of moisture and air during prolonged periods. After drying in first drying chamber, mixture of lawn grass seeds is sown onto carrier base through dosing hopper, followed by applying onto given mixture of organic adhesive and drying in second drying chamber. After discharge from drying chamber, ready dry lawn is cut into parts of various lengths, wound into roll and hermetically packed in polyethylene film for further storage and transportation. Lawn is placed on site by unwinding roll onto preliminarily prepared ground and spilling nutrient mixture thereon, followed by heavy irrigation to provide for sprouts emergence. Nutrient mixture and lawn grass seed mixture compositions are worked out depending on climatic zone and composition of parent ground on which lawn is to be provided.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing uniform sowing of seeds over the entire lawn area, and damage-free transportation and handling of grown lawn.
The invention consists in that on a special designed equipment for basalt fine mesh sprayed organic glue to fill the cells with the purpose of creation of the support base. After drying in the first drying chamber to the carrier through the hopper seeded lawn grass mixture. To this mixture is re-applied organic adhesive and produce drying in a second drying chamber. After exiting the drying chamber ready dry lawn cut into pieces of various length (from 20 to 100 meters) and is sealed in plastic wrap for storage and transportation. Laying turf is carried out by rolling rolls on prepared ground, backfill nutrient mixture and seal. The composition of the nutrient mixture is developed separately for each climate zone application, as well as the composition of the parent soil site, which hosts the lawn.
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to a technique of fabricating plant coatings used for landscaping of streets, squares, construction of sports grounds and landscaping in city parks and suburban areas.
The level of technology.
Currently, there are several ways to grow the project for lawn stripes.
The closest analogues to the production method are as follows.
1) Cultivation of grass strips on special paved areas.
The technology of cultivation is that on a specially prepared area with paved imported soil, spread it evenly, dim fine fabric mesh or gauze and re-covered with soil. Then, the thus prepared base sow seeds of grasses, the soil is compacted and abundantly watered periodically. After germination for at least 2 months there is a natural strengthening of the root system. Further, the lawn is cut by a special machine into strips and wound into a roll for transportation to the destination and subsequent spreading on the prepared area of the future of the lawn.
2) cultivation of the bands hydroponic method.
Using this technology strips of turf is grown on the substrate without a primer in special containers using a specially developed liquid nutrient medium. After a certain period of time grown lawn wound into rolls for subsequent spreading on the prepared area of the future of the lawn.
For turf grown in specified ways bands need to spend additional for the following farming operations:p> 1. Tillage and soil particles.
2. Feeding the prepared soil.
3. The alignment of the soil horizon.
4. Soil compaction.
5. The spreading of the rolls on the prepared soil.
These methods difficult to use, are very time consuming and expensive. The results obtained show that there is some General issues, the main of which - a short shelf life, poor survival rate of the root system after spreading lawn on the prepared soil, and rapid germination of weeds and oppression they have not yet rooted blade of grass.
The objective of the invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages, mechanization and automation of production process and laying turf.
Disclosure of the invention.
The problem is solved as follows.
Method for the production of dry lawns is that the basalt a fine mesh in the course of its movement on the conveyor organic spray glue to fill the cells with the purpose of creation of the support base.
After drying the adhesive-bearing framework in the first drying chamber in the process of its further progress through fixed bin realize even feeding and seeding the estimated amount of the mixture of grasses.
On sown seeds cause e is e one layer of glue and carry out the drying in the following drying chamber in order to consolidate planted grass seed on the prepared base and exceptions access of air.
The last step in the manufacture of dry grass is cutting the mesh is ready for planting, winding into rolls and packing in sealed plastic packaging for storage and transport.
The method of laying strips of dry grass.
1. The alignment of the soil horizon.
2. The spreading of the rolls on the prepared soil.
3. Laying nutrient mixture on top of the roll and seal it.
4. Watering the lawn.
Nutrient mixture consists of lowland peat, sand, clay and mineral fertilizers, and its composition is developed separately depending on the climatic zone of use and the composition of the parent soil area, which will host the lawn. With the purpose of killing weeds and pathogenic bacteria is heat treatment nutrient mixture with superheated steam with subsequent drying to the desired moisture level. The mixture is packaged in plastic bags of different volumes.
The composition of the mixture of grasses developed separately depending on the climatic zone of use and with the wishes of the consumer. After 10-12 days after laying on the lawn and its abundant watering appear smooth shoots, without weeds and bare patches. Germination of seeds is almost 100%. As grass growth should continue to be watered and occasionally under trigati, other types of work not provided. Canvas lawn can be used for many years. To maintain the vitality of lawn fertilization is required only for 3-5 year of its operation, as nutrient mixture, founded at the beginning of the turf, provides the power for a specified period, which, in turn, depends on the frequency of mowing a lawn.
To implement the method of production of dry lawns using a specially modified based on the available samples of the equipment. It is a moving conveyor on which is rolled out from a roll basalt mesh, which is the basis of the carrier for the manufacture of dry grass. Together with the conveyor in the order of manufacturing operations is required equipment: sprayers organic adhesive, the drying chamber and the hopper for seed.
The implementation of the invention.
The production of dry lawns is performed on the equipment in the following way (see drawing).
Basalt a fine mesh industrial production width of 1 meter and a cage 5×5 mm unwound from a roll on the table of preparation 1 and serves on the conveyor 2.
On the grid in the course of its movement on the conveyor 2 from the nozzle 4 at the first position applied organic industrial glue the CSOs production to fill the cells with the aim of creating adhesive carrier basis for seeds. Glue after laying turf and irrigation dissolves in water and is a composition nutrient.
In the process of further advancement through the first drying chamber 5 carry out the drying of the adhesive carrier substrate with the use of heaters 6 in the temperature range up to 90 degrees Celsius (maximum allowable temperature for the organic glue). Further, through fixed bin 7 provide a uniform supply of adhesive to the base and seeding grasses mixture at a rate of 40 grams per square meter.
At the next stage of production sown the seeds of the nozzle 8 in the second position put another layer of glue, followed by final drying ready products in the drying chamber 9 in temperature up to 50 degrees Celsius in order to consolidate planted grass seed on the prepared base. The second coat of glue aims not only consolidate the seeds, but exclude access of oxygen and moisture, and hence premature germination.
The last step in the manufacture of dry grass grid ready for planting cut on the table packaging of finished products 3, is wound into rolls and packaged in sealed polyethylene bags for storage and transportation. Sealed UPA is transportation prevents access of air and moisture, that allows you to store the products for a long time.
Products Packed in packaging from 20 to 100 square meters, the weight of the roll is from 6 to 30 kg shelf Life of the finished product under the conditions of storage and transportation is not less than 2 years.
Sources of information
1. Dgiestion, "All about the lawn", publishing house "Mine-books, 2003
- Lawn care;
- Problems arising from the lawn care;
- New lawn;
- Other ways of covering the soil surface.
2. Ipipgw, "Lawns", publishing house "Dilya", 2003
- Classification of lawns;
- Features lawns for sports;
- The prospect of a lawn business in Russia.
3. Lavesta, expert Advice. Lawns", publishing house of SMEs", 2003
- Lawn care.
The production method of the lawn, containing the cultivation of turf from the pre-formed grass strips having a base, characterized in that the lawn strip form using as the basis of the fine-grained basalt mesh, on which between two layers of organic glue are the seeds and the cultivation is carried out on a pre-prepared site at the place of arrangement of the lawn.
FIELD: building, particularly bridge building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves compacting ground of embankment body and cones; forming drainage layers and water-draining chutes on coating; creating pad with variable rigidity decreasing in direction from bridge along embankment for length equal to approach slab length; arranging approach slab having upward gradient in bridge direction. Pad of embankment body is formed by creating cast-in-place piles along with surface compaction of upper cast-in-place pile parts and upper embankment layer, wherein transversal cast-in-place piles form strips having medium rigidity jointly with ground forming embankments. The medium rigidity is reduced from maximal value at bridge pier to minimal one at approach slab end opposite to bridge pier.
EFFECT: reduced embankment subsidence under approach slab due to decreased pad and draining material displacement in horizontal direction.
8 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for slope consolidation and for stabilizing deep front landslide areas.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes foundation mat and piles formed in wells grouped in rows. Upper pile parts are embedded in foundation mat, lower one is restrained by not-sliding ground layers. Piles are composite along their lengths. Central pile parts are not filled with concrete. Heights of upper and lower pile parts decrease towards landslide head. Structure to prevent deep front land-slides comprises separate local pile groups connected by foundation mats and located within landslide body boundaries. Each foundation mat has tension bars anchored in stable slope layers and arranged under and above foundation mat along slope to retain thereof against displacement and rotation.
EFFECT: improved slope stability, increased operational reliability of structure built on wide landslides, reduced building time and material consumption.
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: sportive constructions, in particular, constructions which may be partly used in agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: sportive ground has base with two slopes extending from central longitudinal axis, drainage layer and soil plant layer placed onto base. Base is part of box-like construction. Rim is placed on inner side of base. Pipe with water discharge grid and warm air supply pipe are mounted on base. Groove is provided at base inner side.
EFFECT: provision for circulation of air in ground, improved conditions for development of lawn herbage, quick discharge of rain water from lawn ground surface, followed by drying and heating through of ground, preventing of ground surface from freezing-through under winter conditions.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly forming coating on sport ground and similar structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves securing vertical rods in load-bearing layer, arranging zigzag heating wires connected with power source on load-bearing layer; connecting heating wires to vertical rods and applying coating material on load-bearing layer. Coating material is concrete of the following composition (% by weight): low-molecular oligodiene - 8-11; sulfur - 3-6.5; thiuram - 0.3-0.7; zinc oxide - 1.5 - 5.0; calcium oxide - 0.3-0.6; ash from heat power plant - 7-10; remainder - quartz sand. Uninsulated heating wire is used as coating layer reinforcement. Rod height corresponds to coating layer thickness. Electric power is supplied from power source for 55-56 min to obtain coating layer temperature of 85-95°C and then for 180-200 min to maintain 115-125° temperature thereof. Rate of temperature change may not exceed 1°C per minute.
EFFECT: reduced power inputs along with increased coating strength.
2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, grape bush training method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves planting grape bushes; setting support; cutting and forming bushes and fruit-bearing zone; attaching bushes to support. Bushes are formed with one or two zigzag-shaped cordon arms on two parallel wires of bi-planed trellis by attaching cordon arms in zigzag and alternating manner to upper wire and to lower wire in bending portions. Fruit-bearing parts are positioned at bending portions of cordon arms.
EFFECT: increased resistance of plants to stress factors of habitat, increased yield and improved quality of berries, prolonged life of bushes and widened crown space.