Method of the radioactive waste disposal

FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.

5 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and other sectors of the nuclear industry.

There is a method of disposal of radioactive waste, including drilling, the descent of containers with radioactive waste, conducting cement works by filling the remaining space in the hole on the interval of arrangement of the containers with cement mortar, and above this interval, in the area of barrier pillar by performing an isolation layer of clay, sealing the wellhead (characteristics of engineered barriers in deep geological formations, a consultants meeting on 13-17 November 1989, p.19-22, IAEA. The division of nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. Vienna, April 1990).

The disadvantage of this method is the presence in the rocks along the wellbore of the discharge zone from the rock pressure, and the presence of the casing in the interval disposal. The discharge zone around the well may be a channel through which the containers can infiltrate groundwater. The presence of the casing at the initial stage will prevent the tight compression of the containers from the side of the rock mass, and after its destruction over time due to corrosion can also cause water conveyance channel that is not PR is reliable groundwater protection from radiation.

There is also known a method of disposal of radioactive waste, including drilling, placement of containers with radioactive waste and leaving over them barrier pillar in the zone of plastic deformation surrounding the borehole rocks, filling the free volume of the borehole extending at solidifying backfill material (Method of disposal of radioactive waste. RF patent №2063077, IPC G 21 F 9/24, E 21 F 17/16, 09 At 1/00, publ. 27.06.1996,).

The disadvantage of this method is leaving around the well in the area of containers with radioactive waste and barrier pillar extending hardening grouting material, which may cause cracks due to uneven thickness due to various gaps between the borehole wall (roughness and the wood thrown) and containers, as well as due to the redistribution of rock pressure in the vicinity of wells hardening and expansion of grouting material. These shortcomings reduce the reliability of the disposal of radioactive waste and does not provide protection of groundwater from contamination.

The present invention is directed to a solution to increase the reliability of the protection of groundwater for radioactive waste disposal.

To solve the problem in a way that includes the drilling of wells, the placement is their containers with radioactive waste and abandonment barrier pillar in the zone of plastic deformation of rocks, filling the free volume of the borehole extending backfill material, sealing the wellhead, the disposal of radioactive waste produced in the layer of shale, which is in plastic condition, and containers with radioactive waste is placed in the middle part of the layer with a length of l=m-2hδwhere m is the layer thickness, hδ- power of shale, which ensures the protection of groundwater against radiation and tightness of the containers. Plugging the free volume of the well carry out the expanding upon the disintegration of the dried and milled the parent rock. On the plot containers plugging perform substitution mud pre-prepared parent rock. On a plot of barrier pillar after pumping mud maternal breed is served a La carte with the addition of water in relation to natural moisture.

As you know, the plastic properties of clay rocks are closely associated with humidity. Depending on the degree of humidity they can be in solid, semi-solid, plastic and flowable condition (Nsibirwa, Wedkarski, Ulimately. Guide on the determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils. M.: "Nedra", 1975, 176 C.). For disposal of radioactive waste the best education is suitable clay with plasticity number M p>17) in plastic condition, a measure of the consistency of 0.25≤≤0,75). Barrier pillars (above and below the containers with radioactive waste) of these clays are the best waterproof screen (i.e. prevent proniknovenie of groundwater from the aquifer rocks), so how can undergo significant deformation without breaking their continuity (Athletescan. Assessment waterproof screen of clay soils. Methods of study and control deformation of the rock mass during the development of the layers under built-up areas and ensure the stability of the sides of the cuts. Collection of scientific papers. - L.: research Institute, 1987. - p.41-48).

In the process of drilling wells for the disposal of radioactive waste extract shale, samples define natural humidity, the number of plasticity and consistency index in accordance with the "guide...". Shale at the site with a number of plasticity over 17 and a measure of consistency in the range from 0.25 to 0.75 after retrieval from the well is dried to a moisture content that is less than the limit shrinkage when dried, milled and packaged in moisture-proof packages and then used for backfill space well. Containers with radioactive waste is placed in the middle part of the layer of clay with yasanabilirmi with a length of l=m-2h δand after removing the delivery pipe into the borehole is filled with dried and crushed bedrock to the extent determined based on the diameter of the hole and sizes of containers, which displaces the drilling mud. Then the drilling fluid remaining in the well above the containers, pumped and yard barrier pillar in the well is fed dried and crushed bedrock and water in the volume defined on the basis of natural moisture clay rocks.

The proposed method is illustrated by drawings, where

figure 1 shows a borehole during placement of containers with radioactive waste management;

figure 2 shows a section along the axis of the borehole after plugging space and sealing the mouth;

figure 3 shows a cross-section of the borehole along a-a in its upper part;

figure 4 shows a section along b-b in the interval barrier pillar;

figure 5 shows a section along C-C in the interval of arrangement of containers with radioactive waste after plugging the well.

The proposed method is implemented as follows. For waste disposal is selected array of clay rocks in a plastic condition. In the array drilled well # 1. Drilling is done with removing the core and the determination of natural moisture content, plasticity number and percentage of consistent is I. The data obtained are determined by the top 2 and bottom 3 of the boundary layer 4 clay with plasticity number Mp>17 and an indicator of consistency in the range from 0.25 to 0.75. The breed is selected within the specified layer, dried, ground and Packed in a waterproof envelope. For placement of containers expected average of the selected boundaries 2 and 3 layer 4, the length l of which is from the expression l=m-2hδwhere m is the layer thickness, hδ- power of shale, which ensures the protection of groundwater against radiation and tightness of the containers. Interval 5 wells 1, which will be subsequently placed containers with radioactive waste, as well as the interval of the well barrier pillar 6 and above, up to the upper boundary of 7 clayey rocks are not fixed constant support. Maintaining rock walls on these intervals before placing containers made with mud.

After placing in the well of the container 8 with radioactive waste in the borehole is filled with dry ground bedrock in the amount determined on the basis of the gap between the container and the borehole wall and the height interval 5 wells 1. The drilling fluid thus displaced from the plot of the containers in the upper part of the borehole where pumped on the again. In the process of replacing the mud dry bedrock hydrated and swells, creating pressure on surrounding the borehole breed. At the site of placement of the barrier pillar for clays with hδ≥4 m and above him, up to the boundary of 7 clay backfill is performed by successive portions (to a height of two diameters wells) feed dry ground source rocks and water in the volume, which is determined based on a natural moisture clay rocks. Above the border 6 of clay rocks in the casing tube 9 is erected concrete tube 10.

While moisturizing dry bedrock swells and expands, creates on the walls of the well increased pressure, which when reaching the limiting shear stress leads to the redistribution of rock pressure and restoring the natural stress field in the vicinity of the well.

Containers with radioactive waste are enclosed in plastic mountain range with the field of natural stresses and separated from contact with the aquifer rocks 11 barrier pillars 6.

Thus, the proposed method of disposal of radioactive waste in clay formations that are in the plastic state, leaving the barrier pillars of sufficient size and use as a grouting material RA is shirasaya while moisturizing dry ground bedrock, in the array around the container restores the field of natural stresses, which eliminates the contact of groundwater with radioactive waste in the area of their burial.

Expanding upon swelling of dried crushed bedrock creates on the borehole wall high blood pressure, which leads initially to seal layers of the array adjacent to the borehole wall, and later, due to the redistribution of moisture leads to restoration of the natural rock pressure in the vicinity of containers with radioactive waste.

A specific example of the method.

According to previously completed geological exploration in the thickness of the sedimentary rocks at depths from 12 to 97 m there is a layer of Neogene clays from 60 to 85 m, which is possible disposal of radioactive waste. Well for disposal of radioactive waste is planned on a plot of predicted (according to nearby exploration wells) depth of the upper boundary layer of clay - 12 m, the lower boundary of 87 m (output layer of clay - 75 m).

During drilling of well 1 (figure 1) it extracts the clay, determine the natural moisture Wetop Wfand bottom Wpplastic limit, and these data are the number of plasticity Mp=Wf-Wpand the consistency index=(We p)/Mp. Removed from a well clay is dried, ground and sealed in plastic bags. According to test results, establish the top 2 and bottom 3 of the boundary layer 4. On the upper boundary of We=37%, Wf=43%, Wp=20%, Mp=43-23=23, B=(37-20)/23=0,74, at the lower border of We=26%, Wf=43%, Wp=20%, Mp=43-23=23, B=(26-20)/23=0,26. These boundaries are located at depths of 18 and 75 m, respectively, and determine the spacing layer 4, in which clays are plastic state (tight - and makoplasty). Power barrier pillars 6 hδtake equal to 4 m Interval 4 wells for radioactive waste disposal is determined by the depth from 22 to 71 m

After drilling to a depth of 75 m using as the attachment of the mud part of the borehole from a depth of 75 m to a depth of 71 m (lower barrier pillar) fall asleep dried milled maternal clay without pumping drilling mud. Then lowered into the borehole containers with radioactive waste, starting from a depth of 71 m to a depth of 22 m, and the free space fall asleep dried milled maternal clay without pumping drilling mud. Then the drilling fluid pumped from the well and in the interval from 22 to 12 mm hole portions fill the dried milled maternal clay with addition of water in volume W e=37%. The remaining 12 m of the borehole to the surface plugging with concrete. Dried milled maternal clay in the hole absorbs water, swells and expands, which leads to the redistribution of rock pressure and eventually to the restoration of the natural stress field around the containers with radioactive waste.

Thus, the proposed method of disposal of radioactive waste in clay formations that are in the plastic state, leaving the barrier pillars of sufficient size and use as a grouting material expanding when wet, dry ground source rocks in the massif around the container restores the field of natural stresses, which eliminates the contact of groundwater with radioactive waste in the area of their burial.

The method of disposal of radioactive waste, including drilling, placement of containers with radioactive waste and abandonment barrier pillar in the zone of plastic deformation of the surrounding rocks, filling the free volume of the borehole extending backfill material, sealing the wellhead, characterized in that the disposal of waste produced in the clay layer, which is in plastic condition, the containers with radioactive waste is placed in the middle cha the ti layer with a length of l=m-2h δwhere m is the layer thickness, hδ- power clayey rocks and backfill free volume of perform well removed from the well, dried and powdered rock, and plot containers plugging perform substitution of mud, and in the area of barrier pillar after pumping drilling fluid through portions of the feed with the addition of water in relation to natural moisture.



 

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