Device for neutralization of the liquid a-wastes of the low and medium level of radioactivity
FIELD: atomic power; liquid A-wastes processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of atomic power, in particular, to the liquid A-wastes processing. The invention contains: a device for neutralization of the liquid A-wastes of low and medium level radioactivity, which contains an upright located vaporizing container placed inside a ring-type tank. The vaporizing tank has a heater located in its middle part and louvered deflectors and a branch pipe of a condensate withdrawal - located in its upper part. The vaporizing tank is made in the form of the shut funnel with its narrow part directed downward. The bottom of the shut funnel represents a replaceable cylinder with a sorbent and is placed inside the second heater. The ring-type tank having a branch pipe to feed the processed solutions is connected to the vaporizing tank by a pipeline with a pressure-relief valve. Advantage of the invention is an improved efficiency of water purification.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved efficiency of water purification.
The invention relates to the field of processing of liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity level, resulting in a contour waters reactors of nuclear submarines (NPS)have exhausted their resource.
Known design evaporator with forced circulation (Assocition, WEA, Mijikai. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1985, page 23, figure 2.6). This solution is unreliable due to the presence of moving parts - pump and compressor. Additional measures are needed for further processing of the brine.
The closest is stationary design evaporator with remote heating chamber and natural circulation (Assocition, WEA, Mijikai. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1985, p.22, 2.5). The design contains a heating chamber, using as coolant vapor, as well as the Belleville column designed for the purification of juice from condensed vapor and aerosol entrainment.
The disadvantage of such a device is receiving during operation one stripped off solution (brine), which requires additional operations and equipment for further processing.
The technical result of this device is the ability to carry out at the same time p is ocess evaporation to obtain a condensate, suitable for discharge into the waters, and the concentration obtained in the process of evaporation of brine, followed by its deposition on the sorbent.
The technical result is achieved in that the device is a vertically located evaporative capacity, placed inside the annular tank, in the middle of which there is a heating element. In the upper part of the evaporating vessel are louvered baffles. Evaporative capacity has a closed funnel, the narrow part at the bottom. The bottom of the tank is removable glass sorbent placed in the internal volume of the sorbent heater. Annular tank having an inlet for the supply of processed solutions, coupled with evaporative capacity of the pipe with non-return valve. Evaporative capacity of the cover is closed with the connection of the condensate drain.
The drawing shows a device for the decontamination of liquid radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radioactivity. It is an evaporative capacity (1)placed inside the annular tank (2). In the upper part of the evaporating vessel (1) are louvered baffles (3). Evaporative capacity (1) closed by a cover (4) with the connection of the condensate drain (5). The heater of the evaporator (6) is in the middle of the evaporative capacity (1). In the lower part of the evaporative eat the spine (1) is placed a removable sleeve (7) with sorbent (8). Replacement glass (7) sorbent (8) is, in turn, in the internal volume of the heater (9) of the sorbent (8). With the main volume of the evaporative capacity (1) replacement glass (7) sorbent (8) is connected to the flanged connector (10) with a fine-meshed net (11)to prevent entrainment of the sorbent. Ring tank (2)having a nozzle for supplying recyclable solutions (12), connected to the evaporative capacity (1) nutrient pipeline (13) with non-return valve (14), which prevents the reflux of the solution from evaporating capacity in the annular tank. Feeding pipelines (13) can be two.
The device operates as follows.
Ring tank (2) is filled through the pipe supply recyclable solutions of (12) to a certain level liquid radioactive waste. In evaporative capacity (1) recyclable solution flows from the annular tank (2) through nutrient pipeline (13). Reverse movement of the solution is excluded due to the presence of the pipeline (13) check valve (14). Thus, in the evaporation vessel (1) and the annular tank (2) is the same level of the processed solution. When heated by the heater (6) the upper layers of the solution in the evaporating vessel (1) to a temperature somewhat below the boiling point of the particular solution is the process of evaporation from the surface. The resulting pair is undesirous on the louvered baffles (3), located in the upper part of the evaporation tank (1). The secondary steam through pipe condensate drain (5) enters the tank-a collection with a high degree of purification of the condensate from radionuclides. As the lowering of the processed solution in the evaporating vessel (1) a solution of an annular tank (2) through nutritional pipe (13) with non-return valve (14) is fed into the evaporation tank (1) due to the difference of hydrostatic pressure in both tanks. When conducting follow-up examinations in the tank-the collection, provided that the definition of MPC values below the standard, the water from the tank collection is reset in an outdoor pond or water area. When determining the MPC values approaching regulatory, filing solution for distillation ceases. Stops the power supply to the heater of the evaporator (6) and starts the power supply to the heater (9). Accumulated in the evaporation vessel (1) brine in the process of heating pariveda to dryness in the presence of sorbent (silica gel). When this happens sorption dissolved in brine radionuclides. After deposition of radionuclides on the sorbent heater (9) is turned off. The distillation process is resumed, the power to the heater (6) evaporative tank (1). In a circular tank (2) to a certain level is pumped solution for processing. PR is several cycles (specific amount of the latter depends on the composition of the initial solution) absorption (bearing) capacity of the sorbent reaches some contained in the brine elements limiting values (calculated theoretically on the original composition). In this case, the Cup (7) saturated with dry sorbent (8) is extracted from the body of the heater (9) and sent for recycling. With the resumed portion of the sorbent (8) the apparatus is again ready to receive the required condensate. To reduce the content of radionuclides in the surface layer of sorbent granules in the case of evaporative capacity (1) provides for the possibility of steaming granules nitric acid.
This device is compact and can be mounted on a transportable platform.
The proposed design has several advantages over known devices:
is obtained in the process of evaporation, the brine is deposited on the sorbent within the same structure with the formation of solid granules, suitable for subsequent disposal;.
- no moving parts;
low intensity, small dimensions, the ability to create mobile units;
- improved thermodynamic characteristics.
The device for processing liquid radioactive waste of low and intermediate level radioactive, containing evaporative capacity, characterized in that the vertically located evaporative capacity, placed inside the annular tank and having in the middle part of the heater, and in the upper part - louvered OTB is iniki, has a closed funnel narrow part of the bottom, the bottom of which is removable glass sorbent placed in the volume of the second heater, and the annular tank having a pipe supply recyclable solutions, coupled with evaporative capacity of the pipe with non-return valve, evaporative capacity of the cover is closed with the connection of the condensate drain.
FIELD: polymer production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removal of volatile impurities from epoxide resin used to manufacture of coatings. Method of invention resides in that container with epoxide resin is placed in tank with hot oil and heated to 100-110°C at stirring. When temperature of resin achieves 50°C, air is supplied to its lower layers.
EFFECT: increased degree of removing volatile impurities from epoxide resin and safety of process.
FIELD: organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for concentrating 1-naphthol-5-sulfoacid from aqueous solutions in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Method involves extraction with trioctylamine oxide solution taken in the concentration 0.5 mole/dm3 in toluene medium wherein trioctylamine oxide is impregnated preliminary in polyurethane foam and wherein the mass part of the solution with respect to polyurethane foam is 55-60%, and mass of impregnated tablets changes from 0.093 ± 0.001 to 0.096 ± 0.001 g per 25 cm3 of 1-naphthol-5-sulfoacid an aqueous solution. Extraction is carried out by extractive-sorption method. Under conditions of the complete extraction of 1-naphthol-5-sulfoacid from aqueous solutions the proposed method provides increase of the concentrating coefficient by above 5 times. Invention can be used in concentrating 1-naphthol-5-sulfoacid in analytical control of purified sewage in plants manufacturing dyes.
EFFECT: improved concentrating method.
2 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises separating, in a receiving container, acid treatment products into water-in-oil-type reverse oil emulsion and acid-containing water phase. To the latter phase is added demulsifier, notably "Oksifos" in amount 0.1-1.0%. Resulting mix is agitated at temperature not below 20°C for 5-10 min with reverse-type oil emulsion at ratio 3:1 to form direct-type emulsion oil-in-water. This emulsion is settled to separate into essentially waterless oil phase and acid-containing aqueous solution of Oksifos. Oil phase is pumped out into oil-field pipeline and Oksifos solution is neutralized and simultaneously subjected to flotation removal of contaminants therefrom by way of gradually adding 5% aqueous potassium carbonate solution in amount providing achievement of pH value of Oksifos solution equal to that of local natural surface and underground waters. Thus treated Oksifos solution is used as oil-removing liquid. Further adsorption cleaning of neutral aqueous Oksifos solution is also possible by way of filtering the solution through adsorbent to obtain product that may be used as potassium and phosphorus-containing fertilizer or reused being thrown down onto relief in water-diluted state. Adsorbent is made up of a mixture crushed vegetable- and mineral-origin materials taken at 1:1 ratio, wherein vegetable-origin materials could be, in particular, peat, straw, or wood cuttings and mineral-origin materials are selected from clay, sand, or natural soil. Contaminants isolated in above-defined flotation and adsorption cleaning procedures together with work-out adsorbent are mixed with anhydrous calcium oxide at 1:1 ratio and mixed material is then used to cover process areas or to bank wells.
EFFECT: enabled pumping-out of waterless oil phase into oil-field pipeline and reuse of neutralized water phase.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: film evaporator comprises vertical cylindrical housing, face lids, top and bottom tube plates, heat exchanging pipes, film generators mounted with a spaced relation inside the top ends of the heat exchanging pipes, and connecting pipes for supplying and discharging fluid that heat secondary steam and condensate. The bottom section of the housing receives pipeline made of a coil whose one end is connected with the connecting pipe for supplying the fluid and straight section is secured between the tube plates. The connecting pipe for supplying fluid is mounted in the bottom face lid of the evaporator and provided with two additional tube plates arranged under the top and bottom tube plates, respectively. The plates are provided with heat exchanging pipes and film generators arranged coaxially to the central axis of the housing. The device is provided with stiffening ribs that are arranged inside the housing and connect the adjacent pipes. The evaporator also has mechanism for axial movement of film generators. The film generators and heat exchanging pipes in the top section of the housing are provided with cones for adjusting the clearance for flowing fluid.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
1 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: devices for separation of surface layers of liquids.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the device for separation of a surface layer of a liquid. The device contains: the container (6) with the bottom (7); the wall (8) connected to the bottom (7) and having a variable length; a separating component (9), which is linked with the wall and through a hole communicates with the space (10) in the container. The overflow part (11) of the separating component is located below the free surface of the liquid of the surface layer and ensures transit of the liquid. The outlet pipe (4) transits from a part of space (10) for a liquid outflow. A floating component (15) connected to the separating unit (9) floats on the surface of the liquid outside the container and applies an elevating force to the separating unit in direction of the wall elongation. The submersible unit (16) is bridged to the separating unit and placed below the overflow part. The submersible unit has a mass and applies the downward directed force so, that the overflow part has been located below the free surface of the liquid, and the elevating power owing to the liquid pressure, when the space (10) is filled with such quantity of the liquid, that the submersible unit will be partially located in the liquid, thus the overflow part will be above the free surface of the liquid. The technical result: the invention ensures stability and reliability of the device operation at separation and collection of the surface layer of the liquid.
EFFECT: the invention ensures stability and reliability of the device operation at separation and collection of the surface layer of the liquid.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil-producing industry; methods of field separation of mixture of oil.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of separation of petroleum, sub-finished water product and an accompanying gas. The method of separation of the oil-water emulsion into phases is realized by conducting all the operations of separation in one apparatus by means of centrifugal forces, which are used in a direction of their action in the dual-drum whizzer with the rhomboidal drums of different diameter. Preliminary separation of the oil-water emulsion into water, petroleum and a gas is conducted in a tube-axis and in the drum of the greater diameter, and the final separation of the liquid and the gaseous phases into oil and a gas is conducted in the drum of the smaller diameter and also under action of centrifugal force. Feeding of so procured oil-water emulsion for separation and withdrawal of the gaseous products is conducted through the central tube-axis of the whizzer continuously and under a heightened pressure. The water and oil remove from the whizzer through the circle branch-pipes located around the motionless containers occluding the movable drums of the whizzer. The technical result is an increased effectiveness of separation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased effectiveness of separation.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: one should perform the following stages: a) removal of contaminants out of plant; b) plant's reducing; c) treatment of reduced plant with laser radiation; d) suspending the mixture obtained at stage c) in water; e) maceration of suspension obtained at stage d) and f) separation of liquid developed. Composition should be obtained due to this technique. It should be applied at treating hepatitis C as an aqueous extract. It should be applied as aqueous extract as immunostimulant. Pharmaceutical preparation includes aqueous extract as an active constituent.
EFFECT: increased biological activity of the product.
43 cl, 16 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: equipment for oil producing industry; plants separating oil well products into water and oil.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes column with water-and-oil emulsion supply pipe line and oil and water discharge pipe line; column is located in well killed with packer from beneath. Water-and-oil supply pipe line is connected tangentially to upper part of column. Lower part of column is open. Oil discharge pipe line has lesser diameter as compared with pipe line located inside column. Water discharge pipe line is connected to wellhead. Cavity formed by inner surface of column and outer surface of oil discharge pipe line is provided with spiral wall; direction of spiral winding coincides with direction of tangential inlet.
EFFECT: possibility of operation in winter without heating.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: boiling-down crystallizing solutions; production of alumina.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of boiling-down the aluminate solution is performed in evaporator working on natural circulation of solution at discharge of solution from heating (heat exchange) tubes to special chamber where injection of circulating solution is created similarly as in jet apparatus for increase of rate of its motion in heating tubes.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency due to increased degree of circulation of solution through heating tubes at boiling of solution outside heating tubes.
FIELD: oil industry, particularly to prevent salt deposits in collector and measuring installations during oil production and transportation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing product flows and transporting thereof, wherein compatible liquids are chosen for further mixing so that during mixing of above liquids oversaturated salt solution does not appear to prevent salt precipitation. Liquid for mixing is taken in amount enough to reduce salt concentration to value, which does not exceed saturated concentration and provides mineralization obtaining after liquid mixing. Mixing of liquid flows is performed out of process equipment and in tubes provided with release coating applied on inner tube surfaces.
EFFECT: increased simplicity due to elimination of chemical reagent usage and due to reduced number of stages.
FIELD: crude oil treatment.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises well production measurement unit, first- and second-step separators, hot separation step, heat exchanger, preliminary water discharge tank with pipeline for removing drainage water and intermediate layer, and deep-cooling and desalting steps. Drainage water together with intermediate layer are transferred into tank, wherefrom intermediate layer is passed into another tank provided with heat exchanger and flow circuit. The latter is in series connected over control valve to biphasic and triphasic plate centrifuges. Oil-discharge line from plate centrifuge is connected to surge vessel for commercial oil and water-discharge line to waste disposal plant. Concentrate of suspended solids is got out for processing.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption on treatment of intermediate layers and stabilized operation of centrifuges and crude oil treatment installation.