Method of and device for determining motor oil service group

FIELD: any industries where motor oils are used.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains shaped insert with oxidizer feed axial channel. Ring passage space for cooling agent is found inside shaped insert, and outer surface of middle stage is provided with corrugations. It provides cooling of oil vapors settled on corrugations at heating and dripping down in form of condensate into high temperature oxidation zone. Oil sample meter is provided in lower part of cylindrical head made in form of branch pipe by means of which metered delivery of oil to surface of aluminum weighing bottle is carried out. Oil is applied in layers, each being 150±5 mcm thick, each layer is oxidized, 240±5 s, by delivering oxidizer at rate of 50 l/h directly to surface of oil layer in aluminum weighing bottle. Taken as information index is mass "m" on deposits formed on aluminum weighing bottle. At mass of ratios greater than or equal to 0.0170 g (m≥0.0170g) oil is considered as group "В" oil, and ratio 0.0130g≤m<0.0170g oil is considered as group "Г" and at m<0.0130g, oil is considered as group "Д".

EFFECT: improved accuracy and reduced time taken for determining service group of motor oil under investigation owing to provision of conditions of testing close to real conditions of operation of oil in engine.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods and devices for studying properties of motor oils, in particular to determine their operational groups, and can be used in all industries where used motor oil.

Depending on the type of internal combustion engine and operating conditions require oils with different performance characteristics. The division of operational groups is reflected in the modern classification of engine oils [GOST 17479.1-85 "motor Oil. Classification and designation"]. The higher group oil performance properties, the more it contains detergent-dispersant additives. In order to carry oil to varying operational group, you must evaluate its detergent properties.

To assess the cleansing properties of motor oils use different methods. Most fully detergent properties of motor oils is evaluated on a full-sized internal combustion engines. In accordance with GOST 17479.1-85 evaluation of the cleansing properties of motor oils operational groups, B1, G, G1exercise on motor installation US-1M (GOST 20991-75 Method for estimating the tendency of the oils to the formation of high temperature deposits), for oil groups In2, G2and Dr. engines on D-240, D-245 (MMC Solution No. 540/1-11 from 28.01.91 estimation Method of cleaning, anticorpos the district and antiwear properties of motor oils). However, these tests are complicated, time consuming and have a high cost.

There is therefore a need to develop rapid and reliable laboratory method evaluation detergent properties of the modern motor oils, simulating real processes of oil in the cylinder-piston engine.

There is a method of determining the cleansing properties of motor oils, which consists in heating the sensor to a temperature 375-390°C, applying a thin layer of oil by successive uniform heating metered quantities of oil with oxidation period the previous drops, equal 28-29, and total time temperature 84-93, in isolation of the last layer of oil from oxidizing environment, the volume of the test oil and the subsequent assessment of the operational group for the amount of lacquer, the value of which is determined by the intensity of its color according to a points system (as the USSR №1506352 A1, G 01 N 33/30, 1989).

The disadvantages of this method are: low accuracy of the test results caused by the use of color ball system, and the low reliability of the obtained results due to the lack of modeling of processes of oil in the engine during its operation.

There is also known a device for evaluation of the performance properties of motor oils, including working cameras electric, spray the refrigerator for volatile oxidation products with return condensation and temperature meter. The working chamber is made in the form of a cylindrical removable glass that is installed with the possibility of hermetic fixing, on top of which is placed a removable sleeve, the spray is made in the form of a hollow cone, the top of which has a hole and immersed in the test oil at the base of the spray against the removable sleeve nozzle holes for spraying oil while the sprinkler is placed inside the Cup coaxially him and mounted on a shaft mounted in turn in bearings under the sprinkler installed bubbler tube, is arranged to supply oxidant and sampling oil from a glass for analysis by means of the suction device, refrigerator for volatile oxidation products installed above the working chamber and is made in the form of a hollow cylinder with inlet and outlet fittings for refrigerant and flanges, the bottom of which is made with the formation of the conical surface, the apex directed into the interior of the refrigerator, and the top is sealed with a lid, which with the lower flange connected tightly (patent RF №2199114 C1, G 01 N 33/28, 2003).

This device relates to a device for oxidation of oils and allows to determine the tendency of oils is the paint and carbon deposition.

This device has the following disadvantages: the oxidation is carried out by spraying it into small particles, which increases the rate of oxidation, and the complexity and duration of the test.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved positive effect is the method for determining the propensity of motor oils to the formation of deposits, including the consistent application of metered volumes of the test oil with the receipt of each layer of a thickness of 80-90 µm heated to 315-325°With the sensor, the temperature and the oxidation of each layer of oil within 145-155 with and isolation of the last layer of oil displacement test oil and the subsequent evaluation of the tendency of the oils to the formation of deposits on the intensity of the color sensor (as the USSR №1642387 A1, G 01 N 33/30, 1989).

The prototype device is setup that implements the method according to AC No. 1642387. It includes aluminum sensor with a working surface in the form of a circular plateau complex profile with a cylindrical base, which is installed in the heating muffle. The muffle is a cylinder on the inner generatrix of which is wound a spiral filament, closed insulating casing. Mounting slot is for placing the sensor on the working surface of which is equipped with a thermocouple for monitoring the temperature of the tours surface, included in the circuit, showing the device.

The disadvantages of this method are the high accuracy, due to the fact that there is no possibility of controlling the flow of oxidizer test oil (equivalent to the damper in a real engine), and, as a consequence, semannot received values; approximation evaluation of the results of oxidation, since the evaluation is made using a ball ramp.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the operational group of the investigated engine oil through the creation of a testing environment, close to the real operating conditions of the oil during operation of the engine.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of determining the operation of motor oil, including the application of three metered volumes of the test oil is heated to 315-325°With the surface of the aluminum buxa, the temperature of each layer of oil in the oxidizing environment, the isolation of the last layer of oil and the establishment of the operational group on an informative indicator according to the invention the oil is applied with each layer thickness of 150±5 μm, each layer oxidizes within 240±5 by feeding the oxidant flow rate of 50 l/h, directly on surfaces shall be a layer of oil on aluminum buxe, and for informative indicator take the mass m of the resulting deposits on aluminum bukse when the following relations:

m≥0,0170 g - operational group "b",

0,0130 g ≤m<0,0170 g - operational group "G",

m<0,0130 g - operational group "D"

and the fact that the known device for determining the operational group of motor oil containing insulated muffle heater, along the Central axis of which is made a landing slot allocation aluminum buxa complex profile, under the working surface which has a temperature sensor connected to the measuring electronic potentiometer, and the spout of an oil sample according to the invention, further comprises a hollow cylindrical nozzle, sealed bottom end on aluminum boxe on the perimeter of and concentrically mounted in the cylindrical nozzle and secured at its upper end a greater degree of curly insert connected to a regulated source of oxidant axial channel for supplying oxidant to the surface oil and the bottom step, executed in the form of a cone, facing the top of the working surface buxa, and the outer surface of the middle stage curly insert has corrugations and positioned relative to the inner surface of the cylindrical nozzle to lavim gap, associated with ventilation channels made in a greater degree shaped insert having an inner annular flow cavity for refrigerant, with the spout of an oil sample on the working surface of the aluminum buxa made in the form of pipe in the lower part of the cylindrical nozzle placed at an acute angle to the axis of the channel for supplying air to the surface of the oil.

The drawing shows a diagram of a device implementing the method of determining the operational group of motor oil.

The device comprises a muffle heater 1 with the installed aluminum buxom 2 heated with helix 3, installed in shelter heat insulating casing 4. The desired temperature is maintained by changes in laboratory autotransformer 5 current measured by the ammeter 6. The temperature of the aluminum buxa 2 is measured by thermocouple 7, installed under the bottom of the aluminum buxa 2 in a special channel. Thermocouple 7 is connected to the measuring electronic potentiometer 8. Aluminum tube 2 clamping nut 9 is attached to the lower end of the cylindrical nozzle 10, in which the opposite side is screwed insert figure 11, with the air channel 12. For inlet and outlet of the refrigerant in a shape box 11 has a fitting 14 and 15. Through the nozzle 16 and the axial channel 13 is served oxidize the ü. The supply portion of the test sample of oil on the surface of the aluminum buxa 2 exercise dispenser 17, located in the lower part of the cylindrical nozzle 10 at an acute angle to the axis of the channel 13 of the supply of oxidant to the surface of the oil. The oxidant is supplied from the air compressor through the rheometer 18, regulating its flow.

The middle part of the figure insert 11 facing the cylindrical wall of the nozzle 10, is made with corrugations and the lower part is in the form of a cone, facing the top of the working surface buxa 2. Across the top of the cone passes the axial channel 13 of the supply of oxidant. The cavity formed by the outer surfaces of the cone and corrugated pieces shaped insert 11 and the inner surface of the cylindrical nozzle 10, is connected through the ventilation channels 12 with the atmosphere (for output oxidant).

Install pipe 17 oil supply at an acute angle due to the fact that it provides the most rapid penetration of oil in the zone of oxidation with simultaneous isolation from the environment.

For condensation of oil vapors and reduce the losses of the samples in figure box 11 serves through channel 19, the refrigerant. Channel 19 is made in a shape box 11 in the form of a labyrinth, which improves the cooling process, in which the oil vapors are deposited on flutes and running down the cone in aluminum tube 2.

To reduce the possible loss of the oil sample and the maximum diameter is chosen from the condition not exceeding the diameter of the working surface of the aluminum buxa 2.

Unlike the prototype, the thickness of each layer of the test oil 150±5 μm (in the prototype 90 μm). This value is based on the real operating conditions of the engine for temperature) - 320°C. When the heating temperature aluminum buxa 2 (equivalent to engine operation in real conditions in the area of the cylinder-piston group) observed maximum ekoobrazovanie (as shown by the experiments with the thickness of the oil film of mineral motor oil 150+5 μm).

The time of oxidation of each layer 240±5 and the oxidant flow 50 l/h were obtained experimentally (table 1). From the obtained experimental data shows that the best differentiation of the results of the evaluation of the cleansing properties of engine oils between operational groups, G, is observed at a flow rate of oxidant 35 and 50 l/h; time oxidation of one layer of the test oil are required to meet a reliable differentiation between operational groups, is 240 when the air flow rate 50 l/h, and 360 - air flow 35 l/h, and the value of ekoobrazovaniya is almost the same value; on the basis of time spent on the experiment, the time of oxidation of one layer of oil is assumed to be 240 C.

Thus, adopted the following test conditions: flow rate of the oxidizer 50 l/h, BP is me oxidation of each oil layer 240± 5 with a thickness of 150±5 μm of each layer of oil.

The set of known (1-8) and distinctive (9-19) features of the invention makes the process of determining the operational group of motor oil to real processes in internal combustion engines.

td align="center"> 280
Table 1

The test results of engine oils at different costs oxidant and time of oxidation
Brand oilsThe mass of sediment formed on an aluminum buxe, at a flow rate of oxidizer, g•10-4
35 l/h50 l /h60 l/h
the time of oxidation, with*the time of oxidation, with*the time of oxidation, with*
120180240300360120180240300360120180240300360
M-4C/6V1386410314818447130194222254 188231249258
M-8B417111215919650138204230266132195239253262
m-6C/10V497612016520255147212238271139209246260269
M-10V2reference467411816319952141207234269135202242257266
M-14V2527812616920859151217241274143211251266274
M-16V2558313117421364159221249150217257274283
M-6C/12G183574100130206613718219072143191207211
M-5C/10G1114483112141297516019121183154203216224
M-8D2to9398099138257214918820280149198213219
M-10G2To reference10377796135226913818419678147195210215
M-14G2To11418110713728 7315618920581150201214221
M-5C/12G93475100131237013418419779146198211218
M-DM2163954761928541041373787140162164
M-DM1113450721424661151464494128169172
M-DM11538577518307412315855105151173180
M-GR-1131486813236 1201544697133170175
M-GR-204159802432631171504290125152168
M-5C/16D2-1639517819297612616135101147167179
* the time of oxidation of each layer of oil

For each operational group of the oils were determined boundary values of the weight of deposits by an experimental evaluation of different samples of the oils according to the described method.

The device operates as follows. Before testing the working surface aluminum buxa 2 cleaned and degreased with a solvent. Aluminum tube 2 weighed with a precision of 0.0004, Check the grounding of the installation and the tightness of the supply of coolant and oxidant. Produce Assembly of the device 10 (installed into the pre-cooler body 11, is connected to line the filing of the refrigerant) with aluminum buxom 2, by means of a clamping nut 9. Install the assembled construction in a muffle heater 1, thermocouple 7 - in casing aluminum buxa 2.

Install using laboratory autotransformer 5 required amperage to heat the aluminum buxa to a temperature of 320°C. Include a water supply system (water temperature should be equal to 10...20°). Include an air compressor and using the rheometer set the oxidant flow of 50 l/h When reaching the desired temperature of the surface of buxa through pipe 17 serves the test oil 2 cm3on the surface buxa 2. After 240 with oxidation put the second layer of oil equal volume and through 240 with a third layer of oil. Through 240 to produce insulation formed on the working surface of buxa 2 lacquer from the oxidizer by submitting the volume of the test oil, sufficient to fully close the working surface buxa 2. Disconnect the unit from the supply system, the supply system of the oxidant and coolant and wait for it to cool to room temperature. Disconnect the nozzle 10 from aluminum buxa 2. Washed aluminum tube 2 solvent to completely remove the liquid phase and dried. Weigh the tube with precision of 0.0004 g and the difference between the mass of buxa 2 before and after testing to determine the mass of sediment m, which is judged on exploitational group of the test oil. If m≥0,0170 g - oil is operational group "B"; if 0,0130 g≤m< 0,0170 g - oil is operational group "G"; if m<0,0130 g - oil is operational group "D".

Using the claimed invention were investigated serial oils of various operational groups. The results are shown in table 2.

Oils have been tested in the required amount in accordance with the "Rules of the organization conducting the acceptance testing of fuels, oils, lubricants and special liquids for various types of equipment, approved by decree of Gosstandart of Russia from February 14, 2001, No. 16, and approved for production and use.

From the data presented in table 2, it is seen that the invention allows reliable differentiation of motor oil on operational groups depending on the mass m of the resulting deposits on aluminum boxe under certain conditions.

The use of the invention will now, with little time (30-40 min) and material (does not require the use of a full-sized internal combustion engine) costs, to determine the operational group of motor oil.

1. The method of determining the operational group of motor oil, including the application of the three measured quantities and pitamaha oil heated to 315-325° With the surface of the aluminum buxa, the temperature of each layer of oil in the oxidizing environment, the isolation of the last layer of oil and the establishment of the operational group on an informative indicator, characterized in that the oil is applied with each layer thickness of 150±5 μm, each layer oxidizes within 240±5 by feeding the oxidant flow rate of 50 l/h, directly on the surface layer of oil on aluminum buxe, and informative indicator take the mass m of the resulting deposits on aluminum bukse when the following relations:

m≥0,0170 g - operational group "b",

0,0130 g ≤m<0,0170 g - operational group "G",

m<0,0130 g - operational group "D".

2. The device implementing the method according to claim 1, containing insulated muffle heater, along the Central axis of which is made a landing slot allocation aluminum buxa complex profile, under the working surface which has a temperature sensor connected to the measuring electronic potentiometer, and the spout of an oil sample, characterized in that it further comprises a hollow cylindrical nozzle, sealed bottom end on aluminum boxe on the perimeter concentric installed in the cylindrical nozzle and mounted on the E. the upper end of the greater degree of curly insert connected to a regulated source of oxidant axial channel for supplying oxidant to the surface of the oil and with the lower stage, made in the form of a cone, facing the top of the working surface buxa, and the outer surface of the middle stage curly insert has corrugations and positioned relative to the inner surface of the cylindrical nozzle with annular gap, which is associated with ventilation channels made in a greater degree shaped insert having an inner annular flow cavity for refrigerant, with the spout of an oil sample on the working surface of the aluminum buxa made in the form of pipe in the lower part of the cylindrical nozzle placed at an acute angle to the axis of the channel for supplying oxidant to the surface of the oil.



 

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FIELD: any industries where motor oils are used.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains shaped insert with oxidizer feed axial channel. Ring passage space for cooling agent is found inside shaped insert, and outer surface of middle stage is provided with corrugations. It provides cooling of oil vapors settled on corrugations at heating and dripping down in form of condensate into high temperature oxidation zone. Oil sample meter is provided in lower part of cylindrical head made in form of branch pipe by means of which metered delivery of oil to surface of aluminum weighing bottle is carried out. Oil is applied in layers, each being 150±5 mcm thick, each layer is oxidized, 240±5 s, by delivering oxidizer at rate of 50 l/h directly to surface of oil layer in aluminum weighing bottle. Taken as information index is mass "m" on deposits formed on aluminum weighing bottle. At mass of ratios greater than or equal to 0.0170 g (m≥0.0170g) oil is considered as group "В" oil, and ratio 0.0130g≤m<0.0170g oil is considered as group "Г" and at m<0.0130g, oil is considered as group "Д".

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