Gas-turbine engine, nozzle of afterburner (versions) and method of modification of afterburner

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine has central stage arranged in gas duct of engine from its part arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow to part lower in direction of main gas flow and provided with exhaust gas cone forming device in direction of main gas flow, and guide arrangement. Gas-turbine engine has group of blades, group of fuel nozzles and group of igniters. Guide arrangement is located in zone of edge of exhaust gas cone-forming device arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow. Group of blades is located in gas duct out of the limits of central stage. Blades are provided with atomizing guides extending through blades. Fuel nozzles are installed on inner ends of corresponding atomizing guides. Each nozzle is provided with input, output and passage between input and output. Passage has part arranged to direct fuel flow to first part of passage surface located across and widening downwards in direction of flow with subsequent deflection fuel flow by first part of surface and its outlet from nozzle. Igniters are arranged in corresponding atomizing guides for igniting fuel from corresponding fuel nozzle.

EFFECT: provision of reliable lighting up in afterburner, improved recirculation of fuel in flow.

13 cl, 8 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

This invention relates to turbine engines and, in particular, to the afterburning chambers of gas turbine engines.

The level of technology

There are a number of designs afterburning chambers or devices to increase thrust gas turbine engines. Usually the gases leaving the turbine, flow round the Central part of the afterburner. Near the Central part of the flow of injected fuel that ignite to obtain an extension rod. In some designs the Central part of the afterburners unite with the Central stage of the turbine. In other constructions the Central part of the afterburning chamber is separated from the Central stage turbine nozzle, covering the space between them. In U.S. Patent 5,685,140 and 5,385,015 presents examples of the United afterburning chambers.

Afterburning chamber can contain several elements stabilizers flame intended for initiating combustion incremental fuel. To maintain combustion in the flame stabilizers used vanes, which in turn distribute the flame cross-sectional area of flow, flowing the Central level.

Disclosure of inventions

According to one aspect of the invention relates to a gas turbine engine, provided with a Central notch located the military in the gas path of the engine from its upstream direction of the main gas stream part to the downstream part. The Central level has a downstream direction of the main gas flow device plume of exhaust gases and a guiding device located in the area upstream direction of the main gas stream edge device plume of exhaust gases. The engine is further provided with a group of blades located in the gas path outside the Central level, the group of the fuel injectors and igniters. The blades contain extending through the spray rails, fuel injectors are mounted on the inner ends of the respective spray rails, and each nozzle has an inlet, an outlet and a passage between the inlet and outlet, and the passage has a part located with direction of fuel flow to the first portion of the surface of the passage, located across and diverging downward in the direction of flow, then reject flow fuel into the first part of the surface and its exit from the nozzle, and the igniters are located in the respective spray rails with the possibility of igniting the specified fuel from the respective fuel injector.

In different versions of the invention, the passage may have a second portion of the surface diverging downwards in the direction of flow in front and on the distance the AI from the first side surface at an angle less than 5° to it. Guiding device may include a channel having upstream and downstream direction of the main gas stream edges and base of the channel. Each nozzle can be installed (oriented) direction of the centerline of the jet fuel from the nozzle at the base of the channel. The first part of the surface, diverging downwards in the direction of flow, may be the inner surface of the transverse groove. The groove may have a couple of side parts on the edges of the first side surface, diverging downwards in the direction of flow, and these sidewalls diverge at an angle 55-95°.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a jet afterburner of a gas turbine engine. The nozzle has a proximal inlet for connection with the fuel channel afterburners, the distal exit of the jet fuel and a passage located between the entrance and exit from its upstream in the flow direction of the part to the downstream part, and a restricted outlet at parts of the surface of the passage containing the sides diverging downwards in the direction of flow. In various embodiments, the execution of the invention, the side parts can break down the flow direction at an angle 55-95°. The side parts can break down the flow direction at an angle of 60-80°.

D. the natives aspect of the invention relates to a jet afterburner of a gas turbine engine, the passage in which limited the output of the extreme parts of the surface of the passage forming elongated in the lateral direction of the groove. Part of the surface may contain the sides diverging from each other at an angle 55-95°; and a transverse portion extending between the side parts of the surface and diverging from each other at an angle 0-5°.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a method of upgrading the afterburner of a gas turbine engine having a shovel and Central level. The first fuel nozzle is removed and replaced with a second fuel nozzle, which is installed with the possibility of sending the centerline of the jet fuel in a more radial direction than the stream of the first fuel injector, with a more diffuse jet in at least one direction than the specified stream of the first fuel injector. In the preferred embodiment, using the second fuel injector having an asymmetric output stream.

Details of one or more embodiments of the invention shown in the attached drawings and the following description. Other characteristics and advantages of the invention will be clear from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 schematically shows a longitudinal section of the power plant of the aircraft

In the figure 2 polychelates presents a partial longitudinal section of the first afterburners, intended for use in power installations from figures 1,

The figure 3 presents a view upstream in the flow direction of the edge nozzle afterburners with figure 2.

The figure 4 shows a longitudinal section of the nozzle of figure 3, taken along the line 4-4.

The figure 5 presents an enlarged view of the distal portion of the nozzle of figure 4.

The figure 6 presents a cross-section of the nozzle of figure 5 taken along line 6-6.

The figure 7 presents a side view of the distal portion of the nozzle of figure 5.

The figure 8 presents a view of the scapula afterburners with figure 2.

Identical reference numbers and designations in the various drawings refer to identical elements.

Disclosure of inventions

The figure 1 presents the power unit 20, having a longitudinal axis 500. Along the direction 501 of the movement of the gas flow from the front to the back of the power installation includes the main part of the gas turbine engine 22 having downstream in the flow direction output (exhaust) housing 24 of the turbine (TEC - turbine exhaust case). Forming a hollow channel continuation (extension) 26 passes from the outlet of the casing 24 of the turbine to the connection with the casing 30 afterburner chamber 32. The device 34 of the nozzle with control (p the collar) thrust vector is below in the direction of flow relative to the shell 30. Afterburner chamber 32 has a Central portion 38, mounted in the gas flow through the blades (guides) 40, with the rear edges of the stabilizers flame 42.

The Central part 38 is made mainly symmetrically about the axis 500. It has a front top 50, which in the backward direction extends continuously curved convex front part or ogival portion (the portion having the form of a Lancet arch) 52 up until it reaches the longitudinal, or nearly longitudinal transition region 54 adjacent to the stabilizers 42 flame. In the rear transition area of the surface of the Central part forms a guide channel 56. The surface 58 of the device torch exhaust gases extends backward from the guide channel to the furthest point of the Central part.

In figure 2 a more detailed example implementation of the guiding channel. This channel is made annular surface of a truncated cone 60, which runs in the backward direction (downward in direction of flow) and in the radial direction inward from the intersection with the surface 54. Surface 60 forms a front (upstream in the direction of flow) the wall of the annular channel with joint forming the front edge. The inner rim surface 60 is joined with the longitudinal surface 62, prolagus the th backward from the junction with the surface 60 and forming the base of the channel (base surface). Another surface 64 in the form of a surface of a truncated cone extends back and in a radial direction outward from the junction with the surface 62 and forms the back wall of the channel. The surface 64 is joined to the longitudinal edge surface 66 that is located backward from the junction with the surface 64, and forms the back edge of the channel. The surface 66 forms a transition surface 58 of the device of flare exhaust gas. Jet 70 fuel enters the conduit through the nozzle (nozzle) 72 in the corresponding pipeline (pass). In this example, the pipeline is presented in the form of a spray guide 80 that is built into the housing 82 of the blade stabilizer 42 flame. Spray guide 80 has a group of lateral nozzles (not shown)directing a jet of fuel on both sides of the housing 82. The nozzle 72 is located at the edge of the spray rail injectors. The guide channel is designed to process reject mainly recirculating preliminary flow 600 from the primary (main) thread 602. Jet 70 fuel is introduced into the preliminary flow 600, and then using an electric spark from the corresponding igniter 84 is excited by the combustion process. The fuel is also in the main thread 602 through the side of the nozzle channel of the fuel injection mentioned above. Already Prohorov the traveler or burning of the fuel-air mixture in the flow 600 is distributed under the guide channel 56 and provides stabilization and flame propagation in the radial direction outwards to the housing 82. Alternatively, the Central portion can be provided with multiple channels (not shown) for the discharge of air jets. You can ring these channels. These channels can be supplied with air from one or more channels (not shown)passing through or along the blades to the Central part of the front guide channel.

In figures 3-7 presents further details on the design of the nozzle 72. The nozzle extends from the proximal (upstream in the direction of flow) region 100 (figure 3) to the distal (downstream in the direction of flow) region 102 (figure 5). The nozzle has an input 104 from upstream in the flow direction of the edge and the exit 106 (figure 7) at the distal edge. A passage 110 passes between input and output and has a stepped longitudinal portion extending from the upstream in the flow direction of the edge and consisting of gradually diminishing diameter of the channels 112, 114 and 118. Far downstream in the flow direction) edge of the last, the very small diameter of the channel 118 is connected with the proximal (upstream in the flow direction) edge of the groove 120, downstream in the flow direction of which forms an output 106. The groove 120 has a pair, generally flat, located across the walls 122 and distal proximal 124, soy is anenih at his sides, side walls 126 and 128 (figure 6). The walls 122 and 124 form an angle of θ1, and the side walls 126 and 128 diverge at an angle θ2 to each other. In the example embodiment, the angle θ1 is relatively small (for example, lies in the range from 0 to 5°at the same time, as the angle θ2 substantially greater (for example, ranges from 55 to 95° (more strictly from 60 to 80° typical nominal value 75°+2°). The groove 120 extends in the direction of the rounded, having a radius R of the surface 130 of the distal portion of the injector (figure 6). In the example embodiment, the center of curvature of this surface 130 approximately coincides with the center 132 of the occurrence of distal channel 118 in the groove 120. The figure 3 also shows that the injector has a fuel surge 140 designed for lateral injection of fuel. When the main method of manufacturing the overall shape of the nozzle may be cast, then it drilled channels, and further mechanical processing completed a groove, for example, on a milling machine.

In the process of moving down in the direction of flow of the fuel out from the distal channel 118, collides with the surface 122 and the fan comes out, limited by walls 126 and 128. This deviation creates a relatively flat fan spray pattern. The surface 124 may also contribute to the formation of a fan, but not to the same extent as the surface 122. Compared to the same stream emitted from the annular exit above him in the direction of flow of the cylindrical wall jet 70 increasingly distributed, at least in the direction of the divergence of the trough. The effect of the breaking of the jet in the interaction with the wall 122 helps to further reduce droplet size. From figure 2 one can see that the jet has a centerline and approximately 150 are directed inward and outward extreme path 152 and 153. Axial line 150 is specified angle θ3 to the longitudinal direction 602 flow to the tail. The direction determined by the axial line 150, slightly offset relative to the motor axis and is the angle θ4 to the radial direction. The figure 8 also shows the extreme lateral trajectory 154 and 155 of the jet, distributed at an angle θ5, which may be slightly larger than the angle θ2. In the above example the execution of θ3 equal to about 40° (more commonly 30-50°) and θ4 equal to 25° (more widely 20-30°). From figure 2 it is seen that the angle θ6 between directed inward and outward extreme paths 152 and 153 is extended relative to the angle θ1, formed associated surfaces, to a greater extent than the angle θ5 extended relative angle θ2. In the note the re angle θ 6 close to 20-40°.

Mainly the configuration of the groove is chosen, taking into account the position and orientation of the nozzles and the dimensions of the guide channel, so as to ensure reliable ignition of the afterburner. It is also desirable to ensure that there is adequate dispersion of the fuel flow 600 formed in the guiding channel. Conditions for reliable ignition of this fuel include a sufficient number of drops of fuel small amount of near work (e.g., inner) edge 160 of the igniter 84. This operating region is of longitudinally oriented inner rear surface 162 of the blade and located some distance behind the exit of the nozzle, while passing together with the nozzle through one or more apertures (e.g., the total hole 164) in this surface. The air, cooling the flame stabilizer may also pass radially inward through the hole (holes). Angle θ4 on figure 8 is chosen, keeping in mind the local tangential components of the velocity of the air passing through the blades, so as to inject fuel on both sides of the igniter in a circle. In the example implementation of the invention centerline 150 of the jet is aimed at the middle part of the surface 62 (e.g., in the Central 50%). This is different from the predecessors, the adequate level when the annular cylindrical outputs are oriented at a smaller angle, which is directed to the rear portion of such surface. This change of direction improves recirculation fuel flow 600. This improvement is due to the fact that more diffuse jet delivers the appropriate amount of fuel in the region close to the working edge 160 of the igniter compared to the orientation of the centerline 150, which covered the space far enough away from the edge.

The above description of the embodiments of the present invention. However, it is clear that can be made of various modifications without deviating from the essence and without leaving the scope of the invention. For example, although presents the output surface is shown as straight in cross section, the possible curved roborovskii configuration. In such configurations, these angles may apply to the local edges or the corners to the middle parts of the surfaces. Although shown groove is asymmetrical relative to the centerline, balanced outputs (e.g. outputs, creating a conical jet with a relatively large adjacent angle (for example, 80-120° or, more narrowly, 90-110°) it is also possible to create alternative divergence of the jet. Patentable option guide channel can be used when upgrading or lane is the development of any existing engine. In such cases, the various features of the guide channel will vary depending on the design of the existing engine. Although the invention is illustrated by the example remote afterburners, its principles can be used for remote afterburning chambers. Accordingly, other embodiments of the fall under the scope of the following claims.

1. Gas turbine engine, characterized in that it is provided with a Central stage, located in the gas path of the engine from its upstream direction of the main gas stream side to the downstream side and having a downstream direction of the main gas flow device plume of exhaust gases and a guiding device located in the area upstream direction of the main gas stream edge device plume of exhaust gases, a group of blades located in the gas path outside the Central level, the group of the fuel injectors and igniters and blades contain extending through the spray rails, fuel injectors are mounted on the inner ends of the respective spray rails, and each the nozzle has an inlet, an outlet and a passage between the inlet and outlet, and the passage has a part located with the possibility of the awn direction of fuel flow to the first portion of the surface of the passage, located across and diverging downward in the direction of flow, then reject flow fuel into the first part of the surface and its exit from the nozzle, and the igniters are located in the respective spray rails with the possibility of igniting the specified fuel from the respective fuel injector.

2. The engine according to claim 1, wherein the passage has a second portion of the surface, radiating down the flow direction, opposite and at a distance from the first side surface at an angle less than 5° it.

3. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the guiding device includes a channel having upstream and downstream direction of the main gas stream edges and base of the channel.

4. The engine according to claim 3, characterized in that each nozzle is installed with the possibility of sending the centerline of the jet fuel from the nozzle at the base of the channel.

5. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the first portion of the surface, radiating down the flow direction, an inner surface of the transverse groove.

6. The engine according to claim 5, characterized in that the groove has a pair of side parts on the edges of the first side surface, diverging downwards in the direction of flow, and these sidewalls diverge at an angle 55-95°.

7. Forsun is and afterburner of a gas turbine engine, characterized in that it contains the proximal inlet for connection with the fuel channel afterburners, the distal exit of the jet fuel and a passage located between the entrance and exit from its upstream in the flow direction of the part to the downstream part, and a restricted outlet at parts of the surface of the passage containing the sides diverging downwards in the direction of flow.

8. The nozzle according to claim 7, characterized in that the side parts diverge downwards in the direction of flow at an angle 55-95°.

9. The nozzle according to claim 7, characterized in that the side parts diverge downwards in the direction of flow at an angle of 60-80°.

10. Jet afterburner of a gas turbine engine, characterized in that it contains the proximal inlet for connection with the fuel channel afterburners, the distal exit of the jet fuel and a passage located between the entrance and exit from its upstream in the flow direction of the part to the downstream part, and a restricted outlet at parts of the surface of the passage forming elongated in the lateral direction of the groove.

11. The injector of claim 10, wherein the specified at part of the surface contain the sides diverging from each other at an angle 55-95°and a transverse portion extending between the side portions and diverging one from the other at an angle 0-5° .

12. Upgrade afterburner of a gas turbine engine having a blade and a Central stage, wherein removing the first fuel injector and replaced it with the second fuel nozzle, which is installed with the possibility of sending the centerline of the jet fuel in a more radial direction than the stream of the first fuel injector, with a more diffuse jet in at least one direction than the specified stream of the first fuel injector.

13. The method according to item 12, wherein the second fuel injector configured with a possibility of asymmetric output stream.



 

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