Apparatus for thermal processing of bulk material
FIELD: food-processing industry and food-concentrates industry, in particular, equipment for thermal processing of bulk cereal products.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has transportation mechanism, hopper-accumulator with dosing device, heating device and lateral baffles. Heating device is made in the form of linear or flat emitters arranged lengthwise of conveyor and perpendicular to transportation path. Vertical baffles are positioned in equally spaced relation at site adjoining emitters, lengthwise of transportation path, with said space being at least 0.5 the height of emitter above conveyor surface.
EFFECT: improved quality of ready product.
The invention relates to the processing industry and can be used for heat treatment of bulk grain products in the food and feed industries.
Known device for processing fodder grain containing sources of infrared radiation, the mesh conveyor, passing inside the heating chamber (Patent No. 1379116, UK, class. And 23 L 1/20, 1975) .
One of the drawbacks is the charring of the grain as it passes under the source of infrared radiation during processing, which reduces the quality of the finished product.
Also known device for processing fodder grain containing sources of infrared radiation, net conveyor device for loading and unloading grain, airtight side walls located above the conveyor (A.S. No. 904643, USSR, class. And 23 L 1/20, 1982) .
The drawback is the uneven heating of the mass of grain, resulting in lower product quality.
The most similar in design is the installation for the heat treatment of grain, containing a tape transporting mechanism and bar quartz lamps located above the ribbon along the length of the conveyor perpendicular to the direction of transportation (Patent No. 2056109, RF, CL And 23 K 1/00, 23 N 17/00) .
The disadvantage is the unevenness of oblojennosti the grain surface,located on the surface of the tape, in the transverse direction (along the lamps), which leads to uneven heating and reduce the homogeneity of the quality of the finished product. This is because the maximum irradiance, and therefore the maximum temperature of the product in the middle of the conveyor is higher than the side walls (figure 1).
Thus, the known device does not provide the same thermal regime of thermal treatment of granular product in the transverse direction of the conveyor and receiving a quality product.
The technical result, which is achieved by the invention is to improve the quality of the finished product.
This technical result is achieved in that the apparatus for the heat treatment of solids containing transporting mechanism containing a storage hopper with a metering device, a heat radiation device in the form placed along the length of the conveyor perpendicular to the direction of transportation of linear or planar emitters, and side reflectors entered in the setup emitters along the direction of transportation of vertical reflectors, breaking the treatment area in the transverse direction on a number of independent zones. This improves the uniformity of exposure of the processed product, which in turn leads to higher quality of the finished prod the KTA. In addition, the application of the fight on screens set in increments S=kN, where N is the height of the reflector above the conveyor, K - factor, reduces uneven oblojennosti in the treatment area, which also increases the quality of the finished product.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of oblojennosti under the emitters to the width of the conveyor with only the side screens. The maximum irradiance, in this case, and hence the temperature will be in the center.
Figure 2 shows the layout of the longitudinal vertical reflectors: 1 - conveyor, 2 - bar or flat emitters, 3 - longitudinal reflector (screen), 4 - side reflectors (screens).
Figure 3 presents the distribution of oblojennosti under the emitter width of the conveyor with the longitudinal vertical reflectors.
Figure 4 shows a view of the device from the side.
The device comprises a frame 1, a transporting mechanism 2, the hopper feeder 3 with a metering device 4, the unit emitters 5 are located above the conveyor containing chamber formed by the upper reflector 6, the pallet conveyor 7 and the side screens 8. Inside the unit emitters are linear or planar emitters 9, installed in a horizontal position above the conveyor along its length across the direction of transport. In addition, t is m the same set of longitudinal vertical reflectors 10 increments S=k· H.
The device operates as follows. Include the drive transmission mechanism 2 and the emitters of the block 5. The processed grain is fed into the hopper feeder 3, where metering device 4 is evenly distributed by a monolayer on the conveyor 2. In the flow of infrared radiation generated by the emitter 9, the grain is exposed to heat and light processing. Vertical longitudinal reflectors 10 smash a treatment area in the transverse direction on a number of independent zones (figure 3)that, due to the unambiguous decreasing the dependence of the uniformity of oblojennosti J (minimum oblojennosti in the treatment area to the maximum) from the relationship k=S/H (step height), improves the figure. At step S and, respectively, k tends to zero field oblojennosti tends to uniform, i.e. J tends to unity. As a result the temperature in the treatment zone is aligned and increases the quality of the finished product.
However, as smaller screens (increasing the number of sections) due to absorption of radiation by the screens, the number of which, respectively, in the treatment area increases, the irradiance in the center sections will fall, because most of the radiation energy will be absorbed by the screens, but don't get on the product. Figure 5 shows the influence of the relations K=S/H (step to the height of the lamp) on Energetichesky the efficiency section of W (the ratio of the energy getting the product to the energy emitted by the emitter within the section).
Sources of information
1. Great Britain Patent No. V, And 23 L 1/20.
2. The USSR, A.S. No. 904643, And 23 L 1/20.
3. RF patent No. 2056109, And 23 K 1/00, 23 N 17/00 (prototype).
Installation for the heat treatment of bulk products, including transporting mechanism, the storage hopper with metering device, a heat radiation device in the form placed along the length of the conveyor perpendicular to the direction of transportation of linear or planar emitters and side reflectors, characterized in that in the setup of a linear or planar emitters along the direction of transportation are vertical reflectors in increments of not less 0.5 height of the radiator above the surface of the conveyor.
FIELD: the invention refers to arrangements for drying high-moisture materials like vegetables, fruits, berries, green-stuff and growing wild verdure, mushrooms, meat and so on.
SUBSTANCE: the dryer has a body with an upper and a low rectangular openings. It has cellular pallets of a drying chamber, a cover, a pallet for collection of spillage, IR-oscillators, a ventilator, a control block connected with a temperature controller and a sensor in the drying chamber for regulation of the drying process. The IR-oscillators are working in impulse mode. The cellular pallets are put in the upper and in the lower parts of the chamber and each oscillator is installed in a special profile of the side reflectors on equal distances from the cellular pallets.
EFFECT: the dryer allows to exclude waist of energy due to hitting on the exterior surface of the oscillators of powder-like spillage, to reduce power intensity of the process due to using energy of reflected rays transferred on two cellular pallets, to improve the quality of the product due to evenness of distribution of irradiation formed by special reflectors, to reduce expenditure of energy due to automatic maintenance of correlation of impulse and pause for each kind of product.
FIELD: heat treatment of different kinds of grain; treatment of forage grain and production of edible grain products.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant for heat treatment of grain includes heat-insulated chamber with conveyer arranged inside it and used for transfer of material being treated, heating unit with infra-red radiators and reflecting shields located above conveyer belt, individual shields having parabolic reflecting surface which is described by equation of parabola in canonical form: y2=2px, where y and x are present coordinates and p is focal parameter of parabola. Each radiator is located in focal plane of parabolic surface of individual reflecting shield. Parabolic surfaces of each subsequent and previous reflecting shields are geometrically similar; coefficient of geometric similarity is within 1.1-1.3. Ratio of focal parameters of parabolic surfaces of each subsequent and previous reflecting shields is equal to 1:5 to 1:4; ratio of distance between focus and vertex of parabolic surface to its focal parameter ranges from 1:2 to 1:3. Plant is provided with thyristor unit for control of spectral composition and power of infra-red radiation in accordance with varying thermo-radiation characteristics of article being treated.
EFFECT: increased productivity; reduced power requirements; improved quality of finished product.
FIELD: drying equipment, applicable in food, medical, pharmaceutical and chemical branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method for drying of materials for food and pharmaceutical industries includes their freezing and sublimation. Prior to freezing, the materials are dehydrated by microwave radiation at a temperature not exceeding the critical one for the material to be dried, after sublimation the material gets dry by microwave radiation under vacuum to the preset moisture content, the whole drying process is conducted in a drying apparatus.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption, accelerated process of drying and enhanced quality of dried materials.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for preparing of combined feeds for farm animals.
SUBSTANCE: combined feed apparatus has hopper for basic materials, with number of hoppers being equal to the number of dosing devices equipped with discharge throats, dosing unit made in the form of shaft with blades, and discharge conveyors. Dosing unit is made in the form of individual bodies arranged on common shaft, with number of bodies being equal to the number of hoppers for basic material. Vertical guiding slots are provided on side walls of said bodies. Immovable walls are located in slots. Shaft is extending through bushings mounted within immovable walls. Within each of said bodies, shaft is equipped with radial slots wherein spring-loaded blades are accommodated. Each casing of dosing unit is positioned for displacement relative to immovable walls.
EFFECT: increased precision in dosing of combined feed components and reduced consumption of power.
FIELD: production of combined feeds for farm poultry, in particular, combined feeds having predetermined particle sizes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying and grinding bulk feed; fractioning by sieving through vibratory sieve into large-sized, average-sized and small-sized fractions; discharging average-sized fraction as ready product; granulating small-sized fraction and subjecting to thermal processing by steam; mixing hot granules with bulk feed; equalizing temperature and moisture content of resultant mixture and cooling by fan; returning large-sized fraction for grinding; measuring consumption of combined bulk feed, large-sized, average-sized and small-sized fractions, mixture of hot granules and combined bulk feed; measuring consumption and pressure of steam for thermal processing of small-sized fraction, power consumed by granulator drive, air consumed for cooling of said mixture, and regulating time of keeping in contact zone of said hot granules and combined bulk feed, consumption of air for cooling said mixture; correcting temperature of said mixture before grinding process, distance between grinder rolls and rotational velocity thereof, amplitude and vibration frequency of vibratory sieves. While preparing combined feed on the basis of measured values of consumption of large-sized, small-sized fractions and mixture of hot granules and combined bulk feed, consumption ratio of hot granules to combined bulk feed and consumption ratio of large-sized fraction to said mixture are determined. Resultant data is used for determining coefficient of extraction of average-sized fraction. Also, power consumed by drives for fan, grinder, vibratory sieves, transportation means, as well as temperature of steam used for thermal processing of small-sized fraction are measured. On the basis of resultant values of measured parameters, total power consumption per unit of weight of ready product is calculated. Value of derivatives thereof is determined on the basis of consumption of combined bulk feed, and optimal value of consumption of combined bulk feed is determined, provided that derivative is equal to zero, and said optimal value is compared to current value. In the case current value of consumed combined bulk feed is less than optimal value, it is increased, and in the case the current value is greater than optimal value, it is reduced.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and high precision of controlling combined bulk feed preparing process.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: press-batcher comprises cylindrical pressing housing that receives the pressing screw, pressing head, and drive. The cylindrical pressing housing is connected with the vacuum chamber. The vacuum chamber is connected with the conical housing of the vacuum gate valve. The vacuum gate valve receives the conical screw that passes through vacuum chamber and has blades inside the vacuum chamber. The pressing head is provided with cutting mechanism having control rotation drive and device for supplying hot air. The vacuum chamber is provided with the device for evacuating moisture air.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, preparing of feeds for cattle, in particular, for young animals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing agricultural products and mixing with water; providing hydrodynamic, cavitational and thermal processing thereof; during preparing, directing mixture through system of movable channels having section variable in the course of flow, with energy of collapsing cavitational bubbles being released during passage of mixture through said system of movable channels; directing obtained energy to processable mixture repeatedly movable along closed contour for bringing it to homogeneous state at temperature of 50-70ºC. Apparatus for preparing of feeds has chamber with inlet and outlet branch pipes. Stator and rotor are incorporated in chamber. Apparatus is further provided with preliminary mixing hopper connected through inlet and outlet pipings with chamber branch pipes so as to define closed contour for flowing of mixture. Rotor is furnished with large-sized tangential blades uniformly distributed thereon for dividing it into sections. Small-sized radial curved blades are arranged around the circumference of rotor in sections. Blades, both large-sized and small-sized, have variable height increasing from rotor center toward periphery thereof, and are adapted for defining variable section channels. Stator has nozzle-type channels arranged radially and uniformly around the circumference thereof.
EFFECT: simplified process of preparing feeds and improved quality of resultant feeds.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: feed production, in particular, commercial production of combined feed for farm poultry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating bulk combined feed and ground pellets into large-sized, average-sized and small-sized fractions with following separating of average-sized fraction as ready product; pelletizing small-sized fraction of bulk combined feed with hot pellets; holding layer of resultant mixture in heat-exchanger; cooling with air and grinding; returning large-sized fraction for additional grinding and discharging small-sized fraction for pelletizing. Mixture of bulk combined feed and hot pellets is held in heat-exchanger and further cooled with air having temperature of 4-7°C. After fractionation, average-sized fraction is coated with 0.5-1.0 mm thick fat layer in blade-type mixer under pressure of 0.3-0.4 MPa by means of nozzles, with fat being preliminarily heated to temperature of 55-65°C. Fat content is provided within the range of 3-5% by volume of resultant average fraction. Before supplying of air for cooling of mixture of bulk combined feed and hot pellets, air is preliminarily cooled in evaporator-cooler of heat pump unit by recuperative heat exchanging between boiling coolant and air. Air in then returned to evaporator-cooler and is newly supplied in closed-cycle mode for cooling said mixture. Heat generated by condensation of coolant in condenser-heater of heat pump plant is utilized for heating of fat before feeding it into blade-type mixer.
EFFECT: improved quality of ready product and reduced power consumed for preparing of combined feed.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: agriculture and feed production, in particular, preparing of bulk feeds in animal houses and feed producing enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating, steaming, drying, cooling and homogenizing bulk feeds. Disinfecting procedure is carried out in two thermal processing steps: first step involving high temperature processing and second step involving low temperature processing. Each step is combined with process of mixing combined feed components in gas-mechanical fluidized bed. At first step, thermally stable components are initially subjected to heating to temperature of 85-110°C and to wetting with steam, followed by slight drying to initial moisture content with hot air, and at second step hot mass is cooled with air to ambient medium temperature. In the process of cooling, when temperature reaches 50°C, thermolabile biologically active components, such as vitamins and enzymes, are added, said components being thoroughly mixed with remaining part of combined feed, with cooling procedure being continued.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of process and reduced costs for effectuating thermal disinfecting of combined bulk feeds.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for preparing of feeds by extruding cereal grains.
SUBSTANCE: discharge head is presented in five embodiments. First most simple embodiment has housing with two internal opposite conical surfaces. Conical left-handed thread nut is positioned at one side in spaced relation with respect to conical surfaces and conical bushing with external right-handed thread is positioned at other side, said nut being fixed on extruder screw shaft. Conical bushing is engaged with thread on cylindrical projection of conical nut and is locked by means of lock nut and locking washer therebetween. Cutting knives are protruding beyond head housing. Upon passage of product under process through two conical annular opposite gaps, screw end is self-centered on said mass. Other embodiments of discharge head, from second to fifth, are modifications of first embodiment. Discharge head of such construction may be used in extruders of any power and modification.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and high operational capabilities.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: extruders for forest industry, food-processing industry and pharmaceutical industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed extruder has body with loading bin and screw feeder located in body. Extruder is also provided with sleeve having holes on its side surface; this sleeve is mounted on body forming treatment chamber. Volume of treatment chamber is constant or variable depending on motion of sleeve. Section of side holes is adjustable and/or blanked-off.
EFFECT: simplified construction; extended technical capabilities; reduced power requirements.
3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, fodder producing machines.
SUBSTANCE: purging boiler-scalder has horizontal vessel with charging throat, discharge hatch with cover and discharge branch pipe with gas ejector. Trough is arranged in lower part of purging boiler-scalder and is communicated through grid with vessel having bottom inclined at an angle to horizontal axis, toward discharge branch pipe. Discharge branch pipe is provided with outlet equipped with locking devices for connecting trough to top part of vessel.
EFFECT: reduced fodder losses owing to return into vessel of lower non-cooked layers of processed fodder.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: peat production, in particular, equipment for manufacture of feed additives from peat.
SUBSTANCE: fermenter has drum positioned for rotation around horizontal shaft and equipped with charging and discharge hatch, and air supply and discharge system. Drum has two truncated pyramids faced to one another with their larger bases and connected with one another through shell. Air supply and discharge system is made in the form of perforated pipe mounted in axially aligned relation with respect to drum. Angular blades are fixed at inner side of drum in the vicinity of hatch. Truncated pyramids have 12 sides.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency of fermenter.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides a pectin production process comprising mixing pectin-containing raw material with water, treating resulting mix in rotor-cavitation extractor, separating phases, and isolating pectin from liquid phase. Method is distinguished by that several in series installed rotor-cavitation extractors are used, displacement through which of pectin-containing raw material and water is effected in opposite directions and processing therein is effected at cavitation indexes increasing in each consequent rotor-cavitation extractor in water displacement direction, said cavitation indexes being found from formula: Pki = 0.7[1+9i-1):(n-1)], where Pki denotes cavitation index in ith extractor, i is sequential number of extractor in downstream direction, and n is number of in series installed rotor-cavitation extractors at ratio of solid-to-liquid phases in rotor-cavitation extractors within a range from 1:7 to 1:11.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and increased specific yield of pectin.