Method for noise suppression in cable lines, cable and its manufacturing process

FIELD: cable line engineering; solving problem of cable line immunity to external electromagnetic noise.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for noise suppression in cable lines includes electrical interconnection of two cable conductors on one end directly or through resistors , addition of signals from their other ends, and at least partial disposition, principally symmetrical, of figures formed by one pair of conductors including conductors proper and space between them in space between other pair of conductors. Circuits of interconnected conductors are balanced, for instance, with respect to their resistance. Cable has two pairs of conductors, each pair is directly or mediately parallel-connected and figure formed by one pair of conductors that includes conductors proper and space between them is at least partially disposed in space between other pair of conductors, principally symmetrically. Cable manufacturing process includes insulation of conductors and their relative fastening in space; each pair of four conductors is directly or mediately parallel-connected and disposed in space so that figure formed by one pair of conductors incorporating conductors proper and space between them is at least partially disposed in space between other pair of conductors, principally symmetrically.

EFFECT: reduced fraction of electromagnetic noise in signal transferred over cable lines.

6 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to communication cables and can be used for transmitting electrical signals to the weakening of the influence of external electromagnetic interference.

Widely known for transmitting electrical signals cable consisting of two conductive wires. On the one hand to the cable connect the signal source and the signal receiver. The signal from the source signal cable conductors is transmitted to the signal receiver. However, in real conditions, the signal is transmitted through the cable with the distortion due to the inevitable presence of external electromagnetic disturbances (often unacceptable significant). The mechanism resulting in the cable interference, as is known, consists in the following: external disturbing electromagnetic flux penetrates a closed loop formed by conductors of the cable and the devices attached to it, and it produces the EMF interference, which is added to the useful signal, distorting the transmitted along the cable signal. The larger the area of the specified path, the large distortion is undergoing a useful signal. Special trouble occurs when sending small signals (mV and microvolt). For example, a cable composed of two ordinary individual wires in 30 meters from their free position relative to each other when placed in close proximity to the power wire p is oecause it an electric current 6A and 50 Hz can create interference value of up to 300-400 mV.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect of the present invention are the following technical solutions.

A known method of suppressing interference in a cable circuits, in which in order to reduce noises due to the size reduction of loop induction noise, electrical wires have the shortest possible distance from each other [Seriesnow A.N. and Tsapenko BTW, Methods of reducing the effect of interference in thermometric circuits. Meters, Energy, 1968 (Library automation. VIP), page 14, last paragraph].

Known respectively given the way the cable, in which electric wires are parallel to each other at the shortest possible distance, which, of course, limited by the thickness of the insulation [Seriesnow A.N. and Tsapenko BTW, Methods of reducing the effect of interference in thermometric circuits. Meters, Energy, 1968 (Library automation. Vol. 22), page 14, last paragraph].

A known method of manufacturing a cable comprising isolating lived and fixing them in space relative to each other [Seriesnow A.N. and Tsapenko BTW, Methods of reducing the effect of interference in thermometric circuits. Meters, Energy, 1968 (Library automation. VIP), page 13, paragraph 3].

In such a cable (for example, type KLM-0.35 or CCLM-0,35) in these circumstances may reduce interference to a value of about 12-14 mV./p>

However, such errors are unacceptable in the transmission by cable of small signals.

The present invention is to increase the noise immunity of the cable.

The technical result of the invention is significant (for example, 100 times or more) reduction in the share of electromagnetic interference in the signal transmitted through the cable.

In the first version of the task and the specified technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method of suppressing interference in a cable circuits, one ends of the two lived directly or indirectly electrically connected, the signals from the other ends of which are summed, and the third conductor partially or fully placed in the space between the first two, mostly symmetrical; chain merged lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

In the cable, consisting of two lived entered the third lived, partially or completely located in the space between two other conductors, directly or indirectly given in parallel; in the circuit given in parallel lived entered the balancing device, for example, their resistance.

In the method of manufacturing a cable comprising isolating lived and fixing them in space relative to each other directly or indirectly severallevels two cores, and the third core feature partially or completely in the space of IU who do them, mostly symmetrical; the circuit given in parallel lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

In the second version of the task and the specified technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method of suppressing interference in a cable circuits, one end of each pair of the four lived directly or indirectly electrically connected, the signals from the other ends of each pair lived summarize, and a shape formed by one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially accommodated in the space between another pair lived, mostly symmetrical; chain merged lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

In the cable, consisting of two lived, introduced two cores, each pair lived directly or indirectly given in parallel, and the figure formed by one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially placed in the space between another pair lived, mostly symmetrical; in the circuit given in parallel lived entered the balancing device, for example, their resistance.

In the method of manufacturing a cable comprising isolating lived and fixing them in space relative to each other, each pair of the four lived directly or indirectly severallevels, and in the feature space so that figure, about sovanna one pair lived, include yourself veins and the space between them, at least partially placed in the space between another pair lived, mostly symmetrical; the circuit given in parallel lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

Figure 1 shows the proposed design (three-core) cable first version of schema inclusion in an electrical circuit.

Figure 2 explains the essence of creating a positive effect in the first version.

Figure 3 shows the proposed design (four-wire) cable for the second variant of schema inclusion in an electrical circuit.

Figure 4 explains the essence of creating a positive effect in the second option.

Figure 5 shows a variant on the device, the balancing resistances lived.

The first variant of the invention, consider the example of the cable, shown in figure 1. The cable consists of three parallel veins that are in the same plane, and between the two given in parallel conductors "a" is the third single mine "b". At the inlet and outlet ends of the cable wires "a" are electrically United, forming a two input and two output output cable. The input end of the cable is used to connect a signal source, an output end for connection to a signal receiver. Electromagnetic perturbation field effects on the cable from the outside. For symmetry the Finance lived in a pair, you can use the balancing device, performed, for example, on the basis of the potentiometer Rsim (Figure 5).

The invention operates as follows. Consider Figure 2, where for clarity the formation of a positive effect is shown (in cross-section cable) three consecutive characterized by mutual arrangement lived with United veins "and". Bold dots show the cross-section of veins, fine lines, electrical connection, and the dotted circles implied their isolation.

The first location of the wires of the cable (Figa) is given in parallel between the third housing some openings for forming the external disturbing electromagnetic field corresponding penetrated the area of S≠O that, of course, causes the cable chain corresponding electromotive interference sequentially transmitted over the cable signal. The second location lived (Fig.2b) corresponds to the closure of a single conductor (when moving it to the right) with the external plane of the space given in parallel between the conductors, which nullifies penetrated the area S=0, and, of course, to zero and the corresponding EMF interference. Note that in the usual (two-cable) this cannot be done because of the inevitable presence of insulation on the veins. This provision in the present technical solution is a boundary, i.e. the position where you already have a full stable positive EF is known cable. Upon further movement to the right of the single wires to the Central position in the cable (Figs) created the so-called guaranteed absence penetrated square (S - no), i.e. guaranteed the absence of EMF interference from external disturbing electromagnetic fields.

The second variant of the invention, consider the example of the cable, shown in Figure 3. The cable consists of four parallel veins ("a" and "b"), located in cross-section along the tops of the conditional geometric square. All wires are divided into two pairs. Veins in pairs are arranged along the diagonals of the square. For each pair uses its two diagonals. Both the plane of arrangement lived pairs of mutually intersect. At the inlet and outlet ends of the cable conductors electrically couples the joint, forming a two input and two output output. Veins for each pair are given in parallel electrically. The input end of the cable is used to connect a signal source, an output end for connection to a signal receiver. Electromagnetic perturbation field effects on the cable from the outside. For balancing lived in a pair, you can use the device for balancing performed, for example, on the basis of the potentiometer Rsim (Figure 5).

The invention operates as follows. Consider figure 4, where for clarity the formation put inogo effect is shown (in cross-section cable) three consecutive characteristic relative position of both pairs given in parallel conductors. As in the first embodiment, bold dots show the cross-section of veins, fine lines, electrical connections, and dotted circles implied their isolation. The first location lived (Figa) is between some pairs lumen, forming external disturbing electromagnetic field corresponding penetrated the area of S≠0, which, naturally, causes the cable to the appropriate cell interference sequentially transmitted over the veins of the signal. The second location lived (Fig.4b) corresponds to the closure, horizontal pair (when moving it to the right) with the external plane figure formed by the second (vertical) is a homogeneous pair, which nullifies penetrated the area S=0, and, of course, to zero and the corresponding EMF interference. This provision in the present technical solution is a boundary, i.e. the position where you already have a full stable positive effect of noise suppression. Upon further movement to the right horizontal pair from the Central position in the cable (Figs) is guaranteed absence penetrated square (S - no), i.e. guaranteed the absence of EMF interference from external disturbing electromagnetic fields.

In the end positions of both variants of the invention (Figs and Figs) in principle, no matter from which side and under as the angle influences disturbing the electromagnetic field, because there is no penetrated the area of the cable for external interference. In addition, here the location of lived space can be arbitrary (not necessarily symmetric), if only penetrated the area was absent. Not important and the size of the circuits formed by conductors, not mandatory and close proximity lived to each other. All this is extremely important when using cable, since conditions of use are constantly changing (including the presence of deformations and vibrations), which changes the geometry lived and may reduce the effect of noise suppression in well-known technical solutions. There is a guaranteed spatial margin for rearranging lived.

When this signal currents flowing through the cable, in turn practically do not create their electromagnetic fields in outer space.

Possible joint use of traditional methods, such as twisting lived and, in addition, their shielding that already received the positive effect of technical solutions gives additional well-known positive effect.

In addition, it should be noted that linear capacitance shielded cable is significantly more than usual, which significantly limits the performance of signal transmission through the cable. Here (without screen) possible what and implementation of high speed devices, its uses.

Theoretically, under ideal conditions, both variants of the invention under the effect of suppression must be identical, since in both cases there is no area of the contour guidance. However, in real conditions, lived a small diameter (0,5; 0,3; 0,2 mm) in the first variant (three-core cable) there are some difficulties to guarantee the best theoretical geometry relative position lived. In the second variant (four-wire cable) in all cases it is possible to ensure there is no square contour guidance obstacles, as there are no restrictions on the distance between conductors.

Almost (previously discussed) of the proposed technical solutions allow to reduce induced noise to a value of 0.11 to 0.13 mV, i.e. more than 100 times, which corresponds to the error is 0.22-1.3% and for many tasks use is a very great achievement. In addition, the cable allows sharing of measuring power and signal in one cable, which greatly simplifies the creation of a joint cable connections.

On the other hand, additionally, disturbing the electromagnetic field causes some additional cyclic parasitic current in the circuit formed given in parallel veins (Figure 5), and when there is some unbalance resistance of these veins (r≠ r2) remains, although much (100-fold) reduced the proportion of interference, manifested in the form of additional potential difference (ϕAA-ϕa) between input and output ends of the cable. To obtain even greater effect suppression should be symmetrical (balance) these resistance given in parallel veins, such as the introduction of the balancing device, which (in the simplest case) can be made in the form of a corresponding resistance additives in the corresponding core of the cable. The best effect is achieved by performing a balancing device in the form of a potentiometer included in the gap of these lived on the output end of the cable with the conclusion of the slider of the potentiometer (Figure 5), which allows regulation to reduce the balance of the induced interference to zero, and almost any degree of approximation. The resistance of the potentiometer should be taken equal to the maximum imbalance resistances lived to resolution adjustment potentiometer was maximum.

Experimental studies performed thus cables confirm the possibility of reducing the residual interference to values smaller than 1 mV, which corresponds to the interference suppression more than 10000 times.

The summation of the signals at the receiving side can be performed (as shown in figure 1 and Figure 3) immediate soy is inanam of these veins (summation of currents) or indirectly through additional conductors, through summing resistors or any known electronic adder. A direct connection is preferred because it is more reliable and easier, and the effect of noise reduction can be obtained higher due to higher possible symmetry of the summation. In addition, the resulting thus short circuits (coils) reduce the value of an external electromagnetic field.

Third lived in the first variant of the invention should at least touch the space located between two other given in parallel conductors or cross it, and it is best to have it fully in this space, and symmetrically, which will give an opportunity during operation some allowable deviation of the third conductor due to inaccuracies installation and temporal drift of its position in space from the best position.

In the second variant of the invention should at least touch the space between any given in parallel conductors or cross it, the figure formed by the other given in parallel conductors, including themselves veins and the space between them, and it is best to have this figure crossing symmetrically, for the same consideration, as in the first embodiment.

For more substantial suppression should balance the circuit given in parallel lived what about their resistance. However, remember that capacitive imbalance of these chains also affects the amount of suppression, although to a lesser degree, and for obtaining very high degree of interference suppression balance given in parallel veins and a capacitive component. In theory and inductive imbalance must also be taken into account, although in practice its influence is negligible.

In the manufacture of the cable must provide adequate insulation lived and rigidity required construction of mutual arrangement of the veins, which can be provided using any known methods and means.

Based on the foregoing, the essence of the claimed technical solution is as follows.

In the first embodiment, a method of suppressing interference in a cable circuits is that one ends of the two lived directly or indirectly electrically connected, the signals from the other ends of which are summed, and the third conductor partially or fully placed in the space between the first two, mostly symmetrical; chain merged lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

A cable consisting of two veins, contains a third vein, partially or completely located in the space between two other conductors, directly or indirectly given in parallel; in the circuit given in parallel lived entered the device Symmetricom the tion, for example, their resistance.

A method of manufacturing a cable comprising isolating lived and fixing them in space relative to each other, is that directly or indirectly severallevels two cores, and the third core feature partially or completely in the space between them, mostly symmetrical; the circuit given in parallel lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

In the second embodiment, a method of suppressing interference in a cable circuits is that one ends of each pair of four lived directly or indirectly electrically connected, the signals from the other ends of each pair lived summarize, and a shape formed by one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially, is placed in the space between another pair lived, mostly symmetrical; chain merged lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

A cable consisting of two lived has two cores, each pair lived directly or indirectly given in parallel, and the figure formed by one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially placed in the space between another pair lived, mostly symmetrical; in the circuit given in parallel lived entered the balancing device, for example, their resistance.

Methods for the manufacture of the cable, including isolating lived and fixing them in space relative to each other is that each pair of four lived directly or indirectly severallevels, and in the feature space so that the figure formed by one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially placed in the space between another pair lived, mostly symmetrical; the circuit given in parallel lived balance, for example, in their resistance.

Under this proposal, the Institute carried out the relevant theoretical and experimental studies, which confirm the possibility of obtaining the claimed technical result.

The invention is particularly valuable when transferring rapidly changing signals, when it is not possible to use conventional filtering or shielding of the cable, and when a powerful impulse noise, for example from the thyristor devices of the heating of the objects of study, and with the possibility of accommodation in the cable and power circuits.

Implementation of the proposals in the IMS for structural studies of aviation structures will significantly improve the reliability of the test results without the use of shielded cables, and therefore, the reliability of the recommendations issued by the industry, for the improvement of the design is the second aircraft.

1. The method of suppressing interference in a cable chains based on their screening, characterized in that one end of each pair of the four lived directly or through resistors electrically connected, the signals from the other ends of each pair lived summarize, and in the space of veins have so that the figure formed by one pair lived and including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially, was placed in the space between another couple lived mostly symmetrical.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the chain merged lived symmetrist, for example, in their resistance.

3. The cable containing two wires, characterized in that it introduced two more wires, each pair lived at one end directly or through resistors given in parallel, and the other ends electrically connected through summing elements, veins are located so that the figure formed by the one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially accommodated in the space between another couple lived mostly symmetrical.

4. The cable according to claim 3, characterized in that the circuit given in parallel lived entered the balancing device, for example, their resistance.

5. A method of manufacturing a cable comprising isolating lived and fixing them in space otnositel is each other, characterized in that each pair of four lived directly or through resistors severallevels, and in the space of veins have so that the figure formed by one pair lived, including themselves veins and the space between them, at least partially, was placed in the space between another couple lived mostly symmetrical.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the circuit given in parallel lived symmetrist, for example, in their resistance.



 

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FIELD: cable line engineering; solving problem of cable line immunity to external electromagnetic noise.

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