Container for transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel of nuclear reactors

FIELD: shipment and storage of highly active wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed container for transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel has hermetically sealed storage tank and can holding spent nuclear fuel. In addition, it has external steel-reinforced concrete casing with outer and inner metal shells and bottom, cooling ducts, and fixing dampers. Hermetically sealed tank is provided with transport ring that holds shell in position relative to longitudinal axis of casing and with three detachable lids. It is also provided with dampers disposed over entire perimeter of inner cylindrical shell that function to lock cylindrical shell on lid and outer steel-reinforced concrete casing and to transfer heat therefrom. Cooling system is designed so that cooling air flows through cylindrical gap between outer surface of tank and inner surface of external steel-reinforced concrete casing over cooling ducts.

EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability of container.

5 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and industry and can be used as a container for transportation and long-term dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF).

Currently, the exhaust Assembly TVEL nuclear reactors is stored in cooling ponds (lagoons), tanks are almost full. Also overcrowded and in operation of a spent fuel storage nuclear fleet. Marked creates a complex environmental problem requiring immediate resolution. One of the ways of its solution is the reduction of the period of storage of spent fuel in storage pools (for example, from 5 years to 3 years).

The reduction of the period of spent fuel storage in pools requires transportation to a location intermediate or final storage of highly radioactive spent fuel that has high requirements for radiation safety during transport and storage containers with SNF. In addition, the containers created for transportation and storage of highly radioactive spent fuel, should be able to use the existing infrastructure for SNF.

Known containers for transportation and storage of SNF. In accordance with the radiation safety standards and IAEA recommendations such contacts shall inery should provide high radiation protection and strength properties, including in emergency situations encountered in the course of transportation and storage of SNF. However, based on the feasibility of the requirements for reduction in costs for container storage of spent fuel, there is a need to create a container large useful volume (with a maximum capacity SNF) under certain (particularly transport) limitations on their outer envelope.

Known cylindrical replaceable plug-in box for transport and stationary tanks (DE No. 3413393 C1, G 21 19/06, G 21 F 5/00, 1985). The cylindrical outer wall plug boxes consists of anchor and intermediate segments. The box has channels for the placement of elongated fuel elements of nuclear reactors. The channels formed by the plates containing neutron absorbers. Plate by finger jointing connected respectively with one another or with anchor segments. The distance between the plates is fixed by using the cross-shaped spacer holders and using the spacer holders are connected respectively with the intermediate segments by means of jumpers. Thus, the panels form a rigid detachable constructive knot tied in the transverse direction diametrically ties passing through drilling in a cross-shaped spacer holders. As supports for screed holders are referred to the anchor segments.

A disadvantage of the known device is that it does not provide tools that ensure the protection of the structure from damage during potential emergency situations. In addition, the known device is technologically difficult and time-consuming to manufacture. With this device it does not imply accommodate the spent assemblies, the fuel elements of various sizes.

Known storage container for canisters and fuel assemblies (DE No. 224144 A1, G 21 19/06, 1985). The known design of the container allows you to set the canisters and fuel cartridges of various sizes. In the upper part of the container is provided by the ring and the bottom ring bottom sheet. Both rings are held and rigidly connected by rods located around the rings along the longitudinal axis of the container. Inside the container, in its upper part, has a double intermediate plate, and the lower part is installed one or more of the ordinary intermediate bottoms, ciemno connected with the rods. The intermediate bottom (diaphragm) have holes for installation of the canisters. In the center of the container is provided by a vertical pipe, rigidly connected with the bottom sheet of the lower ring and detachable connected to the intermediate bottoms. The Central pipe in the upper part has a nozzle in the form of clutch cargo capture.

<> However, in the known container is not provided with means ensuring protection of the structure from damage during potential emergency situations.

Known protective container for transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (RU # 2139582 C1, G 21 F 5/008, 1999). Known container has a metal casing and inserted into the body cavity of the removable part (case), in the holes of the top Board and a diaphragm which is placed pipe covers (canisters with SNF. Case closed top sealing metal cap. Removable part is supplied attached to the vertical tube channel. The upper end of the tubular channel is inserted in the top Board of the removable parts in the connecting socket attach the vacuum system for collecting water from the bottom of the container through the tubular channel. The bottom end of the pipe channel is located above the bottom of the container with a clearance of not more than the inner radius of the pipe channel. Known protective container and ensures reliable operation in accordance with the nuclear safety requirements by simplifying its design.

Known container for transportation and long term storage of spent fuel assemblies (SFAS) NPP (RU # 2148864 C1, G 21 F 5/008, 2000). Known container has an outer housing with cover, shock absorbers (end of the damping device and the internal is orpus with lid. The inner case is based on the shock absorbers, fixed on the bottom of the horizontal outer casing. In the internal housing is the case with slots for SFA. Cover the outer casing is in its end, and its inner surface is provided with a rigidly attached and evenly spaced absorbers. At the bottom of the outer casing shock absorbers are also evenly. Each shock absorber is dialed from glasses made in the form of hollow metal cylinders of different diameter, installed in each other with clearances in the direction of load application and rigidly interconnected in place mate. Container loading is carried out in a vertical position, after which the container by tilting unit is installed in a horizontal position, at which carry out the transportation of the container.

A common disadvantage of the last two containers is that for the manufacture of thick-walled metal housing of the container requires a unique metallurgical equipment. In addition, the metal container requires a high complexity of manufacturing, and hence the high cost.

Known reinforced concrete container for storage and transportation of spent fuel elements of a nuclear reactor (EN 2082232 C1, G 21 F 5/008, 1994). Investicontinued is a cylindrical double-walled tank bottoms, made of steel, lockable protective overlap with device mounting and sealing. Sealed overlapping performed in two sealed covers, are installed one above the other on a common metal base (forged ring). The cavity between the membrane and the tank filled, heat-resistant plastic, providing radiation protection concrete. In the annular space between the shells with the heads installed fittings in the form of rods-teplovozov with pogibli deployed in different directions at the ends. Rods-talavadi one bend is fixed over the entire surface of the inner steel shell and bottom rows in height and evenly spaced around the circumference. Another bend rods-the heatsinks are connected alternately with the curves of the corresponding rod-heat sink from the adjacent upper and lower rows alternately, forming a trapezoidal brackets adjacent their tops to the inner steel shell and bottom. Outer steel shell is made of ribbed and has no rigid connection with the baton and the inner steel liner. Structural diagram of a concrete container allows you to fill steel rods-teplovodni concrete infill walls, which increases 2-3 times the overall coefficient of thermal conductivity compared with one concrete and allows you to take through the wall of t is plovie threads comparable with the threads in steel containers, without reducing radiation safety.

A disadvantage of the known device is that the constructive scheme of the container assumes a large amount of welding, resulting in reduced toughness of the material, such as valves and stainless steel inner shell and the bottom, in the operation of the container at low temperatures, for example, at minus 50°C. the disadvantages of the known container also may include the use of highly ductile cast concrete. Such concretes have relatively low strength and fracture toughness.

Known reinforced concrete (metal, concrete) a container for transporting and/or storage of SNF (RU # 2153715 C1, G 21 F 5/008, 2000). Known container has inner and outer cylindrical metal shell bottoms, made in the embodiment of the invention from sheet stainless steel, providing years of corrosion resistance. The cavity between the shells is filled rugged and heavy concrete with increased resistance. On top of the inner cavity of the container and the cavity between the shells tightly covered with two covers, located one above the other and placed on a single metal substrate. The container is provided with an additional metal tsilindricheskimi, including shell, protruding beyond the bottom of the mentioned outer metal cylindrical shell and covering the latter with the formation of the cavity, which is filled with heavy concrete of lower strength than the base - heavy concrete. The outer cover is made in such a way that is both the end of the damping element of the container. This is because it has elements that are plastically deformable in case of emergency loading of the container. Similarly performed and the bottom of the outer cylindrical shell, which, thanks to design features, is at the same time the other end, the damping element of the container. From the outside shell is made of the damping ring element that also serves as a support element for transporting the container in a vertical position. Known reinforced concrete container is designed for mostly dry storage of spent fuel assemblies (SFA). Last before loading into the container placed in canisters that seal. In the container canisters with spent fuel assemblies are placed through the spacer grid. Reinforced concrete container provides protection for the spent fuel during prolonged storage and in case of emergency during transportation at relatively low SRT is on the container in comparison with containers, housing which is made with a solid metal structures.

However, such a structure reinforced concrete container in the case of a container designed to transport and/or storage of highly radioactive spent fuel, implies a corresponding increase in the shell thickness, resulting in an increase in the overall size of the container, which is not always acceptable, for example, on the operating conditions.

The closest set of features of the claimed invention is a metal and concrete containers for transporting and/or storage of spent assemblies of fuel elements of nuclear reactors (RU # R C1, G 21 F 5/008, 2002), which is selected as the closest prototype. Known container has a metal outer and inner shell bottoms, the space between which is filled with rugged and heavy concrete with increased resistance. The top of the cavity between the membrane and covered with metal base, hosts are installed one above the other sealing cover. The container is equipped with mechanical damping elements mounted around the circumference respectively on the upper and lower apertures of the cover with the outer side of the latter. Mechanical damping elements are mounted on the lower diaphragm, the simultaneity is b are the base elements of the case, interacting with the bottom of the case. Mechanical damping elements are mounted on the upper diaphragm made with the possibility of interaction with internal protective sealing cover.

However, this design metal and concrete containers designed to transport and/or storage of highly radioactive spent fuel, implies a corresponding increase in the thickness of the casing to cool the foam and concrete, resulting in a increase in the overall size of the container, which is not always acceptable. The disadvantages of the known container can also include the fact that it does not include funds depreciation during handling of the container in possible emergency situations. Structural features of the known container imply a relatively large amount of welding. Damaged casing and concrete leakage elements TVEL. The difficulty in monitoring of reactor internals and concrete, in case of occurrence of cracks in the concrete impossibility of repair.

The problem solved by the invention is to create a container of improved reliability for transportation and dry storage of spent fuel of nuclear reactors.

This problem is solved as follows: container transport and dry storage of spent fuel of a nuclear reactor which contains the outer concrete casing, hosts pressurized storage vessel, made of high-strength steel in the vessel is the case with the spent fuel. The sealed vessel is equipped with three removable lids and latches and buffers, which protect against bias case, spent fuel and compensate for thermal expansion of metal.

External concrete building consists of a metal outer and inner shells, the space between which is filled with a special concrete. Around the perimeter of the inner shell are damping devices that prevent slippage and damage to the hermetic vessel storage.

In a sealed vessel installed in the inner ring, which serves to transport the vessel storage, fixing pipe cover, mounting cover plate and a guiding element for providing a given angular position of the tube of the cover relative to the longitudinal axis of the housing. The container has a developed system of cooling channels that cool exterior concrete case, cover, bottom, and the storage vessel. The system of cooling channels allows to repair the concrete upon the occurrence of cracks. In the system of cooling channels installed sensors and video cameras that allow monitoring the status of the outer wall of the pressurized vessel is nutrena concrete wall of the container and special concrete outer concrete casing. Steel rope, located in the cooling channels, predopredeny to increase the strength of special concrete, located between the outer and inner concrete shell of the housing. External concrete building serves as a support structure to provide protection from radiation, mechanical damage, as well as the cooling of the storage vessel with SFAS during the entire storage period. The cooling air passes through the cylindrical gap between the outer surface of the vessel and the inner surface of the outer concrete casing and the cooling channels. External concrete case provides effective radiation protection, dose rate (no more than 10 mrem/h at a distance of 1 m from the side surface) due to special additives in concrete. The inner shell of the outer reinforced concrete buildings are equipped with damping devices, which limit the displacement of the pressurized vessel. The bottom of the outer concrete casing completely coated steel sheet to increase the strength in the event of an accident in the fall. For kantowski container from a vertical to a horizontal position and Vice versa in the bottom of the container, the space available for installation of standard edging device. The container has a removable concrete cover to ensure a fourth of the security barrier. When dolomitenmann cover is welded to the chassis. The external housing and the cover are designed to load without transferring impacts on the storage vessel. The cooling channels are lined with steel channels with labyrinth areas to minimize the intensity of the radiation through the cavity of the duct. The design of the cooling channels to cool the storage vessel, the outer concrete casing, the cover and bottom regardless of the position of reinforced concrete container (vertically or horizontally).

The design of outer concrete enclosure through the cooling channels or when the cover housing to control the state of the external surface of the storage vessel and concrete housing with special sensors and television cameras. The design of outer concrete casing minimizes the probability of failure of the storage vessel when the terrorist act.

The technical result of the use of the invention is that it allows to improve the reliability of operation of the container. Improving the reliability of operation is achieved by increasing the strength characteristics of a structure by

- create a damping devices installed around the perimeter of the inner cylindrical shell reinforced concrete casing;

- increasing the strength of the special prestressed concrete became the governmental ropes;

- creating waypoints and damping devices on the lid of the storage vessel, preventing the shift tube cover and Rods, as well as compensating for thermal expansion;

- constructive scheme, which allows to significantly reduce the amount of welding works;

- create additional barriers due to the triple cover of the storage vessel and sealing welding and due to the concrete cover outer concrete casing;

- application of approved devices for loading and unloading of Fuel elements.

Reliability is also achieved thanks to the system of cooling channels, which allows repair of concrete during the occurrence of cracks and to check the status of the pressurized vessel and the outer concrete casing.

The design of the proposed container is schematically represented in the drawings, where figure 1 shows a longitudinal section of the container; figure 2 is an enlarged node B longitudinal section of the container; figure 3 is a transverse section of the container along a-a; figure 4 - diagram of the damping device.

External concrete block 1 contains metal outer 24 and inner 25 of the cylindrical shell. The cavity between the shells is filled with rugged serpentinites concrete with enhanced radiation-protective properties. Top inside NAA cavity of the container and the cavity between the shells tightly covered with a lid 19. On the cover 19, the bottom 3 and the inner cylindrical shell outer concrete casing installed the dampers 13, protect from displacement and damage to the storage vessel 2, as well as compensating thermal expansion of the metal vessel storage. For carrying the container outer concrete casing has a removable trunnion 11. For kantowski container from a vertical to a horizontal position and Vice versa in the bottom of the container, the space available for installation of standard edging device 16. In the cavity serpentinites concrete outer concrete casing laid cooling channels 12 for control of the concrete when running on the cracks (when detection of cracks cooling channel is filled with concrete), the cooling channels are designed for installation of steel ropes, which predopredeny to increase the strength of concrete. Outer and inner cylindrical shell is welded to the bottom 3.

The damping device 13 consists of a base 20. The base is fastened by welding to the cover 19, to the bottom 3 and to the inner cylindrical shell outer concrete casing. To the base is welded elastic elements 21 and 23. Depending on the force displacement vessel storage elastic elements are triggered alternately. When a significant load (blow, fall, etc) design of elastic elements p is adequate to compensate for the load, many times the project.

Cooling channels 12 are lined with steel channels with labyrinth areas to minimize the intensity of the radiation. Cooling channels also eliminate or reduce the maximum probability of failure of the inner housing when the terrorist act relating to the effect of cumulative charge type. This design of the cooling channels to cool not only the storage vessel, but the concrete regardless of the position of reinforced concrete container (vertically or horizontally). Inside the cooling channels 12, the bottom surface and the cover 4 are removable mesh 12, designed for protection from attempts to penetrate small rodents, birds, snakes, etc. to the warm source to the storage vessel. In the case of transport operations in the channels of the bottom and cover the caps 17, designed to regulate the flow of air. At the ends of the tops and bottoms set the dampers 15 are the dimensions of the outer concrete casing. Removable concrete cover 4 is designed to provide the fourth barrier sealing. During long-term storage cover is welded to the chassis. Cover the outer reinforced concrete shell provides additional protection from radiation in the upper direction. The storage vessel 2 Rods closes Proc. of the two covers. Cover 6 through the Nickel strip 10 is bolted to the storage vessel and for additional sealing welds with a vessel-thread seams. The inner cover 8 and the cap 7 are used for radiation protection of personnel during installation of the outer cover off. The bottom layer of the protective cover is made of porous aluminum specially wulitou profiles heads TVEL 14. To reduce the dimension of the storage vessel and also to record from offset pipe covers 5 inside the storage vessel is installed ring 9 after installation of the pipe cover. The ring 9 through the Nickel strip 10 is bolted protective cover 8.

Thus, due to the peculiarities of execution container for transportation and storage of spent assemblies of fuel elements of nuclear reactors the invention allows to create a protective container, making it possible to increase safety and reliability during operation and transport. With this invention allows efficient use of the internal volume of the container by placing the tube covers, a developed system of cooling channels and the installation of additional rings.

The container according to the invention will solve complex environmental problem that requires immediate storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel.

1 Container for transportation and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel of nuclear reactors, containing a sealed vessel storage case with spent nuclear fuel, external concrete building with metal outer and inner shells, the lid and the bottom, the cooling channels, the locking dampers, characterized in that the pressure-tight vessel provided with a ring securing the cover relative to the longitudinal axis of the housing, three removable covers, as well as fixing and cooling dampers located around the perimeter of the inner cylindrical shell, the lid and the bottom of the outer concrete casing, while the cooling system is designed in such a way that the cooling air passes through the cylindrical gap between the outer surface of the vessel and the inner surface of the outer concrete casing by cooling channels located inside the concrete, which is in the cavity between the outer and inner shells reinforced concrete building.

2. The container according to claim 1, characterized in that the cooling channels are steel ropes.

3. The container according to claim 1, characterized in that the cooling channels located in the outer concrete casing, installed sensors, and the cover and bottom set nets and caps.

4. The container according to claim 1, characterized in that at the ends of the tops and bottoms of the outer concrete casing installed dampers.

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