Method and device for visualization of signal's spectral changes

FIELD: measurement technology; electric engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for estimating changes in signal frequency range when the signal passes through signal transmission/amplification paths which signals have precision multi-band frequency correction. Device helps to observe results of introduced correction. Device has two spectrum analyzers which are used for determining signal spectra at input and output of tested four-terminal networks. Spectra of input and output signals are normalized and introduced into normalized signals' comparison unit. Signal from module determining unit is sent to indicator for visual representing of result of comparing depending on frequency. Device provides ability of visual estimation of degree of change in random signal's spectral form when signal passes through four-terminal network having frequency-dependent characteristics.

EFFECT: improved efficiency; improved precision.

5 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of radio and intended for visual assessment of the degree of changing the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal when it passes through the quadrupole with frequency-dependent parameters. In particular, the device may find application in the paths of transmission and amplification of audio signals with precision multiband frequency correction to monitor the results made the correction.

Now for the visual evaluation of changes (deformation) of the frequency spectrum S(ω) used spectrum analyzers, representing the result of the analysis in the form of a curve of the amplitude of the frequency components from the frequency - S(ω). When this device is selected as the prototype contains two functional units: the test signal generator and the spectrum analyzer. The output of the spectrum analyzer is an information output device, test the output of which serves as the generator output test signal and the test input is the input of the spectrum analyzer [Rosenberg VIA Radio methods of measurement of parameters of processes and systems. M.: Publishing house of the Committee of standards, measures and measuring instruments, 1970, p.123-124].

The use of a prototype allows you to evaluate how changing the spectrum of the signal at the output of the quadrupole only deviation graph S(ω) from a straight line. For this is th at the entrance of the quadrupole should signal with uniform spectral density S(ω ) - const in the whole range of operating frequencies, such as white noise or close to it slabokonsolidirovannye process. Therefore, a feature of the prototype is the obligatory presence of a special test signal, this means that the prototype cannot be used for real signals in the normal mode, affecting the frequency-dependent quadrupole. It also follows that the device is a prototype cannot be used to assess the results of the frequency correction to be made in real random signal with arbitrary spectral shape.

Technical result achieved when using the present invention is to provide a visual assessment of the degree of change of shape of the spectrum of a random signal with an arbitrary initial shape of the spectrum when it passes through the quadrupole with frequency-dependent parameters.

The technical result is achieved in that in a device for the visualization of spectral changes, containing the first spectrum analyzer, the input of which is the first test input, according to the invention introduced the second spectrum analyzer, two block rating, block comparison and indicator intended for visual display according to the comparison result from the frequency of the second test input device, use the I the d the second spectrum analyzer, the output of the first spectrum analyzer is connected to the input of the first block of rationing, the output of which is connected to the first input of the comparison, a second input connected to the output of the second block of rationing, the input connected to the output of the second spectrum analyzer, the output of the Comparer is connected to the input of the indicator.

In addition, the block comparison can be made with a device that calculates the difference between the compared values, or a device that calculates the ratio of the compared values.

The invention is illustrated graphic material. Figure 1 shows an example of a visual representation of the function describing the spectral changes. Figure 2 shows the functional diagram of the device for the visualization of spectral changes. Figure 3 shows an example implementation of block regulation. Figure 4 contains a functional diagram of one possible implementation of block comparisons, paired with the indicator. The method of pairing indicator with decoder-Converter included in the power comparison, shown in the block diagram in figure 5.

Figure 1 contains a plot of the comparison result ΔY spectral components from the frequency ω in the range [ωminthat ωmax].

The scheme of figure 2 contains the spectrum analyzers 1, 2, blocks 3, 4 of the regulation, block 5 compared the I, indicator 6 and a controlled two-port network representing the amplifier 7 with a connected load of RL. The input of the spectrum analyzer 1 is the first test input of the second test input which is the input of the spectrum analyzer 2 to the first test input connected to the output of the controlled amplifier 7, the input of which is United with the second test input, the output of the spectrum analyzer 1 is connected to the input unit 3 of the regulation, the output of which is connected to the first input unit 5 comparison to the second input of which is connected the output of block 4 of the regulation, an input connected to the output of the spectrum analyzer 2, the output of block 5 comparison connected with the input of the indicator.

Functional diagram in figure 3 contains the potentiometer 8 (adjustable voltage divider), band-pass filter 9 and 10 meter level signal. Upper circuit on the output of the potentiometer 8 is an input unit of rationing, and the middle pin of the potentiometer 8 is the output power rating, the bottom of the scheme, the output of the potentiometer 8 is connected with a common bus and to the center pin of the potentiometer 8 is connected to the input of the bandpass filter 9, the output of which is connected to the 10 meter level.

Functional diagram in figure 4 contains a block 11 of the subtractor, adder 12, group 13 registers 13-1÷13-N, a group 14 decoders 14-1÷14-N, the address counter 15, a decoder 16 address the and element 17, OR, and N led modules 6-1÷6. the First input unit 11 subtraction is the first information input Y2(nΔω) block 5 comparison intended for connection to the output unit 3, the second input unit 11 subtraction is the second information input Y1(nΔω) block 5 and is intended for connection to the output unit 4, the output of block 11 of the subtractor is connected to the first input of the adder 12, a second input which is the input code offset Y0the output of the adder 12 is connected with the integrated information inputs DI register group 13, the outputs are connected to inputs of the respective decoders group 14 (the output of the n-th register to the input of the n-th decoder), the clock inputs of registers group 13 is connected to the respective N outputs of the decoder 16, an input connected to bit output Q of the counter 15, the output transfer R of which is connected to the first input element 17 OR the second input which is the input to the RST zero (initial installation) unit 5 comparison, the clock input of the counter 15 is synchronator CLK block 5 comparison output which are the outputs of the N decoders group 14, which are connected to the respective N inputs of the indicator 6.

Functional diagram of the example pair decoder with a line of LEDs (figure 5) contains the decoder-Converter 14-n binary code in the NC code is Alenia led scale with one moving point and the scale 6-n, representing a line of LEDs, the number of which is equal to the number of outputs of the decoder 14-n, the outputs of which are connected to the corresponding inputs of the line 6-n.

Range of audio signals by passing them through real the amplification paths, as a rule, is undergoing changes. What is happening can be divided into two typical cases. In the first case the cause is independent of the researcher the imperfection amplitude-frequency characteristics of the tract (quadrupole), leading to unwanted linear distortion of the input signal. In the second case, the spectrum of the output signal change intentionally, attenuating and/or amplifying some of its parts to get the desired effect, which in most cases is the change of tone color are converted into sound waves in the output signal. And of course in each case it is useful to know how to change the spectrum of the signal. Indeed, the use of modern audio precision wide-range frequency offset allows you to change the range of the output signal over the entire width, bringing its shape beyond recognition. However, this process of external intervention must be monitored by tracking the impact you make adjustments to the result. Visual analysis of the shape of the spectrum of the output signal, the which is provided in many modern equalizers, high class, of course, increases the efficiency of the management processes of correction, but at the same time carries no explicit information about the incident spectral changes.

Detailed information about the changes of the spectrum of the signal that carries the function representing the dependence of the result of the comparison of the amplitudes or capacity spectral components of the frequency. A good example of such a criterion of comparison (and readable) is the difference

ΔYω)=Y2(ω)-Y1(ω),

where Y1(ω) and Y2(ω) normalized spectra of the input and output signals, respectively.

Illustration of the proposed serves as an example of a function ΔYω), shown in figure 1 and designed to show graphically the whole picture frequency changes within the operating range of the device from ωminto ωmax.

Device to obtain the picture shown in figure 1, works as follows (figure 2). The output and input signals of a quadrupole, for example controlled amplifier 7, proceed to the inputs of spectrum analyzers 1 and 2, respectively. Calculated in each of them the values of the functions S1(ω) and S2(ω), which is the spectra of the input and output signals, respectively, then normalized and fed to the block 5 comparison. Where the comparison result to rowsets on indicator 6, used for visual display according to the result of comparison of the normalized values of the frequency. Under the rationing refers to the calculation of the relative values of Y1(ω) and Y2(ω) by the formula

and,

where ω0- some fixed mean frequency within a band of operating frequencies (sound paths ω0usually choose the appropriate frequency 1 kHz).

If blocks 1-4 performed by analog circuits, the information about the functions Y1(ω) and Y2(ω) is represented in the form of signals Y1(t) and Y2(t), which is displayed in the time spectra Y1(ω) and Y2(ω), respectively. Of course, before rationing will have signals S1(t) and S2(t), which is the temporary copies of functions S1(ω) and S2(ω). Because the regulation provides for the operation of division, as in a purely analog devices performing arithmetic operations associated with considerable difficulties, you can use the analog power rating, working on a slightly different principle. The essence of his work (figure 3) is reduced to the manual, the testing division of the output voltage of the spectrum analyzer as long as the voltage corresponding to the frequency ω0not DOS is ignet predetermined level, for example the unit. This operation, which is essentially a scaled signals, perform before you begin to work with the device separately for each channel with the same parameters of the controlled amplifier 7. The accuracy of rating will depend on the identity element parameters used in blocks 3, 4, and resolution of 10 meter level. The Central frequency of the band pass filter 9 is chosen equal to ω0and the band width is small (about a half octaves) and according to specified accuracy requirements of the regulation.

Let us further consider one of the possible options for the construction of unit 5 comparison designed to work with digital samples, obtained under the assumption that the spectrum analyzers 1 and 2 digital, and outputs of units 3 and 4 have the sequence of counts normalized values of the amplitudes of the harmonics Y2(nΔω) and Y2(nΔω), respectively, and calculated using the discrete Fourier transform, provided that n=0, 1, 2...N-1 (N is the total number of harmonics), and Δω - the spacing of the samples along the frequency axis. In the particular case of harmonics with zero frequency you can refuse.

We assume that the samples Y1(nΔω) and Y2(nΔω) in two channels in time appear at the same time, accompanied by a clock pulse is mi CLK and in addition, the change of counts in each channel comes with a clock frequency of CLK. In the proposed scheme (figure 4) block 5 comparison data are compared by calculating their difference Y2(nΔω)-Y1(nΔω) in block 11. Further, in the adder 12 adds the constant Y0and then, N of the values obtained

ΔY nΔω)=ΔY2(nΔω)-Y1(nΔω)+Y0

distributed by N register group 13. Entered in the registers 13-1÷13-N binary codes N values ΔY nΔω) is converted to the decoders of the group 14 in the control codes led strips 6-1÷6-N, each of which corresponds to one reference frequency ωn=nΔω.

Manages alternate entry codes ΔY nΔω) registers 13 node, comprising address counter 15 and decoder 16. Module conversion counter 15 choose one greater than the number of samples N. This allows you to use the reset state of the counter as the source and prohibiting the writing of data to registers 13. With the advent of the first clock CLK, the counter 15 sets the output Q code unit and activates, thus, the output of the decoder 16 with sequence number "1" (the numbering of the outputs of the decoder 16 starts from zero; zero output is not used). Since the process is intermittent, positive confused the on voltage at the output "1" of the decoder 16 allows simultaneous recording information on the first reference Δ Y(0) in the first register 13-1. Then with the arrival of the second pulse accompanying the following reference ΔYω), the counter 15 enters a state corresponding to the number "2"and the logical level difference is formed on the second output of the decoder 16, allowing, thus, the entry in the register 13-2. The specified path, potato recording and other registers 13. After the group 13 will be written last count, the counter 15 is reset, and the cycle of the first data record will end. All subsequent cycles similar to the first and are used to update information in the registers 13 and, consequently, to update the image generated by the indicator 6. The RST input is used for initial zeroing Comparer.

In order shown in figure 4 scheme made it possible to obtain an image with shifted upward along the axis ΔYω) the zero line, in the structure provided input code offset Y0(the adder 12). The introduction of the constant component, the value of which is equal to half of the range of changes ΔYω), allows to indicate the zero line in the absence of signal, however, the signal of the zero line as a guide not shown, so on the screen of the indicator should be applied to graded zero line in the figure. Discrete indicator (block 6 in figure 4) can be assembled on the basis of the vertical is social oriented led modules 6-1÷ 6-N, the number of which is determined by the number of samples frequency. Rulers come in the same plane parallel to each other in ascending order of frequency. To manage each line is the full decoder, matched with the selected type of led modules. In the example in figure 5 decoder-Converter 14-n is associated with a line of LEDs with the United cathodes.

1. The visualization of the spectral changes in the signal when it passes through the quadrupole, wherein define the normalized spectrum of the input signal, determine the normalized spectrum of the output signal obtained normalized values are compared among themselves, after which visually show the dependence of the result of comparison of the normalized values of the frequency.

2. Device for the visualization of spectral changes, containing the first spectrum analyzer, the input of which is the first test input, characterized in that it introduced the second spectrum analyzer, two block rating, block comparison and indicator intended for visual display according to the comparison result from the frequency of the second test input device is the input of the second spectrum analyzer, the output of the first spectrum analyzer is connected to the input of the first block of rationing, the output of which is connected with the PE the new entrance block comparison a second input connected to the output of the second block of rationing, the input connected to the output of the second spectrum analyzer, the output of the Comparer is connected to the input of the indicator.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the unit of comparison is made in the form of a device that calculates the difference between the compared values.

4. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the unit of comparison is made in the form of a device that calculates the ratio of the compared values.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for automatic estimation of state of distributed processes or objects of different physical nature. Measurement signal vector, i.e. noises disturbances and distortions with wide spectral range are formed additionally. After measurement information signals, calibration (control) signals or noise, disturbance or distortion signals are received the functional conversion of measurement signals is performed calculation of spectral characteristics of the signals. Measurement signals are transformed for any individual analyzed harmonic component of measurement signals.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

2 cl, 11 dwg, 5 tbl

FIELD: amplitude-frequency characteristics of quadripoles.

SUBSTANCE: control of quadripole is realized in two stages. At first stage, estimation stage, N counts of measurements results are received during length T of one signal period, and on second stage, analysis stage, during time T received signal estimation results are recognized with determining of class of technical state of object (like breakdown). To realize first stage of control, to present clock pulse generator, first counter, delay element, first register, first AND element, adder, additionally inserted are two keys, two analog-digital converters, second register and operative memory block for estimation results, to realize second control stage additionally to first and second comparison block, indication block, inserted are breakdowns signs memory block, breakdown counters and commutator, and for controlling control stages to present launch element, first counter, second AND element, key element is additionally inserted.

EFFECT: higher speed of operation.

5 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: generators of swaying frequency have first control inputs connected to output of control block, to first indicator block and input of adjustable generator of intermediate frequencies. One of outputs of intermediate frequencies generator is connected to second input of second phase detector. Output of first generator of swaying frequency is connected to one of inputs of first mixer of block for phase auto-adjustment of frequency, another input of which is connected to output of second swaying frequency generator. Signal input of supporting mixer is connected to moving contact of third switch, first fixed contact of which is connected to first fixed contact of fourth switch. Moving contact of switch is connected to amplifier output, input of which is connected to moving contact of first switch.

EFFECT: higher precision, higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: measuring unit is used for measuring time shifts between output and input signals induced in real four-terminal networks, for example, in amplifiers of audio signals. Measuring unit can be used for measuring as random signals and determined monoharmonic signals. Measuring unit has two extremum selection units which have outputs connected with inputs of time shift measuring unit. Inputs of extremum selection unit have to be inputs of measuring unit. Measurement of time shifts between extreme of output and input signals allows to eliminate errors caused by shifts in signal zero line in four-terminal network and influence of non-linear distortions on shape of output signal.

EFFECT: reduced errors; reduced influence of non-linear distortions.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: analyzer can be used for measuring level of frequency distortions introduced by audio channel. Analyzer has two spectrum analyzers which are used to determine signal spectra at output and input of tested four-terminal network. Input and output signal spectra are subject to normalization and are introduced into subtraction unit and later to unit for determining normalized signals difference module. Signal from unit for determining module is sent to integrator to find end value, which characterizes area of frequency distortions introduced by four-terminal network. According to another version of analyzer the module is substituted by squarer. Analysis of frequency characteristics can be performed without turning four-terminal network into special measuring mode.

EFFECT: improved truth of information; increased precision of measurement.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: instrument making, namely technique for five-position control of motion of different physical nature objects.

SUBSTANCE: in order to achieve desired result primary transducer includes in addition third inductive (transformer type) converter and secondary transducer includes in addition resistor, capacitor, three diodes, four reference units. First and second outlets of first reference member are connected respectively with cathode of first diode and anode of third diode.

EFFECT: enlarged functional possibilities of pickup.

5 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: instrument making, namely technique of three position control of motion of different physical nature objects.

SUBSTANCE: in order to achieve desired result pickup includes in addition capacitor, resistor, first and second voltage dividers. First inlet of secondary transducer is connected with first outlet of first voltage divider that is connected with anode (cathode) of third diode. Cathode (anode) of third diode is connected with second inlet of second comparator.

EFFECT: enlarged functional possibilities.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: instrument making, namely technique for multi-position control of motion of different physical nature objects.

SUBSTANCE: in order to achieve desired result pickup includes reference circuit having connected in series first and second double-terminal networks. First and second terminals of AC source are connected respectively with first outlets of first and second double-terminal networks whose second outlets are connected with anode (cathode) of additional diode. Cathode (anode) of additional diode is connected with first outlets of additional resistor and capacitor and with second inlets of first and second comparators.

EFFECT: enlarged functional possibilities.

7 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: radio-electric measurements.

SUBSTANCE: device has multiplexer, filtering block, analog-digital converter, square-ware generator, two accumulating adders, functional converter, performing in simplest case operations of division and square root, as well as control block and white noise generator. Device uses random process with broad range as test signal and allows to measure amplification coefficient concurrently in certain range of frequencies. Products of nonlinear distortions are taken in consideration, which accompany operation of real amplifiers and which influence shape of output signal as well as its level.

EFFECT: higher precision.

2 dwg

Meter gain // 2242016
The invention relates to the field of electrogravimetry and can be used for online measurement of gain broadband amplifiers and audio amplifiers, as well as for automated control paths passing audio signals

FIELD: measurement technology; electric engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for estimating changes in signal frequency range when the signal passes through signal transmission/amplification paths which signals have precision multi-band frequency correction. Device helps to observe results of introduced correction. Device has two spectrum analyzers which are used for determining signal spectra at input and output of tested four-terminal networks. Spectra of input and output signals are normalized and introduced into normalized signals' comparison unit. Signal from module determining unit is sent to indicator for visual representing of result of comparing depending on frequency. Device provides ability of visual estimation of degree of change in random signal's spectral form when signal passes through four-terminal network having frequency-dependent characteristics.

EFFECT: improved efficiency; improved precision.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for estimating linear distortions in amplifying stages. Toa achieve the result, any value of standardized amplitude-frequency characteristic is reduced for one unit and then absolute value is selected from received value. Value received which has to be a frequency function is subject to integration within tested frequency range. After it the value is measured achieved as a result of integration. In this case the measured value has to be estimation of frequency distortions.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: radio-measurements, possible use for building devices for measuring distortions introduced by frequency-dependent devices, in particular, audio-signal amplifiers.

SUBSTANCE: device for measuring area of frequency distortions, occurring in a quadripole, contains block for measuring amplification coefficients in N points of working frequencies range and a functional converter, output of which is the output of measuring device, first testing input of which is the first input of block for measuring amplification coefficients, second input of which is used as second testing input of measuring device, outputs of block for measuring amplification coefficients are connected to corresponding inputs of functional converter. Block for measuring amplification coefficients may be made in form of device for estimating ratios of half-period average or mean-square values, or dispersions of signals in N points of working frequencies range.

EFFECT: ensured capability for estimating area of frequency distortions which occur in a quadripole on passage of useful signal in working mode through it, without disabling the quadripole and without injecting a special testing signal into its input.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: radio-measurements, possible use for evaluating frequency distortions introduced by frequency-dependent devices, for example, amplifiers of audio-signals.

SUBSTANCE: multi-functional device for measuring frequency distortions, introduced by a quadripole, contains N analog blocks for estimating statistic characteristics of input and output signals of quadripole, multiplexer, analog-digital converter and functional converter, output of which is the output of measuring device, first inputs of N analog blocks for estimating statistic characteristics are combined and make up the first testing input of measuring device, second inputs of N analog blocks for estimating statistical characteristics are combined and make up the second testing input of measuring device, outputs of N analog blocks for estimating statistical characteristics are connected to corresponding channel inputs of multiplexer, output of which is connected to input of functional transformer, N analog blocks for estimating statistical characteristics are meant for estimating statistical characteristics of corresponding N dedicated frequency bands within range of working frequencies of quadripole. N analog blocks for estimating statistical characteristics of input and output signals of quadripole may be made in form of devices for estimating half-period average or mean-square values or dispersions of signals.

EFFECT: possible evaluation of frequency distortions, occurring in quadripole on passage of useful signal through it in working mode, without disabling the quadripole and without injecting a special testing signal into its input; possible estimation of distortions on basis of various criterions.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: the proposed invention refers to the field of radio measuring and is designed for visual evaluation of the degree of changing of the form of the spectrum of a random signal at its passage through a quadripole with frequency dependent parameters.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of visualization of spectral changes of a random signal at its passage through a quadripole is in that they define the spectrum of the input signal, the spectrum of the out put signal, divide the spectrum of the output signal on the spectrum of the input signal. After that they visually represent dependence of the result of division from the frequency, at that visual representation is brought to construction of the diagram of the function representing correlation of the spectrums diminished on a constant value which does not exceed the least meaning of correlation of the spectrums.

EFFECT: simplification of the corresponding mode of visualization of spectral changes of a random signal.

3 dwg

FIELD: electronics.

SUBSTANCE: the method is based on computing realizations of spectrum of output signal of receipt and amplification channel of radio-telescope by means of fast Fourier transform, accumulation and averaging of spectrum realizations. Powers of signal mixture and native noise are compared at channel output with noise power in band of frequencies which is not occupied by signal being researched, and at amplitude calibration by means of noise impulses, which are periodically injected into receipt and amplification channel. Frequency band is expanded in a way to fit a section which does not contain a signal. Spectrum realizations are computed both during injection of calibrating noise impulses and during pauses between them. Spectrum realizations during impulses and without them are averaged separately, and on basis of averaged spectrum realizations, average values of noise powers are computed at frequencies which are free of signal, with injected calibration impulses or without them. On basis of a pair of averaged signal spectrum realizations at output of receipt and amplification channel and a pair of produced average values of noise powers, energy spectrum of signal being researched is computed in antenna. Spectral components of noise temperature of signal being researched are determined as a result of multiplication of half of noise temperature of calibration impulses and ratio between difference of totals of pair of components of averaged spectrums and pair of average values of noise powers and difference of average values of noise powers. To reduce errors, introduced by instability of receiving system parameters, time of observation of radiation source is split onto shorter intervals, in each interval, energy spectrums of signal are computed, and results are averaged.

EFFECT: reduced signal observation time and increased precision of measurements.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measuring techniques; radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of two spectrum analysers, device for measuring correlation coefficient and subtraction unit. The technique lies in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the spectra of input and output signals. Evaluation of frequency distortion is a value obtained through subtraction from the measured correlation coefficient of spectra.

EFFECT: simplification of engineering solutions due to elimination of standardisation of spectra.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns radio measurement field and is designed for integral estimation of frequency distortion evoked by in random baseband signal four-pole circuits. The device includes two wave analysers and correlation rate indicator. The process involves measurement of correlation rates for input and output signal spectra. A value of spectra correlation rate is the sought frequency distortion estimation.

EFFECT: simplification of technical solutions owing to exclusion of spectrum rating.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed instrument comprises vertically oriented permanent magnet, galvanometre, connected to centrifugal machine housing and sliding contact. Permanent magnet represents cylindrical combined magnet consisting of two identical ferrite ring-like magnets and bearing iron disk arranged there between, the disk edge extending beyond side surface. Aforesaid bearing disk is fitted on shaft made from non-magnetic material and having its shank to be fitted into centrifugal machine chuck. Sliding contact contacts aforesaid extending side edge of bearing iron dick.

EFFECT: higher generated emf and improved stability of electric and magnetic parametres.

1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: essence of detection method of multiple narrow-band radio signals in broad band of frequencies consists in performance of analogue-to-digital conversion of broad-band input process (BIP), accumulation of complex BIP readouts and in-series formation of samplings with BIP readouts, calculation of amplitude spectrum of formed sampling with BIP readouts, calculation of detection threshold value for each component part of amplitude spectrum as sum of smoothed estimate of spectrum in weighing window sliding along frequency axis and function from their mean-square deviation, comparison of amplitudes of spectrum component parts with detection threshold value, storage of comparison results of amplitudes of spectrum components with detection threshold value, taking the decision on detection of radio signals in investigated frequency band on the basis of majority processing of stored comparison results of amplitudes of spectrum components with detection threshold value, which were obtained at analysis of six in-series taken samples with BIP readouts, and output of detection results.

EFFECT: reducing the influence of signal-interference environment.

7 dwg

FIELD: radio-electric measurements.

SUBSTANCE: device has multiplexer, filtering block, analog-digital converter, square-ware generator, two accumulating adders, functional converter, performing in simplest case operations of division and square root, as well as control block and white noise generator. Device uses random process with broad range as test signal and allows to measure amplification coefficient concurrently in certain range of frequencies. Products of nonlinear distortions are taken in consideration, which accompany operation of real amplifiers and which influence shape of output signal as well as its level.

EFFECT: higher precision.

2 dwg

Up!