Method for ecological estimation of environmental heavy metal pollution

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns estimation of environmental pollution using bioassay methods. In particular, method is accomplished through bioindication of controlled area using, as bioindicators, internals (muscles, kidneys, liver) of wild hoofed animals (elk, dear, wild boar). One determines content of heavy metals in these organs placed within an area, compares thus obtained data with maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in foods, and estimates heavy metal pollution level of the area from resulted difference. Existence of long-term pollution of a region is judged of from excess concentration of heavy metals in wild hoofed animal kidneys and existence of single release of mercury and lead from that in muscles and liver.

EFFECT: enabled multiple estimation of considerable areas at reduced effort.

2 cl, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to research in the field of environmental protection, and in particular to methods for ecological monitoring of environmental objects, using biotesting. The method can be used for environmental mapping, identifying unfavorable, in the regions studied and differentiated assessment of pollution in the region with heavy metals.

Modern art is characterized by the following analogues of the proposed method.

Known methods of environmental monitoring regions, by creating a tracking system for the ecological status of settlements and regions, monitoring of all media in a wide range of their parameters, regardless of the sources of pollution. In the data acquisition system includes: a group of sensors environmental control state of the environment monitoring and control stations industrial wastewater enterprises, the Central control station, the space station communicating with the network of satellites and space environmental intelligence, and motor complexes operational actions with the relevant groups of sensors associated with the control item.

RF patent №2145120, G 08 C 19/00, 27.01.2000.

These environmental data collection systems allow us to estimate the ecological condition of the whole region, however, reveal who I am time-consuming, multi-stage, time-consuming and extremely expensive.

There is a method of establishing anthropogenic contamination of soils with heavy metals, including sampling of soil in the study area and their chemical analysis and subsequent comparison of the obtained data with the background ( background site) and normative values of pollutants.

RF patent №2029321, G 01 V 9/00, 20.02.1995.

The disadvantage of this method is difficult to prepare samples for analysis. Moreover, the chemical composition of soils in areas of industrial pollution is different spatial-temporal heterogeneity, which necessitates the organization's long-term geochemical observations of the distribution of pollutants.

Similarly to the foregoing conduct ecological monitoring of heavy metals in waters by chemical analysis of water and bottom sediments. ( Reference hydrochemistry, edited by Americanarama. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1989, 49-55).

The disadvantage of this method based on the analysis of water, is the ability to determine only the heavy metals that are dissolved, ionic form. It is known that the mass of the heavy metals accumulated in the bottom sediments of water bodies, of which at pH change freely migrate. Moreover, the sampling of bottom sediments is not possible in all areas of the riverbed or water and is a fairly laborious process. All this greatly complicates the organization of observations, and reduces the reliability of the final results, due to ambiguity of interpretation of the resulting data

Currently, along with chemical methods of determination of various toxicants in natural objects developed a number of methods of biological assessment of the toxicity of different environments.

According to literature data, the most common methods of biotesting of water, where as test organisms use dafny.

International standard Organization (ISO)/ 6341:1989 (E) "Water quality-Determination of the mobility of Dapnia magma Staus International standard Organization Publications, London. Great Britain".

The disadvantage of this method is the fact that daphnids do not have sufficient resistance to the action of toxicants and toxicity water is estimated indirectly.

Known rapid method of assessing the quality of water contaminated by industrial, agricultural and household toxicants and mixtures thereof, used for environmental assessments, mapping and monitoring of natural and groundwater. The method is based on the assessment resulting in the tested water changes behavioral responses of molluscs. As the test organisms used specially bred by close inbreeding in the standard "clean" laboratory conditions shellfish "Ampulla gigas".

RF patent №2082167, G 01 N 33/18, 20.06.1997.

The method is very time consuming, requires a large number of test organisms, multiple repeated measurements and subsequent labor-intensive statistical processing.

One of bioassay techniques is a method of biological monitoring of environmental systems and facilities, based on the registration lifetime of the test organisms in the environment and determine the index of bioactivity of the inspected object (Express Biotest). As test organisms use ciliates-Paramecium caudatum, and the biological testing is carried out in 3 stages.

RF patent №2125261, G 01 N 33/18, 27.03.1999.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for setting up special microbiological studies and the low representativeness of the results related to the application disorganized living organisms, the inability to assess the environmental situation in a relatively large region.

There is a method of determining the toxicity of the environment, taken as a prototype, based on a study of the test object in the control and experimental samples using as a test object embryos and larvae of sea urchins in the sea water. Embryos and larvae of sea urchins for their habitat serve as a natural indicator of anthropogenic pollution are high chuvstvitelnye to the toxic effects of metals and other toxicants. To test objects in sea water, add the analyzed environmental samples in the form of soil or air, or river and drinking water or freshwater sediment or individual chemical components, or combinations thereof. The toxicity assessment is carried out on mortality and the number of abnormal development of embryos and larvae compared to the control sample with the expression of toxicity in the relative toxic units.

RF patent 2057337, G 01 N 33/18, 27.03.1996.

The method is used as the most reliable Biotest to determine the overall toxicity of the water environment as a habitat of test objects, however, the assessment of the toxicity of the air, soil and sediment can be done only indirectly, and the more difficult to obtain information about the environmental situation in a relatively large region. Moreover, the use of special assessment units and the need for delivery of test objects in space bioindication investigated samples to the habitats of sea urchins, makes the method unsuitable for mass use and labor-intensive.

The task to be solved by the invention is to increase the representativeness of the results of monitoring, ensuring that the multi-dimensional assessment of the significant areas of the region while reducing labor costs.

The task of the image is to be placed is an expansion of the types of biological methods adequate assessment of the total toxicity of various environmental objects for heavy metals.

The tasks solved by bioindication controlled territory, at the same time as bio-indicators of the use of the internal organs and muscles of wild ungulates, determine the content of heavy metals, compare the results obtained with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in food products, in excess of the values which are judged on the presence of contamination of the territory, while the presence of long-term contamination of the region with heavy metals is determined by the excess of their concentration in the kidneys of wild ungulates, and the presence of instantaneous emission of mercury and lead is determined by the excess of their concentrations in muscle and liver of wild ungulates.

As bio-indicators of the use of the internal organs and muscles, mainly elk, ROE deer, wild boar.

Usually, as an indicator of the bodies of wild hoofed animals use muscles, kidneys, liver.

It is advisable to have a long-term contamination of the region to determine the excess concentrations of heavy metals in the kidneys of wild ungulates.

It is advisable to have instantaneous release of mercury and lead to determine in excess of their concentrations in muscle and liver of wild ungulates.

In contrast to laboratory organisms of the lowest levels of biological organization in the proposed method of use which are free-living higher mammals (elk, ROE deer, wild boar). Consuming vegetable food as natural (wild plants)and anthropogenic (crop) origin, these types of drink water and breathe air directly to the territory, which is subjected to environmental monitoring. For monitoring does not require special work on the staff of microbiologists and microbiological laboratories. Sampling samples of liver, kidney and muscle tissue (flexure of the spine) can be easily carried out during the annual battue hunting of wild ungulates. As a result of realization of ecological monitoring of the proposed method is achieved by differentiating types of pollution: long-term (over several years) intake of heavy metals in the environment or as powerful short-term (in recent weeks) the emission of pollutants.

Table 1 presents the species of wild ungulates and indicator authorities long-term contamination of the environment with heavy metals.

Table No. 1
TypesBodies-indicators
muscleskidneyliver
Moose-Pb, Cd-
Coal the -Cd-
The boar-HgPb

Table 2 presents the species of wild ungulates and indicator authorities short-term pollution by heavy metals.

Table No. 2.
TypesBodies-indicators
muscleskidneyliver
MooseRHg, CdHg, Pb
ROERHg, CdHg, Pb
The boarHgHg, CdHg, Pb

The gaps in table 1 indicate that the analyzed body of the specified types is not used for long term monitoring of the environmental pollution with heavy metals. Due to the fact that the maximum allowable levels (MRL) of heavy metals (TM) in food products are continuously reviewed in the ecological monitoring of the environment the proposed method, it is recommended to use the latest, at the time of the approval regulations Sanitary and epidemiological surveillance.

MDU heavy metals in food (mg/kg wet weight tissue) are presented in table 3 [Hygienic requirements for safety and pexeva the value of food products, SanPiN 2.3.3.1087-01].

Table No. 3
Bodies-indicators
muscleskidneyliver
Pb0,50,60,6
Hg0,030,10,1
Cd0,050,30,3

For monitoring the administrative area of about 100 thousand hectares enough in the winter hunting of ungulates to sample bodies elk, ROE deer and wild boar (muscle, kidney, liver), inhabiting the territory subject to the monitoring region (5 specimens of each species: 5 elks, 5 deer and 5 boars). Within 1 day from the moment of extraction of animals from their bodies take samples of 10 g, put them in a plastic container and fixed with 10 ml of 48%ethyl alcohol. Samples are transported to the laboratory, where they further sample preparation for further analysis according to GOST 26929-94 Raw materials and food products. Preparation of samples. Mineralization to determine the content of toxic elements.

Determination of mercury concentration in the samples carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry cold vapor is according to GOST 26927-86 Raw materials and food products, method for the determination of mercury", M, 1987, 17 S.

Determining the concentration of lead in the samples performed according to GOST 26932-86 Raw materials and food products. Method for determination of lead", M, 1987, 12 S.

Determining the concentration of cadmium in the samples carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy according to GOST 26933-86 Raw materials and food products. Method for the determination of cadmium, M., 1987., 11 C.

The results obtained average and compared with the data of tables 1-3.

Under average element concentration in the indicator body or booting refers to the arithmetic average element contents in samples of 5 individuals of this species.

To identify long-term pollution of lead and cadmium suitable average concenrate of these metals in the kidneys of moose; for indication of long-term pollution by cadmium, in addition suitable average concentration of this metal in the kidney deer; to determine the long-term mercury contamination is also used average concentration of this metal in the kidneys of wild boar, and the average lead concentration in the liver of this species is used for bioindication of long-term pollution of this chemical element.

For indication of short-term pollution lead application finds the average concentration of this element in the muscles lo the I and roes, as well as its concentration in the liver of all species; when determining the availability of short-term pollution by cadmium use the average element concentration in the kidneys of all three species of ungulates; for short-term biomonitoring of environmental pollution by mercury applicable average concentration of the metal in the kidneys and liver of all three species of wild ungulates, as well as the average concentration in the muscles of wild boar.

Example.

During routine battue samples of muscle, liver and kidneys of moose, deer and wild boar. For each species was selected by 5 individuals. All samples were analyzed, and the obtained data for each organ and animal species were averaged (arithmetic mean for each of the 5 individuals).

Each thus obtained averaged concentration compared with the data of table No. 3 on the subject of excess real content above is given in table approved MDU for each of the items for each organ.

Most average concentrations of heavy metals in organs of wild ungulates were below the MRL (table No. 3). However, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the kidneys of moose were above the MRL and amounted to 0.8 mg/kg wet weight tissue and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. Average concentrations of lead in muscle tissue of moose and ROE deer also were above the MRL established by the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision for muscle tissue is, amounting to 0.9 mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg wet weight tissue, respectively.

From table No. 1 are indicator value kidneys of moose on cadmium and lead.

From table No. 2 have an indicator value of muscle moose and ROE deer in the lead.

Thus, average concentrations of lead and cadmium in the kidneys of moose, respectively: 0.8 and 0.5 mg/kg, there is a long-term intake of these chemical elements in the environment of the surveyed region; when the concentration of lead in muscle tissue of moose and ROE deer, respectively: 0.9 and 0.8 mg/kg - there is a powerful instantaneous release of the toxicant.

To identify long-term environmental pollution with heavy metals using concentrations of the metals in the kidneys of all ungulates, to identify short-term pollution in the kidneys and liver. So, when averaged concentrations of lead and cadmium in the kidneys of moose, respectively: 0.8 and 0.5 mg/kg, there is a long-term intake of these chemical elements in the environment of the surveyed region; when the concentration of lead in muscle tissue of moose and ROE deer, respectively: 0.9 and 0.8 mg/kg - there is a powerful short-term release of toxicant etc.

Thus, the proposed method for the monitoring of environmental pollution by lead, cadmium and mercury allows you to obtain representative data on the General status and environment of relatively large (about 100 thousand ha) region as a whole. Given the dynamics of the migration of ungulates on site, information is integral in nature, that is, the probability of erroneous estimation is significantly reduced.

1. The way environmental assessment environmental pollution with heavy metals by bioindication controlled territory, characterized in that as bioindicators use internal organs and muscles of wild ungulates, determine the content of heavy metals, compare the results obtained with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in food products, in excess of the values which are judged on the presence of contamination of the territory, and the availability of long-term contamination of the region with heavy metals is determined by the excess of their concentration in the kidneys of wild ungulates, and the presence of instantaneous emission of mercury and lead is determined by the excess of their concentrations in muscle and liver of wild ungulates.

2. The way environmental assessment of the contamination of the environment with heavy metals according to claim 1, characterized in that as bioindicators use internal organs and muscles mainly elk, ROE deer, wild boar.



 

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