Method for ecological estimation of environmental heavy metal pollution
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns estimation of environmental pollution using bioassay methods. In particular, method is accomplished through bioindication of controlled area using, as bioindicators, internals (muscles, kidneys, liver) of wild hoofed animals (elk, dear, wild boar). One determines content of heavy metals in these organs placed within an area, compares thus obtained data with maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in foods, and estimates heavy metal pollution level of the area from resulted difference. Existence of long-term pollution of a region is judged of from excess concentration of heavy metals in wild hoofed animal kidneys and existence of single release of mercury and lead from that in muscles and liver.
EFFECT: enabled multiple estimation of considerable areas at reduced effort.
2 cl, 3 tbl
The invention relates to research in the field of environmental protection, and in particular to methods for ecological monitoring of environmental objects, using biotesting. The method can be used for environmental mapping, identifying unfavorable, in the regions studied and differentiated assessment of pollution in the region with heavy metals.
Modern art is characterized by the following analogues of the proposed method.
Known methods of environmental monitoring regions, by creating a tracking system for the ecological status of settlements and regions, monitoring of all media in a wide range of their parameters, regardless of the sources of pollution. In the data acquisition system includes: a group of sensors environmental control state of the environment monitoring and control stations industrial wastewater enterprises, the Central control station, the space station communicating with the network of satellites and space environmental intelligence, and motor complexes operational actions with the relevant groups of sensors associated with the control item.
RF patent №2145120, G 08 C 19/00, 27.01.2000.
These environmental data collection systems allow us to estimate the ecological condition of the whole region, however, reveal who I am time-consuming, multi-stage, time-consuming and extremely expensive.
There is a method of establishing anthropogenic contamination of soils with heavy metals, including sampling of soil in the study area and their chemical analysis and subsequent comparison of the obtained data with the background ( background site) and normative values of pollutants.
RF patent №2029321, G 01 V 9/00, 20.02.1995.
The disadvantage of this method is difficult to prepare samples for analysis. Moreover, the chemical composition of soils in areas of industrial pollution is different spatial-temporal heterogeneity, which necessitates the organization's long-term geochemical observations of the distribution of pollutants.
Similarly to the foregoing conduct ecological monitoring of heavy metals in waters by chemical analysis of water and bottom sediments. ( Reference hydrochemistry, edited by Americanarama. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1989, 49-55).
The disadvantage of this method based on the analysis of water, is the ability to determine only the heavy metals that are dissolved, ionic form. It is known that the mass of the heavy metals accumulated in the bottom sediments of water bodies, of which at pH change freely migrate. Moreover, the sampling of bottom sediments is not possible in all areas of the riverbed or water and is a fairly laborious process. All this greatly complicates the organization of observations, and reduces the reliability of the final results, due to ambiguity of interpretation of the resulting data
Currently, along with chemical methods of determination of various toxicants in natural objects developed a number of methods of biological assessment of the toxicity of different environments.
According to literature data, the most common methods of biotesting of water, where as test organisms use dafny.
International standard Organization (ISO)/ 6341:1989 (E) "Water quality-Determination of the mobility of Dapnia magma Staus International standard Organization Publications, London. Great Britain".
The disadvantage of this method is the fact that daphnids do not have sufficient resistance to the action of toxicants and toxicity water is estimated indirectly.
Known rapid method of assessing the quality of water contaminated by industrial, agricultural and household toxicants and mixtures thereof, used for environmental assessments, mapping and monitoring of natural and groundwater. The method is based on the assessment resulting in the tested water changes behavioral responses of molluscs. As the test organisms used specially bred by close inbreeding in the standard "clean" laboratory conditions shellfish "Ampulla gigas".
RF patent №2082167, G 01 N 33/18, 20.06.1997.>
The method is very time consuming, requires a large number of test organisms, multiple repeated measurements and subsequent labor-intensive statistical processing.
One of bioassay techniques is a method of biological monitoring of environmental systems and facilities, based on the registration lifetime of the test organisms in the environment and determine the index of bioactivity of the inspected object (Express Biotest). As test organisms use ciliates-Paramecium caudatum, and the biological testing is carried out in 3 stages.
RF patent №2125261, G 01 N 33/18, 27.03.1999.
The disadvantage of this method is the need for setting up special microbiological studies and the low representativeness of the results related to the application disorganized living organisms, the inability to assess the environmental situation in a relatively large region.
There is a method of determining the toxicity of the environment, taken as a prototype, based on a study of the test object in the control and experimental samples using as a test object embryos and larvae of sea urchins in the sea water. Embryos and larvae of sea urchins for their habitat serve as a natural indicator of anthropogenic pollution are high chuvstvitelnye to the toxic effects of metals and other toxicants. To test objects in sea water, add the analyzed environmental samples in the form of soil or air, or river and drinking water or freshwater sediment or individual chemical components, or combinations thereof. The toxicity assessment is carried out on mortality and the number of abnormal development of embryos and larvae compared to the control sample with the expression of toxicity in the relative toxic units.
RF patent 2057337, G 01 N 33/18, 27.03.1996.
The method is used as the most reliable Biotest to determine the overall toxicity of the water environment as a habitat of test objects, however, the assessment of the toxicity of the air, soil and sediment can be done only indirectly, and the more difficult to obtain information about the environmental situation in a relatively large region. Moreover, the use of special assessment units and the need for delivery of test objects in space bioindication investigated samples to the habitats of sea urchins, makes the method unsuitable for mass use and labor-intensive.
The task to be solved by the invention is to increase the representativeness of the results of monitoring, ensuring that the multi-dimensional assessment of the significant areas of the region while reducing labor costs.
The task of the image is to be placed is an expansion of the types of biological methods adequate assessment of the total toxicity of various environmental objects for heavy metals.
The tasks solved by bioindication controlled territory, at the same time as bio-indicators of the use of the internal organs and muscles of wild ungulates, determine the content of heavy metals, compare the results obtained with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in food products, in excess of the values which are judged on the presence of contamination of the territory, while the presence of long-term contamination of the region with heavy metals is determined by the excess of their concentration in the kidneys of wild ungulates, and the presence of instantaneous emission of mercury and lead is determined by the excess of their concentrations in muscle and liver of wild ungulates.
As bio-indicators of the use of the internal organs and muscles, mainly elk, ROE deer, wild boar.
Usually, as an indicator of the bodies of wild hoofed animals use muscles, kidneys, liver.
It is advisable to have a long-term contamination of the region to determine the excess concentrations of heavy metals in the kidneys of wild ungulates.
It is advisable to have instantaneous release of mercury and lead to determine in excess of their concentrations in muscle and liver of wild ungulates.
In contrast to laboratory organisms of the lowest levels of biological organization in the proposed method of use which are free-living higher mammals (elk, ROE deer, wild boar). Consuming vegetable food as natural (wild plants)and anthropogenic (crop) origin, these types of drink water and breathe air directly to the territory, which is subjected to environmental monitoring. For monitoring does not require special work on the staff of microbiologists and microbiological laboratories. Sampling samples of liver, kidney and muscle tissue (flexure of the spine) can be easily carried out during the annual battue hunting of wild ungulates. As a result of realization of ecological monitoring of the proposed method is achieved by differentiating types of pollution: long-term (over several years) intake of heavy metals in the environment or as powerful short-term (in recent weeks) the emission of pollutants.
Table 1 presents the species of wild ungulates and indicator authorities long-term contamination of the environment with heavy metals.
|Table No. 1|
Table 2 presents the species of wild ungulates and indicator authorities short-term pollution by heavy metals.
|Table No. 2.|
|Moose||R||Hg, Cd||Hg, Pb|
|ROE||R||Hg, Cd||Hg, Pb|
|The boar||Hg||Hg, Cd||Hg, Pb|
The gaps in table 1 indicate that the analyzed body of the specified types is not used for long term monitoring of the environmental pollution with heavy metals. Due to the fact that the maximum allowable levels (MRL) of heavy metals (TM) in food products are continuously reviewed in the ecological monitoring of the environment the proposed method, it is recommended to use the latest, at the time of the approval regulations Sanitary and epidemiological surveillance.
MDU heavy metals in food (mg/kg wet weight tissue) are presented in table 3 [Hygienic requirements for safety and pexeva the value of food products, SanPiN 22.214.171.1247-01].
|Table No. 3|
For monitoring the administrative area of about 100 thousand hectares enough in the winter hunting of ungulates to sample bodies elk, ROE deer and wild boar (muscle, kidney, liver), inhabiting the territory subject to the monitoring region (5 specimens of each species: 5 elks, 5 deer and 5 boars). Within 1 day from the moment of extraction of animals from their bodies take samples of 10 g, put them in a plastic container and fixed with 10 ml of 48%ethyl alcohol. Samples are transported to the laboratory, where they further sample preparation for further analysis according to GOST 26929-94 Raw materials and food products. Preparation of samples. Mineralization to determine the content of toxic elements.
Determination of mercury concentration in the samples carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry cold vapor is according to GOST 26927-86 Raw materials and food products, method for the determination of mercury", M, 1987, 17 S.
Determining the concentration of lead in the samples performed according to GOST 26932-86 Raw materials and food products. Method for determination of lead", M, 1987, 12 S.
Determining the concentration of cadmium in the samples carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy according to GOST 26933-86 Raw materials and food products. Method for the determination of cadmium, M., 1987., 11 C.
The results obtained average and compared with the data of tables 1-3.
Under average element concentration in the indicator body or booting refers to the arithmetic average element contents in samples of 5 individuals of this species.
To identify long-term pollution of lead and cadmium suitable average concenrate of these metals in the kidneys of moose; for indication of long-term pollution by cadmium, in addition suitable average concentration of this metal in the kidney deer; to determine the long-term mercury contamination is also used average concentration of this metal in the kidneys of wild boar, and the average lead concentration in the liver of this species is used for bioindication of long-term pollution of this chemical element.
For indication of short-term pollution lead application finds the average concentration of this element in the muscles lo the I and roes, as well as its concentration in the liver of all species; when determining the availability of short-term pollution by cadmium use the average element concentration in the kidneys of all three species of ungulates; for short-term biomonitoring of environmental pollution by mercury applicable average concentration of the metal in the kidneys and liver of all three species of wild ungulates, as well as the average concentration in the muscles of wild boar.
During routine battue samples of muscle, liver and kidneys of moose, deer and wild boar. For each species was selected by 5 individuals. All samples were analyzed, and the obtained data for each organ and animal species were averaged (arithmetic mean for each of the 5 individuals).
Each thus obtained averaged concentration compared with the data of table No. 3 on the subject of excess real content above is given in table approved MDU for each of the items for each organ.
Most average concentrations of heavy metals in organs of wild ungulates were below the MRL (table No. 3). However, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the kidneys of moose were above the MRL and amounted to 0.8 mg/kg wet weight tissue and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. Average concentrations of lead in muscle tissue of moose and ROE deer also were above the MRL established by the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision for muscle tissue is, amounting to 0.9 mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg wet weight tissue, respectively.
From table No. 1 are indicator value kidneys of moose on cadmium and lead.
From table No. 2 have an indicator value of muscle moose and ROE deer in the lead.
Thus, average concentrations of lead and cadmium in the kidneys of moose, respectively: 0.8 and 0.5 mg/kg, there is a long-term intake of these chemical elements in the environment of the surveyed region; when the concentration of lead in muscle tissue of moose and ROE deer, respectively: 0.9 and 0.8 mg/kg - there is a powerful instantaneous release of the toxicant.
To identify long-term environmental pollution with heavy metals using concentrations of the metals in the kidneys of all ungulates, to identify short-term pollution in the kidneys and liver. So, when averaged concentrations of lead and cadmium in the kidneys of moose, respectively: 0.8 and 0.5 mg/kg, there is a long-term intake of these chemical elements in the environment of the surveyed region; when the concentration of lead in muscle tissue of moose and ROE deer, respectively: 0.9 and 0.8 mg/kg - there is a powerful short-term release of toxicant etc.
Thus, the proposed method for the monitoring of environmental pollution by lead, cadmium and mercury allows you to obtain representative data on the General status and environment of relatively large (about 100 thousand ha) region as a whole. Given the dynamics of the migration of ungulates on site, information is integral in nature, that is, the probability of erroneous estimation is significantly reduced.
1. The way environmental assessment environmental pollution with heavy metals by bioindication controlled territory, characterized in that as bioindicators use internal organs and muscles of wild ungulates, determine the content of heavy metals, compare the results obtained with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in food products, in excess of the values which are judged on the presence of contamination of the territory, and the availability of long-term contamination of the region with heavy metals is determined by the excess of their concentration in the kidneys of wild ungulates, and the presence of instantaneous emission of mercury and lead is determined by the excess of their concentrations in muscle and liver of wild ungulates.
2. The way environmental assessment of the contamination of the environment with heavy metals according to claim 1, characterized in that as bioindicators use internal organs and muscles mainly elk, ROE deer, wild boar.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining shear force by placing soil solution between glass plates, said soil solution being squeezed from soil; determining loading force upon shifting one plate relative to other plate.
EFFECT: simplified method and reduced labor intensity for determining of maximal soil shear strain.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises aerospace survey of the open soil surface in early spring or late autumn, converting the image obtained, estimating hue of the areas by 256-level scale of gray color, selecting contours, calculating areas of the contours, comparing the image with the soil map, and transforming the image. The extent of soil degradation is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: analytical methods in industrial sanitation.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages bringing solution to be analyzed into contact with potassium bichromate, sulfuric acid, and mercuric sulfate, ageing resulting mixture and allowing it to cool to ambient temperature, adding ferroin indicator, titration of excess of potassium bichromate with 0.125 n. Moor salt solution, and calculating chemical oxygen demand value from amount of Moor salt consumed in the titration. Method is characterized by that initial solution is preliminarily homogenized until diameter of suspended particles therein become as large as 0.03 mm, after which solution is allowed to stay for 4 min.
EFFECT: reduced determination inaccuracy.
FIELD: toxicology, in particular determination of water flea sensibility to toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes detection of water flea death time (min) caused by water-soluble chemicals, wherein concentration (C, mol/l) of chemical under consideration fluctuates according to logarithmic scale with interval of 0.1. Plot of Y versus X is made, wherein Y-axis represents average death time with scale of 1 point = 1 min; X-axis represents reverse concentration (1/C) of chemical under consideration; and scale is proportional to log increasing by 0.1. Water flea sensibility to toxic effect (tgα) is calculated according to equation: tgα = TL(min):1/KL = TL(min)xKl (I), wherein α is inclination of straight line to X-axis; TL(min) is death time (min) being determined according to point of hypothetical crosspoint of straight line with Y-axis; KL is lethality constant (mol/l) defined as chemical concentration wherein water flea death time is equal to 2TL(min).
EFFECT: Method allowing evaluation of toxic effect evolution dynamics and comparison of toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals in equal concentration ranges.
2 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygiene and sanitary of freshwater reservoirs and is meant to be used for microbiological testing of condition of water source in an agricultural enterprise effluent zone, in particular in the effluent zone of poultry factories and pig-breeding farms. For this aim, water is sampled at least in two zones: in the effluent zone of agricultural enterprise and in the zone, where influence of agricultural enterprise effluent over different periods is excluded. Then, contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities of urease-carbamidamidohydrolase in samples are measured. Obtained data are processed: contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities in different samples are compared to each other and dynamic of changes in data in samples taken from different zones are compared.
EFFECT: enabled quick testing at high accuracy in estimations and minimized labor and means involved.
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises: sampling, acidifying samples with HCl/H2SO4 mixture, adding Ce(SO4)2 as oxidant and removing its excess with reducing agent NH2OH·HCl, adding rhodamine C as organic reagent, extracting resulting complex, separating organic phase from aqueous phase, and measuring optical density. Extraction is performed with carbon tetrachloride/methyl isobutyl ketone mixture at 5:1 volume ratio and extractant-to-sample volume ratio 1:1 under dynamic conditions by way of washing away complex with extractant. Content of antimony is judged of from difference of optical densities of extractant and mixture.
EFFECT: lowered measurement threshold to values comparable with allowable limits, increased reliability, reduced analysis time, and automated analytical procedure.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: assessment of food and feed quality.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes application of infusoria Paramecium caudatum, cultivated on long-grain rice. Toxicity is assessed on the base of infusoria percent survived in acetone extract from product of interest.
EFFECT: accelerated bioanalytic method for toxin detection.