Hydrogen generator

FIELD: power equipment; generation of hydrogen both in stationary plants and in transport facilities.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrogen generator is made in form of chemical reactor generating hydrogen by hydrolysis, i.e. by decomposition of water by use of solid reagent and hydrolysis reaction of heterogeneous nature proceeding on solid agent surface. Hydrogen thus generated shall be used in power plants working on fuel elements. Hydrogen may be also used for cutting and welding of metals. Hydrogen generator working on hydrolysis exothermic reaction includes reaction vessel with hydrogen supply main and heat exchanger for removal of reaction heat. Generator is also provided with two hydrogen accumulators fitted with pressure sensors; each hydrogen accumulator is pneumatically connected with reaction vessel through inlet valve and with hydrogen supply main through outlet valve; hydrogen accumulators are made in form of hermetic reservoirs partially filled with water and hydraulically interconnected through heat exchanger used for removal of reaction heat and water flow regulator connected with pressure sensors fitted in hydrogen accumulators. Provision is made for autonomous operation of generator which may be cooled in automatic mode.

EFFECT: enhanced operational reliability at simple control algorithms.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to power equipment and can be used to produce hydrogen as in fixed installations and transport.

The generator is a chemical reactor that produces hydrogen by hydrolysis, i.e. the decomposition of water. To do this, use a solid reagent, i.e. the hydrolysis reaction is heterogeneous nature walks on the surface of solids. It is assumed that the resulting hydrogen is then used as fuel for power generation (power plant) fuel cell (SOFC). In addition, hydrogen can be used, of course, in other areas, for example when cutting metal, welding, etc.

The most famous example of a gas generator with a solid reagent are generators of acetylene types of GNFS-1.25 and GWR-1.25 and others [1]. They also used the heterogeneous hydrolysis reaction, and as a solid reagent is calcium carbide. Similarly works and hydrogen generator that uses the hydrolysis reaction of the aluminum in an aqueous alkali solution [2] (similar). In this case, however, is the continuous generation of hydrogen, and the entire system, including the generator working on "flow-through" scheme. The disadvantages of analogue include the following:

- the use of "flow-through" scheme complicates the design of the generator and requires on the additional energy consumption, that reduces the efficiency of the installation as a whole;

the reactor is provided by a special external cooling system, which reduces the reliability of the reactor increases the energy system, in which he enters, and makes a stand-alone generator.

Closer to the intended solution is the hydrogen generator of the power plant (power plant) scuba destination fuel cell [2] (the prototype). The efficiency of power plants in the case above, since the circulation scheme of work here is not used. However, the prototype has significant drawbacks, which include the following:

- used expensive solid reagent (LiH);

- for cooling the generator uses the "external" cooling system, reducing efficiency of the equipment and its reliability;

in addition, the external cooling system of the generator hydrogen reduces the possibility of its offline use and complicates the design.

The objective of the proposed solutions is to develop Autonomous hydrogen generator, operating without an external cooling system and does not require (in its cooling) energy consumption.

The task is solved in that the hydrogen generator running on the exothermic hydrolysis reaction and containing the reaction vessel to the main issue of hydrogen and heat exchanger for heat dissipation re the functions, put two drives of hydrogen, characterized in that the generator introduced two hydrogen storage, equipped with pressure sensors, each hydrogen storage pneumatically connected through an inlet valve with the reaction vessel, and through its outlet valve from the line of issuance of hydrogen, and drives the hydrogen made in the form of sealed containers partially filled with water and hydraulically connected to each other through the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction and the flow regulator water, which together with the valves electrically connected to the control unit that is connected to the pressure sensors installed in the storage of hydrogen.

The essence of the proposal is that the generated hydrogen trying to enter alternately into one of the two drives hydrogen (tanks), which is water and which are hydraulically connected with each other. When this hydrogen pressure water alternately displaced from one container to another. In the process flow of this water is passed through the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction and it cools reagents. Thus, during operation of the hydrogen generator "itself cools without the use of special systems with pumps, motors and so forth, that is, directly uses the mechanical energy of the emitted hydrogen, while R is the gathering of the cooling water is regulated. This increases the efficiency of power plants with such a generator, increases reliability and makes the hydrogen generator in the Autonomous mechanical device.

In addition, this scheme is characterized by the autoregulation of the intensity of cooling: the faster allocated hydrogen and the higher the pressure in the receiver, the higher the flow rate of cooling water through the generator (as is known, the flow rate of water is proportional to the pressure of displacement). Thus, increasing heat dissipation in the generator (proportional to the hydrogen evolution) automatically increases the heat output of the generator and the cooling system works without thermal sensors.

The proposed generator has, in addition, the simple design and has a simple control algorithm.

Scheme of the proposed design of the generator shown in the drawing, where indicated:

1 - the reaction vessel;

2 - line issuance of hydrogen;

3 is a heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction;

4 drives hydrogen;

5 - input valve drives hydrogen;

6 - output valve drives hydrogen;

7 - pressure sensors;

8 - heat exchangers, coolers;

9 is a flow regulator water;

10 - control.

The reaction vessel (1), which is exothermic hydrolysis reaction, through the inlet valve (a) pneumatically communicates with two drives of hydrogen (4), made in the form of tanks partially filled with water. Drives hydrogen (4) equipped with pressure sensors (7) and chillers (8) for cooling water.

Drives hydrogen (4) through the output valve (6) is pneumatically connected to the main issue of hydrogen (2). In addition, these drives through the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction (3) and the flow regulator water (9) are hydraulically connected to each other.

Managing input and output valves (5, 6) and flow regulator water (9) is supplied from the control unit (10)which is electrically connected with all the valves (5, 6) and flow regulator water (9). To the control unit (10) connected to the pressure sensor (7)installed in the storage of hydrogen (4).

A hydrogen generator as follows. Before hydrolysis in the reaction vessel (1) one of the input valve (5)connecting the reaction vessel (1) with the appropriate hydrogen storage (4), is open and the second inlet valve of the drive is closed. On the highway with an open inlet valve (5) hydrogen is fed into the appropriate drive of hydrogen (4).

If the rate of increase in pressure in the hydrogen storage (4) is large enough (i.e. the reaction proceeds rapidly and the dissipation in the reaction vessel is large), opens the flow regulator water (9) and cold water from the aqueous storage of hydrogen under pressure begins to flow into another. Along the way, she takes heat from the reaction vessel (1), passing through the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction (3). Simultaneously hydrogen, which previously was in the second hydrogen storage (not filled with water) on the highway with an open outlet valve (6)that connects the tape drive of hydrogen (4) to the main issue of hydrogen (2), is issued to the consumer.

The duration of cooling the reaction vessel (1) is determined by the amount of water stored in the reservoirs of hydrogen (4), and the power of heat - flow rate of cooling water through the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction (3). The water flow rate in turn is determined by the pressure of the hydrogen storage hydrogen (4) and the cross-sectional area in the flow regulator of the water (9).

Thus, there is a possibility of automatic cooling the reaction mixture, and the controlled cooling process.

After completion of the cycle of operation of the generator and the displacement of water from one of hydrogen storage in another heated water is cooled by heat exchanger-cooler and the process is repeated in the opposite direction.

Thus, the proposed solution allows you to create standalone hydrogen generator capable of cooling itself in automatic mode. This improves the reliability of his work, using simple control algorithms.

1. VBA. "Textbook of gas welders, motor cycle"., Moscow, 1956, p.34-36.

2. The device for generating heat and electricity from aluminum waste". Pat. U.S. No. 4.218.520, 1980

3. "Generation of hydrogen by hydrolysis to power plants based on TE scuba destination. Pat, USA, 1994

The hydrogen generator running on the exothermic hydrolysis reaction and containing the reaction vessel to the main issue of hydrogen and heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction, characterized in that the generator introduced two hydrogen storage, equipped with pressure sensors, each hydrogen storage pneumatically connected through an inlet valve with the reaction vessel, and through the output valve to the main issue of hydrogen, and drives the hydrogen made in the form of sealed containers partially filled with water and hydraulically connected to each other through the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction and the flow regulator water, which together with the valves electrically connected to the block control that is connected to the pressure sensors installed in the storage of hydrogen.



 

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