Method for training of grape bushes

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, grape bush training method.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting grape bushes; setting support; cutting and forming bushes and fruit-bearing zone; attaching bushes to support. Bushes are formed with one or two zigzag-shaped cordon arms on two parallel wires of bi-planed trellis by attaching cordon arms in zigzag and alternating manner to upper wire and to lower wire in bending portions. Fruit-bearing parts are positioned at bending portions of cordon arms.

EFFECT: increased resistance of plants to stress factors of habitat, increased yield and improved quality of berries, prolonged life of bushes and widened crown space.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture, particularly viticulture, and can be used in the cultivation of grapes in all areas of viticulture.

A known way of doing vines (Asturiana. Viticulture. M., "Kolos". 1967. - S. - RIS). The method involves planting of plants, the formation of bilateral multilateral cordon with several fruit links placed evenly along the axis number in two tiers.

The disadvantage of this method is that it provides for the creation of multi-stemmed shrubs with vertical maintain growth. This leads not only to increased costs for the care of shrubs (trim the stems and shoots, combating diseases and pests etc), but also leads to lower yields due to excessive thickening of the vines and shoots in the canopy of bushes. Mnogosloinost Bush leads to a dramatic manifestation of competition in the development of the sleeves (trunks), and hence the necessity of their frequent rejuvenation.

Also known way of doing vine with bunk placement of vines in a single form Bush "Cordon of Silvosa" (Asturiana. Viticulture. M., "Kolos". 1967. - S. - RIS). The method involves planting bushes, forming odnotumbovogo Bush with bunk accommodation vines on the multilevel vertical trellis is.

The disadvantage of this method is that used this method long pruning vines and steep bend them into passive position causes a violation not only of normal structure and SAP flow in the bast part of the vine, but also greatly reduces the growth of shoots around the bend. This leads to an overall weakening of the forces of growth of bushes, and hence reduce their yield.

Also known way of doing vines ("Spiral cordon Egorov E.A., Serpuhovitina K.A. and other Sustainable production of grapes. State and ways of development. Krasnodar. 2002. - P.67. - RES.) (prototype), including planting, installation support, pruning and shaping shrubs and fruiting zone, attaching the bushes to the support.

The disadvantages of this method is that the shoulders of the cordon fruit parts formed on the single trellis by oborudovanie along a helical line trellis wire overlap shoulders adjacent bushes grow in the trellis wire, which creates great difficulties in the repair of the tapestry (the tension of the wire or replacement or rejuvenation of the shoulder cordon and so on). In addition, narrowed kroon space Bush on single-stage trellis limits the possibility of increasing the load of bushes and shoots harvest, leads to the excessive thickening of the shoots in the canopy of the Bush is in, decreased productivity of photosynthesis of a leaf.

The purpose of the invention is the improvement of plant resistance to stress factors of the environment of growth, yield and quality of berries and durability of the bushes. Furthermore, the method provides the universalization of the system of reference, i.e. the possibility of its application in not sheltered and polyacryla viticulture on own-rooted and grafted vineyards.

This objective is achieved in that in the way of doing of vines, including planting, installation support, pruning and shaping shrubs and fruiting zone, attaching the bushes to the support; shrubs form with one or two zigzag shoulders cordon on two parallel wires bunk tapestries, attaching shoulder cordon zigzag (alternately) to the top, to the bottom wire bends, and fruit parts (horns and annual knots) placed on the curves of the shoulders of the cordon.

What is new is the proposed structure for the formation and maintenance of vines.

Significant in the proposed technical solution is that in this way the shoulders of the cordon zigzag form on the 2-tier trellis, attaching them in the bends it to the top, to the bottom wire. Fruit parts (horns and annual knots) placed on the curves of the shoulders of the patrol and their support is not acreplus.

The implementation of the declared method is illustrated in figure 1-5.

Figure 1-5 schematically shows the formation of clusters by the proposed method:

1 - vines;

2 - knot;

3 - escape intended for the formation of a Bush;

4 - support (individual number);

5 - trellis wire;

6 is a trellis;

7 - Pasynkova shoots for forming shoulder cordon;

8 - suspender material;

9 - shoulder cordon;

10 - zone fruiting;

11 - mote substitution;

12 - arrow fruiting.

The method is as follows. The vineyard lay with rows 3-4 meters. In the row planting bushes produce with distances between them 1-2-2,5 meters

In the year of planting create all conditions for a good development of the root system and leaf. In the second growing season (figure 1) the hive (1) leave one knot (2), cut it to 2 buds. After the development of shoots per plant (figure 2) leave only one located conveniently escape (3), which grows attached to individual stake (4). When the escape of the upper wire (5) trellis (6) pinch below the top wire. Developed after this operation Pasynkova shoots are removed, except for two of the topmost (7), which freely develop until the end of the growing season.

In the spring of the third year (figure 3) Pasynkova shoots (7) (2) cut off all aging is our length. Then tie them in opposite directions zigzag (figure 3) from the top to the bottom, then the top and again at the bottom of the wire, i.e. do 2-4 bend on each side, attaching them to the wire (5) bends suspender material (8). After the development of shoots developed shoots on the curves pinch out over a 3-4 knot. All other shoots are removed. If you need to extend the shoulders cordon at the ends of the vines leave one run.

In the spring of the fourth year (figure 4) shrubs subjected to trimming. Of developed shoots on the curves of the shoulders cordons form fruiting units (10). Lower vine on a limb cut off substitution of (11) with 2-3 eyes, and the upper arrow on the bearing (12), cut it in accordance with the biological characteristics to the required length.

In the fifth growing season (figure 5) and subsequent years, the fundamental nature of the crop does not change, i.e. fruit links are placed on the curves of the shoulders of the cordon.

Accommodation shoulder cordon zigzag on two levels trellis allows you to increase the stability of the bushes to wind loads, increases kroon space bushes provided to accommodate vines, twigs and leaf apparatus, to increase the load of bushes eyes, shoots and harvest, to improve the radiation mode of the vineyard and productivity of photosynthesis of leaf apparatus, the flow is nutritional the x substances to Roskam and all indicators fruitfulness and yield of plants.

The proposed method can improve the yield and quality of berries in a wide range to maneuver the load value of plant shoots and harvest, to increase productivity and resistance of plants to stressful situations.

The way of doing of vines, including planting, installation support, pruning and shaping shrubs and fruiting zone, attaching the bushes to the support, characterized in that the bushes form with one or two zigzag shoulders cordon on two parallel wires bunk tapestries, attaching shoulder cordon zigzag and alternately to the top, to the bottom wire bends, and fruit links placed on the curves of the shoulders of the cordon.



 

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The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly viticulture

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