Reactor with a modular catalyst of a cellular structure

FIELD: chemical industry; trapping nitric oxides and other harmful substances from the waste gases.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry and is used for trapping nitric oxides and other harmful substances from the waste gases. The offered reactor contains a body with the connection pipes for introduction of the initial reactants. Inside the body there is a modular catalyst of a cellular structure. The through channels of the catalyst in respect to the incoming stream are oriented at an angel of 90°. The hydraulic diameter of the through channels of the different geometrical shape, beginning from the first channel, along the stream run is monotonically enlarging, reaching the ratio of the hydraulic diameters of the last channel to the first one first channel of no more than 1.5. No more than 1/6-th of the height from the bottom of the block the modular catalyst of the cellular structure has a mesh-cellular structure with a mesh size from 1.5 up to 3 mm and a specific surface up to 8...10 m2/g. The given engineering solution ensures an increased access to the internal surface of the bottom part of the modular catalyst of the cellular structure and its complete participation in operation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased access to the internal surface of the bottom part of the modular catalyst of the cellular structure and its complete participation in operation.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to catalytic reactors, namely the reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure, and can be used in the chemical industry for trapping nitrogen oxides and other harmful substances from exhaust gases or for certain stages in the process of manufacturing sulfuric, nitric and other acids, reactions, nitration of organic compounds, etc.

It is known that the implementation of such processes is widespread granular catalysts, is poured into the fixed catalyst layer of the pie, forming a disordered layer (see Kirillov V.A., Ogarkov B.L., ravens VG Hydrodynamic modes in a three-phase stationary granular layer. Theoretical analysis //Engineering-physical journal. 1976. T. No. 3. S). Disordered granular fixed catalyst layer has a number of disadvantages: availability of surface heat and mass transfer at the grains of the catalyst is largely dependent on the flow regime, which in this layer have a complex unstable structure. Due to the heterogeneity of the packing of grains in disordered layer flow becomes inhomogeneous. Flow through the granular layer consisting of grains of different shapes (pellets, tablets, rings etc), is characterized by uneven distribution the velocity over the cross section and volume of the layer. In addition, depending on the flow rates and grain sizes in disordered stationary granular catalyst layer detected five most typical hydrodynamic modes, which complicates the management of its use.

Known reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure (see ALEXANDER Bespalov and other Numerical simulation of the flow in the channels block catalyst // Theoretical foundations of chemical engineering. 1991. V.25. No. 2. S). Typical block sizes of the catalysts of honeycomb structure are much larger than the grain size, so that they can be placed in the reactor, which form an ordered structure fixed catalyst layer, which is the most favorable for the implementation of chemical reactions, especially if the process is hindered by diffusion transfer. On the inlet pipe flow with initial reagents supplied in the reactor vessel, inside which is placed a block catalyst honeycomb structure. Channels in block catalyst of honeycomb structure end - to-end and have the entire height of the block catalyst of the same hydraulic diameter. Pass-through channels with respect to the incident flow is oriented at an angle equal to 90°. The stream flows around the block catalyst honeycomb structure from top to bottom, and the flow is supplied thus, h is usually used to create several different potential speed on both sides of the block catalyst honeycomb structure. In this case, the contacting of the reagent stream with a catalyst as along its outer surface, and the surface through channels. With this arrangement, the block of the catalyst honeycomb structure in the reactor there are two main hydrodynamic mode: flow and penetration (instead of five for disordered granular fixed catalyst layer), and a characteristic flow through the channels block catalyst is leaking, because the penetration is implemented, starting with 1/6 of the height from the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure.

A disadvantage of such a reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure: starting with 1/6 of the height from the bottom of the block, is the second hydrodynamic mode - penetration. In this hydrodynamic regime 1/6 block catalyst honeycomb structure is almost never used, especially at low Reynolds numbers (e.g., less than 50).

Closest to the proposed technical solution is the reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure, which reduced the number of hydrodynamic modes of operation of the block of the catalyst honeycomb structure (ALEXANDER Bespalov, Chechetkina E.M. Reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure. RF patent №2172643. 27.08.2001, bull. No. 24). This was achieved by making the UK the religious channels of different geometric shapes (e.g., round, square, hexagonal, triangular, etc. in bulk catalyst honeycomb structure with different hydraulic diameter, and the hydraulic diameter of the through channels in block catalyst honeycomb structure increases monotonically downward along the stream, reaching attitude of hydraulic diameters last channel to the first not more than 1.5.

When there is monotonically increasing hydraulic diameter of the through channels in block catalyst honeycomb structure down along the stream is the contacting of the reactants with the catalyst on the outer surface of the block catalyst honeycomb structure, and the entire surface of the end-to-end flows, including through channels located on 1/6 of the height from the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure, there is a more full use of the catalyst over the entire height of the block catalyst honeycomb structure. By calculation, obtaining the velocity profile of the flow Poiseuille flow through the channels block catalyst honeycomb structure and solving the system of two-dimensional equations for the variables: function current - vorticity, as well as experimentally (using ray tracing), it was found that all through the channels on the height of the bulk catalyst honeycomb structure there is only one hydrodynamic regime - flow. The ratio of the hydraulic diameter of the latter and the first through-channels depending on the potential flow rates on both sides of the block catalyst honeycomb structure can reach a value of not more than 1.5.

The lack of technical solutions can be attributed to minor accessibility of the internal surface of the bulk catalyst honeycomb structure, since 1/6 of the height from the bottom of the block.

Technical result achieved in the implementation of this invention is to increase the accessibility of the internal surface of the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure and full inclusion in the work.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure, comprising a housing with connections for input of initial reagents, inside of which is placed a block catalyst honeycomb structure, through channels of which with respect to the incident flow is oriented at an angle of 90°and the hydraulic diameter of the through channels of different geometric shapes, starting with the first in the course of the stream, increases monotonically, reaching attitude of hydraulic diameters last channel to the first not more than 1.5, according to the invention not more than 1/6 of the height from the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure has catch then-honeycomb structure with a cell size of 1.5 to 3 mm and a specific surface area of up to 8...10 m 2/year

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view of the reactor block catalyst; figure 2-4 - ways run through channels block catalyst for various geometric shapes.

The reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure consists of a housing 1 with an inlet and outlet nozzles 2 and 3, within which is located a block catalyst honeycomb structure 4, the through channels of different geometric shapes 5 (for example, round, square, hexagonal, triangular, etc) which in relation to the incident flow is oriented at an angle equal to 90°. The hydraulic diameter of the through channels monotonically increases downward along the stream. Since 1/6 height (maximum) from the bottom of the unit solid portion of the block of the catalyst honeycomb structure is a mesh-cellular structure with a cell size of 1.5 to 3 mm and a specific surface area of up to 8...10 m2/year

The device operates as follows. On the inlet pipe 2 flow from the source reagent is supplied into the housing 1 of the reactor, inside which is located a block catalyst honeycomb structure 4 through channels of different geometric shapes 5 (for example, round, square, hexagonal, triangular, etc.), arranged at an angle to the incident flow, equal to 90°and since 1/6 in the cell from the bottom of the unit solid portion of the block of the catalyst honeycomb structure is a mesh-cellular structure with a cell size of 1.5 to 3 mm and a specific surface area of up to 8...10 m 2/year Stream flows around the block catalyst honeycomb structure from the top down, and the stream is fed in such a way as to create several different potential speed on both sides of the block catalyst honeycomb structure. When there is monotonically increasing hydraulic diameter of the through channels in block catalyst honeycomb structure down along the stream is the contacting of the reactants with the catalyst on the outer surface of the block catalyst honeycomb structure, and the entire surface of the end-to-end flows, including through channels located on 5/6 height from the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure, and the presence, starting with 1/6 of the height from the bottom of the block, solid block part of the catalyst honeycomb structure in the form of a mesh-cellular structure with a cell size of 1.5 to 3 mm and a specific surface area of up to 8...10 m2/g is observed almost full access to the inner surface of the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure flow from all sides (with the outer side of the through channels), as shown experimentally (using ray tracing), and full inclusion in her work, which leads to more complete utilization of the catalyst over the entire height of the block catalyst honeycomb structure.

Thus, the combination of cell patterns located the military on 5/6 height from the bottom block of the catalyst, and mesh-cellular structure, located not more than 1/6 of the height from the bottom of the block in block catalyst, leads to almost complete accessibility of the internal surface of the bottom block of the catalyst honeycomb structure flow from all sides and the full inclusion in her work and makes better use of the modular catalyst honeycomb structure at all Reynolds numbers.

The reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure, comprising a housing with connections for input of initial reagents, inside of which is placed a block catalyst honeycomb structure, through channels of which with respect to the incident flow is oriented at an angle of 90°and the hydraulic diameter of the through channels of different geometric shapes, starting with the first in the course of the stream, increases monotonically, reaching attitude of hydraulic diameters last channel to the first not more than 1.5, wherein no more than 1/6 of the height from the bottom of the block catalyst honeycomb structure has a mesh-cellular structure with a cell size of 1.5-3 mm and a specific surface area of up to 8-10 m2/year



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical industry; reactors and methods for realization of exothermic or endothermic heterogeneous reactions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the isothermal reactor for realization of exothermic or endothermic heterogeneous reactions. The reactor has an outer jacket of a near cylindrical shape, the ends of which are covered accordingly by the cover and the bottom door both supplied at least with one connection pipe and at least with one heat exchanger dipped in a catalytic layer held in the jacket. Diameter of the connection pipe pinhole is smaller than the jacket diameter. As a heat exchanger they use a consisting of plates heat exchanger the cross-section sizes of which allow to mount it in the jacket through a hole of the connection pipe. The invention also offers a method of manufacture of the presented above reactor. The given engineering solution ensures a high efficiency of the heat-exchange process and a capability to form an optimum temperature field in the reactor.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a high efficiency of the heat-exchange process and a capability to form an optimum temperature field in the reactor.

11 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; catalytic reactors for gaseous outbursts purification.

SUBSTANCE: the offered reactor is pertaining to chemical industry and used for purification of gases from nitrogen oxide impurities by means of ammonia. The reactor has an electrical cabinet of control and a catalytic section which contains plug-in catalytic blocks heated up by plug-in electric heaters based of a foam-metal with a catalytic coating out of metal oxides. The catalytic section is placed inside the spiral countercurrent heat exchanger-recuperator. The spiral of the heat exchanger-recuperator with the catalytic section are located horizontally. The upper part and the ends of a heat exchanger-recuperator are protected by a layer of a heat insulation. In the catalytic section there is a safety fuse de-energizing the catalytic reactor at reaching the temperature of 660°C in the catalytic section. The catalytic blocks have different thickness and sizes of meshes. The electric heaters are divided into two separately adjustable assemblies, pressing to which of the catalytic blocks is exercised under their own weight, and in the catalytic reactor feed a controlled by a small amount of ammonia flow rate meter. The technical result of the invention is an increased effectiveness and safety of the catalytic process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased effectiveness and safety of the catalytic process.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; catalytic reactors.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry and may be used as a catalytic reactor for the exothermic processes running in a gas - solid phase with a small difference of temperatures. The body of the reactor is divided into the ceiling with the upper flange and the cylinder with the lower flange tightly joined with a partition, or the partition is tightly fused to a support ring of the body. A set of cooling pipes contains: an inlet pipe, horse-shoe mains (or the top and bottom horse-shoe mains), cooling pipes. The cooling pipes represent U-shaped pipes. A horse-shoe main links the inlet pipe and one end of a U-shaped cooling pipe, which is a descending cooling pipe. The other end of the U-shaped pipe with the overhead hole is an ascending cooling pipe, or the cooling pipe consists of a descending cooling pipe and an ascending cooling pipe. The overhead horse-shoe main links the inlet pipe and the descending cooling pipe, and the lower horse-shoe main links the descending cooling pipe and the ascending cooling pipe. The inlet pipe passes through a partition and is sealed by a demountable tightening element. The raw gases from the inlet for gases in the upper part of the body enter into the overhead chamber, pass through the inlet pipe and a horse-shoe main, then are distributed among the cooling pipes. Raw gases are moving top-down in the descending cooling pipes and take part in the heat exchange with the reaction gases placed outside the pipes. The raw gases reach the upper part of the ascending cooling pipes and leave them. In the layer of the catalyst placed outside of the pipes the gases are moving top-down and during the reaction a heat exchange with the raw gases take place. The reaction gases reach the bottom, pass through a perforated screen and leave the reactor through an outlet of the bottom. The given technical solution ensures high activity of the catalyst at a simple and reliable design of the reactor.

EFFECT: the invention ensures high activity of the catalyst and a simple and reliable design of the reactor.

6 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; conducting non-adiabatic reactions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes the following stages: introducing first flow of reagents in parallel into first reaction zone and second flow of reagents into second reaction zone; interaction of first flow of reagents with catalyst in first reaction zone is effected under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium and interaction of second flow of reagents with catalyst is effected under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium; gases formed due to reforming with water vapor are evacuated; catalyst in first reaction zone is located inside tubular reactor under conditions of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium due to introduction of this medium into tubular heat exchange zone located around tubular reactor with first reaction zone and catalyst in second reaction zone is located on side of heat exchange zone envelope under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium.

EFFECT: enhanced compactness of reactors; reduced usage of expensive materials.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: sorption neutralization of gases.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes two parallel horizontal gas-tight reactors arranged in casing at spaced relation; each reactor includes at least two sections filled with bulk granulated adsorbent and closed over ends with partitions carrying ejection pneumatic haulage units mounted above flow divider; device is provided with inlet and outlet branch pipes for delivery and discharge of gas; provision is made for V-shaped slide at angle of generatrices exceeding slope of repose for bulk adsorbent; V-shaped slide of each reactor is provided with drain branch pipe; walls of central reservoir are combined with hood excluding bridging of adsorbent; hood is equidistant relative to slide. Mechanism for hermetic discharge of used adsorbent includes longitudinal screw feeder and discharge pipe fitted with swivel gate valve; direction of turn of spiral provided on screw feeder of discharge mechanism is opposite to direction of main spiral.

EFFECT: improved quality of neutralization of gases; enhanced operational safety.

2 cl, 6 dwg

The invention relates to a device for the catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons and can be used in the petrochemical industry, for example in the production of vinylaromatic hydrocarbons, such as styrene, alphamethyl-styrene, vinyltoluene, divinylbenzene, as well as isoprene, butadiene, etc

The invention relates to techniques for carrying out physical processes in the presence of a stationary layer of solid particles

The invention relates to the field of chemistry, and in particular to methods implementation of catalytic reactions, and can be used for various chemical products in the chemical, petrochemical and other industries

The invention relates to a device for carrying out catalytic processes in a stationary catalyst bed and can be used in refining and petrochemical industries, in particular, for carrying out the process of catalytic reforming of gasoline

The invention relates to the field of chemical apparatus, in particular for reactors for carrying out multiphase heterogeneous processes in a stationary layer of granular catalytic nozzles, and can be used, for example, in processes for hydrogenation treatment of hydrocarbon raw materials in the petrochemical and refining industries

FIELD: production of non-metallic elements.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises means for supplying hydrocarbon raw material and water vapor, means for discharging the product, and porous metallic load-bearing structure that receives catalyzer of reforming with water vapor. The porous load-bearing metallic structure is secured to the inner wall of the reactor by means of gluing or diffusion bounding.

EFFECT: improved functional capabilities.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heterogeneous catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains porous carrier, buffer layer, interphase layer, and catalytically active layer on the surface wherein carrier has average pore size from 1 to 1000 μm and is selected from foam, felt, and combination thereof. Buffer layer is located between carrier and interphase layer and the latter between catalytically active layer and buffer layer. Catalyst preparation process comprises precipitation of buffer layer from vapor phase onto porous carrier and precipitation of interphase layer onto buffer layer. Catalytic processes involving the catalyst and relevant apparatus are also described.

EFFECT: improved heat expansion coefficients, resistance to temperature variation, and reduced side reactions such as coking.

55 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: gas treatment catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to internal combustion engine exhaust gas neutralizers. Method of invention comprises rolling refractory metallic tape into block by way of overlapping its smooth and corrugated sides to form channels, performing ultrasound-assisted chemical cleaning of thus rolled tape in alkali solution followed by joining alternate layers of metallic tape with each other by diffusion welding in vacuo within a range of 5·10-5-1·10-5 mm Hg using stepwise heating to 1250 ± 10°С and isothermal exposure to this temperature for 12-17 min to form monolithic structure consisting of triangular and trapezoidal channel at density up to 600 channels per 1 inch2. Invention further describes carrier for catalytic exhaust gas neutralizers representing monolithic metallic structure in the form of cylindrical block or block with oval cross-section, which block consists of parallel channels, 200-600 per 1 inch2, density of channels varying along the cross-section of carrier: from center and extending to 0.55 0,7 diameter if cylindrical block or large axis of oval cross-section, density of channels is 400-600 per 1 inch2 and farther it decreases to 200 or 400 channel/inch2, respectively.

EFFECT: simplified manufacture technology and increased strength of monolithic cellular structure.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: production of honeycomb substrates for catalyst converters for two-wheeled or diesel vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with production of honeycomb substrates made out metal sheets piled or rolled in a package and minimized to the honeycomb elements used first of all as honeycomb substrates for catalyst converters in the systems of exhaust gas (EG) neutralization. There is a description of a honeycomb element (1) first of all as a honeycomb substrate for a catalyst converter for systems of two-wheeled vehicles exhaust gas neutralization. The honeycomb substrate for catalyst converter consists of some layers of metal sheets (2, 3) packed as a package or minimized in a roll, which are at least on separate sections are structured or profiled in such a manner, that they form for EG flowing channels (4). At that the metal sheets (2, 3) represent the sheets of high-quality steel of more than 0.08 mm thick with a share of aluminum from 6 up to 12 mass % multiplied by 0.02 mm and divide by "d" - thickness of the metal sheets (2, 3). The technical result - a possibility to use metal sheets depending on the share of aluminum in them and their thickness, that allows to use the sheets taken from production process of manufacture of a material subjected to a hot aluminization.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a possibility to use metal sheets for the purpose depending on the share of aluminum in them and their thickness.

5 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to the field of technical chemistry, namely, carriers for catalysts that can be used in various heterogeneous catalytic processes in the chemical industry

The invention relates to the chemical industry, in particular to methods of the implementation processes of heterogeneous catalysis using gaseous reagents

The invention relates to a catalyst carrier, comprising a fibrous paper, impregnated with a slurry containing a colloidal solution of silicon dioxide, microfiber and a filler which includes the microfiber has an equivalent average particle size, measured by the method of sedigraph, from about 200 to about 30000 nm and the filler has an average equivalent particle size, measured by the method of sedigraph, from about 300 to about 10000 nm

The invention relates to a device the platinum catalyst made in the form of metal-fiber wire mesh
The invention relates to the catalytic elements of the regular cell structure for high-temperature heterogeneous reactions

FIELD: production of honeycomb substrates for catalyst converters for two-wheeled or diesel vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with production of honeycomb substrates made out metal sheets piled or rolled in a package and minimized to the honeycomb elements used first of all as honeycomb substrates for catalyst converters in the systems of exhaust gas (EG) neutralization. There is a description of a honeycomb element (1) first of all as a honeycomb substrate for a catalyst converter for systems of two-wheeled vehicles exhaust gas neutralization. The honeycomb substrate for catalyst converter consists of some layers of metal sheets (2, 3) packed as a package or minimized in a roll, which are at least on separate sections are structured or profiled in such a manner, that they form for EG flowing channels (4). At that the metal sheets (2, 3) represent the sheets of high-quality steel of more than 0.08 mm thick with a share of aluminum from 6 up to 12 mass % multiplied by 0.02 mm and divide by "d" - thickness of the metal sheets (2, 3). The technical result - a possibility to use metal sheets depending on the share of aluminum in them and their thickness, that allows to use the sheets taken from production process of manufacture of a material subjected to a hot aluminization.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a possibility to use metal sheets for the purpose depending on the share of aluminum in them and their thickness.

5 cl, 1 dwg

Up!