Technological heater

FIELD: the invention is intended for heating liquids, gases and their mixtures and may be used in various sectors of industry.

SUBSTANCE: the heater has a burner, a vertically installed house-tube heat exchanger shielded at least with two belts of bayonet chimneys with ring-shaped gaps and interior tubes which are connected via replacement sockets with collectors of output and input of environment. They are installed in the lower part of the heater. A generator is installed in the ring-shaped gap. Directly beyond the ring supporting bayonet chimneys and limiting the combustion zone with a partition a cowl is installed. It is fulfilled in the shape of a hollow cylinder coaxial with the casing of the heat exchanger and the chimney and placed in the paraxial part of the heater unengaged with tubes. The nose of cone of the cowl is inverted to the side of the burner so that ring-shaped area between the cowl and the casing full of tubes develops a cavity of convective section. At that before entering into the chimney the indicated section ends with openings which are located on equal distances to diameter of the cowl and oriented against spaces between bayonet chimneys of interior belt of matrix of the heat exchanger.

EFFECT: provides increasing performance reliability and effectiveness of the heater.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device intended for heating of liquids, gases and their mixtures in ensuring the efficiency of production processes, and can be used in various industries, for example to preheat the natural gas inlet gas distribution stations to prevent negative consequences of the decomposition of gas hydrates associated with the throttling process gas.

Well-known technological heater (see RF patent №2168121, CL 7 F 24 N 3/08 dated 14.09.1999)containing a horizontally mounted tube and shell heat exchanger, shielded two zones of heat exchange tubes, evenly spaced relative to the inner wall of the casing and coaxial together in such a way that the same design, length and number of tubes inner and outer zones within the furnace volume with side burner supported in the holes of the ring baffles attached to the inner wall of the casing, and the other end in the hole in the rear of the bottom of the smoke box, and all the tubes are inserted one into the other so-called bayonet tubes, the outer of which is made with hollow end facing the burner, and the other end, outside the smoke-boxes, working cavities of each of the heat exchange labour is reported removable nozzles with collectors entrance and exit of the heated medium.

Identified in practice, the main disadvantage of the known process heater was next.

Often in reality, the required range of flow rates of the heated natural gas (and thus thermal power of the burner) may change (decrease) in 20 times relative to the nominal values. This leads to the fact that at very low speeds the expiration of the gas-air mixture from the burner, installed horizontally in the combustion chamber, the torch may distort under the action of the lifting forces, which leads to significant non-uniformity of the temperature field in the cross section of the heating gases. And to such an extent that in the lower part of the tube bundle was the condensation of water vapor contained in the heating gas, which led to corrosion of the casing of the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the reduction of resource and efficiency (COP) process heater as a whole.

This disadvantage, at least in part the loss of efficiency is largely eliminated in the process heater (patent RF №2189476, CL F 02 7/20 from 08.11.2000 g), made in the form of a vertically installed shell-and-tube heat exchanger, shielded, at least two belts bayonet tubes, the annular gap and an inner tube which communicated removable nozzles to what lectorale entry and exit of the heated medium, and in the annular gap bayonet tubes installed swirl made in the form of wire, helically wound along the entire length of the inner pipe, in addition, in the axial part of the heater, not occupied by the tubes, installed prohealthcare body in the form of a cone coaxial with the casing and the chimney and its top facing the burner so that the length of the furnace volume along the axis of the heat exchanger, bounded on one end by the embrasure of the burner, the other prohealthcare body, not less than the maximum value of the range of torch burner (prototype).

The disadvantages of the known heater are as follows. Firstly, the absence of transverse partitions, preventing deflections and vibrations of the pipe and to allow movement of the heating gas in the annular space across the tube bundle with the purpose of intensification of heat transfer, which reduces the reliability and efficiency of the heat exchanger respectively. Secondly, the application of a single prohealthcare body is not enough to ensure the required efficiency of the heater is that you have to compensate by increasing its teplovosprinimajushchie surface.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the operational reliability and efficiency in a significant expansion of the range of heat loads, saving the environment the practical norms of harmful emissions in exhaust gases and reducing the cost of development and manufacture of the heater as a whole.

This result is achieved in the process heater, made in the form of a vertically installed shell-and-tube heat exchanger, shielded, at least two belts bayonet tubes, the annular gap and an inner tube which communicated removable nozzles installed in the lower part of the heater collectors entrance and exit of the heated medium in the annular gap bayonet tubes installed swirl made in the form of wire, helically wound along the entire length of the inner pipe, and according to the invention directly behind the annular supporting pipe wall bounding the combustion zone, in the axial part of the heater, not occupied by the tubes, installed the fairing in the form of a hollow cylinder, coaxially with the casing and the chimney, with its tip facing the burner so that the annular space between the outer diameter of the fairing and the inner diameter of the casing, filled with pipes, forms a convective section heat exchanger, which ends before the entrance to the chimney of evenly spaced along the diameter of the fairing holes, oriented against the intervals between the pipe inner zone, while the total cross-sectional area of the holes should not be less than the sectional area of the chimney.

The drawing shows a General view of those is technological heater in the form of a longitudinal slit in the section a-A.

The heater includes a heating source environment, representing, for example, multi-injection burner 1 (see RF patent №2163325 from 19.07.1999, turned the torch to the side of the combustion zone 2 vertically installed shell-and-tube heat exchanger 3, shielded, at least two belts bayonet tubes 4 and 5, the annular gap 6 and the inner tube 7 which reported a removable nozzle 8 mounted in the lower part of the heater collectors outputs 9 and 10 of the heated medium, respectively. In the annular gap 6 has a swirl 11, made for example in the form of wire, helically wound along the entire length of the inner pipe 7.

Ring support of the pipe wall 12 bounding the combustion zone 2, in the axial part of the heater, not occupied by the tubes, installed the fairing 13 in the form of a hollow cylinder coaxial with the casing and the chimney 14 and its conical top 15 facing the burner so that the annular space between the outer diameter of the fairing and the inner diameter of the casing forms a cavity convective section heat exchanger 16, which ends before the entrance to the chimney of evenly spaced along the diameter of the fairing holes (e.g., rectangular) 17, oriented against the gaps between the pipes vnutrennih the 4 zone tube bundle heat exchanger. The total cross-sectional area of the holes 17 should not be less than the sectional area of the chimney. When assigning dimensions (diameter and length of the combustion zone 2) advise you to use the data given in the information-reference catalog of the company Weishaupt.

The heater works as follows.

Heating medium, for example a purified natural gas from the pipeline, enters into the inlet manifold 10 and the nozzles 8 in the inner pipe 7 both zones bayonet tubes 4 and 5. After turning around the back end of the outer pipe, at the end of the convection section 16, the gas enters the annular gap 6, which, moving in the direction of the burner 1 is heated from the outside of the pipe wall, which complex is washed with hot counter flow of products of combustion, moving up toward the chimney 14. Thus is the optimal flow diagram of the motion of fluids (heating and heated gases). Heated in the annular gaps of the heat transfer pipe gas pipe 8 enters the outlet manifold 9, whence it is transported to the reduction unit distribution station.

Heating the environment (products of combustion) in the form of a high-temperature torch is flowing from the gas burner 1 into the combustion zone 2. The General pattern of the flow of products of combustion SL is mportant, however, conventionally, the sequence of the process of heat transfer can be represented as follows. In front of the tube bundle from the gas burner to the annular walls 12, a portion of the hot gases, moving almost in the radial direction and flowing double row of heat exchange tubes, forms a relatively slow current so-called bypass flow, where substantially cooled and reaches the inner wall of the casing 3 of the combustion zone temperature, eliminating overheating, and, moving further along the tube bundle, continues to cool.

When approaching the wall 12 is substantially cooled (for example, to a temperature of 300° (C) the flow changes direction due to a sudden constriction in the bore of the septum, where he meets a hot prosavin flow, the temperature of which is lowered by its absorption of radiant energy by the walls mainly internal belt shielding tubes. Around the cone apex 15 of the fairing 13, the axial hot stream (for example, with a temperature of 700-900° (C) interacts with a "cold" bypass. After mixing of these flows, the temperature of the heating gases remains high enough to provide effective heat transfer within the convection section 16 of the heat exchanger. The mixing of the flows in the annular channel formed by the partition of the conical top of the fairing, accompanied by the spread and the spreading of the flow in the radial direction, thus effectively giving heat to the cross flow tube of the tube bundle, at least at the initial and final parts of the convection section. In the end section of the convective section of the cooled products of combustion through the holes 17 is fed to the input of a chimney.

Thus, vertically installing a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, shielded, at least two belts bayonet tubes, and adding beam pipe wall, in combination with the fairing, thereby greatly increasing the efficiency of convective section, it was possible to achieve the main technical result of the invention: improving the reliability and efficiency in a significant expansion of thermal loads, maintaining the ecological norms of harmful emissions in exhaust gases and reducing the cost of development and manufacture of the heater as a whole.

Technological heater containing a source of heating medium, such as a burner, a vertically mounted tube and shell heat exchanger, shielded, at least two belts bayonet tubes with annular gaps and inner tubes, which reported removable nozzles installed in the lower part of the heater collectors you the ode and the entrance of the heated medium, respectively, in the annular gap has a swirl, made for example in the form of wire, helically wound along the entire length of the inner pipe, wherein directly behind the annular supporting bayonet tube and limiting the combustion zone by a partition, in the axial part of the heater, not occupied by the tubes, installed the fairing in the form of a hollow cylinder coaxial with the casing of the heat exchanger and flue and its conical top, facing the burner so that the annular space between the fairing and the casing filled with pipes, forms a cavity convective section, while this section ends before entering the chimney of evenly spaced along the diameter of the fairing holes oriented against gaps between the pipe inner zone of the tube bundle heat exchanger, the total cross-sectional area of the holes should not be less than the sectional area of the chimney.



 

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