Mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for realization of this mode

FIELD: mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for its realization refers to engines and power engineering with working processes including preliminary processing of fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention may be applied for incineration of fuel as in a periodic regime which is characteristic for reciprocating motors of internal combustion so as for fulfillment of streaming regimes of incineration of fuel, for example, in jet, turbojet, gas turbine engines and power installations. The mode realizes induced destruction of molecules of metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, accumulated in gas volume of fuel-airy mixture, by way of power impact leading to explosive three-dimensional spontaneous combustion of gas mixture. Peculiarity of the mode consists in that fuel-airy mixture is enriched with free electrons and power impact on molecules of the mixture for excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom of molecules is fulfilled by means of their inelastic concussion with free electrons, speeded up by electric field, which tension E is less than tension of switching to independent gas discharge. Enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons is fulfilled by way of its ionization or by way of injection of electrons. The installation for realization of this mode has a combustion chamber with a source of power impact. The source of power impact consists of a unit of enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons and a source of a speeded up electric power which includes a system of electrons with controlled multiplexer switch connected to the sources of high-voltage tension. The invention allows to realize in a necessary moment of time momentary development of three-dimensional radical explosion in fuel-airy mixture due to simultaneous destruction of the majority of accumulated metastable molecules of intermediate products. Destruction of molecules of intermediate products generates a great number of active radicals and particles dividing and creating new circuits of reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon and leads to development of chain-radical explosion.

EFFECT: high effectiveness of incineration mode.

21 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to energy, in particular the burning of fossil fuels, and can be used for electricity production, the organization of the working process in automotive engines, jet, turbojet, and turbofan aircraft and rocket engines, gas turbines and other power plants.

There are various methods of burning hydrocarbon fuel, based on the propagation of the flame front. In the main, you can specify periodic burning of the fuel-air mixture in a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engines [1], the continuous burning of fuel and air (oxidation) of the mixture in rocket and aircraft engines, pulsating modes of combustion of the fuel-air (oxidation) of the mixture in rocket and aircraft engines, continuous combustion of fuel-air mixture in different variants aviation turbojet, turboprop and turbofan engines, continuous combustion of fuel-air mixture in gas turbine engines and power plants, as well as in other variants of burning jet fuel in an oxidizing atmosphere, or jet pre-mixed fuel-air (oxidation) of the mixture.

Known methods of education of the flame front by igniting the fuel and the airbag is th mixture with use of special devices. As such devices for periodic ignition of the fuel, for example, in internal combustion engines often use different types of electric discharges in a gas, including a pulsed discharge between electrodes in a gas [1], combined pulsed discharge through the gas gap and a dielectric surface [2], the sliding discharge on a dielectric surface [3]. For continuous combustion of fuel use different heated elements, burners and torches, open flames and other

It is known that in hydrocarbon flames at all stages of combustion is the ionization of the gas, for example, in the reaction CH+O→SNO++e-[4].

Know and use electric fields to enhance combustion of the fuel-air mixture in automotive internal combustion engines [5].

Known methods of excitation of the gas medium high (tens of atmospheres) pressure with sustained discharge to create an inverted population levels in high-power lasers on CO2and some other gases. This so-called electron-beam-sustained method of pumping lasers for compressed gases [6]. The method of pumping is the direct excitation of molecular gases by electron impact when moving through a gas of free electrons in an electric field. Free electrons on what is produced in the process of preionization gas environment, which is carried out by various methods. An electric field accelerates free electrons created in the gas volume by means of the system of electrodes placed in a gaseous environment. Selection of parameters of the gas medium and the electric field makes it possible to carry out different types of excitation gas, including the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the electronic degrees of freedom, the ionization of the gas.

It is also known the use of sustained microwave discharge in a gas as a means of creating a strongly nonequilibrium vibrational excited States of molecular gas laser medium [7].

Know the use of electron beams for preionization high pressure gas in electroionization lasers [8].

It is also known the use of a sliding discharge on the surface of the dielectric systems preionization electroionization lasers to obtain self-sustained volume discharge in the interelectrode gaps [9]. This ionization of the gas medium is carried out by the flow of hard electromagnetic radiation whose source is the moving plasma discharge. It is known that increasing the slew rate of the voltage U at the initiation of sliding discharge dU/dt to the values ˜1013In/with shortwave pushes the page of the emission spectrum of the sliding discharge in the region of soft x-rays [10]. Known and various types of electrode systems for use sliding discharge on a dielectric surface as a source of pre-ionization of the gas environment of CO2laser, including devices with so-called plasma electrodes [11]. In these electrode systems, the main discharge current is closed through the moving plasma discharge, which led to the use of the term "plasma electrodes".

It is also known occurrence of "runaway" electrons, which appear when the voltage is greatly overstrained gas gaps [12]. These electrons are formed as a result of predusmotreny in the field boundary field at the front of the avalanche developing gas discharge and are characterized by the fact that are accelerated by the electric field around the electrode gap, gaining energy in the tens of Kev. Criterion runaway electrons is:

where Ef(x,φ) - the resultant electric field at point "x" with regard to the main field E0and field polarization of the plasma cloud Epif between the vectors E0and Epangle φ; L1(w) energy loss of the electron energy w per unit path length, P is the gas pressure.

Analysis of the expression for the criterion of runaway electrons (1) shows the em that meet the criteria escape is possible if the electron in any way acquire energy wehigher than w2(figure 5). This can occur both at the stage of a single avalanche, if the parameter E0/R is large enough, and later, after the avalanche-streamer transition, or in the process of evolution drives, if E0/R(E/R)kr. In highly congested intervals avalanche-streamer transition is on the way z˜100 μm. As a result of this transition is formed by a plasma cloud with a conductivity sufficient to create fronts ionization and the generation of runaway electrons. Being in a strong electric field, the cloud is polarized. The process of ionization develops due to electrons coming out of the clouds and accelerating in the area of the space charge. Some of these electrons acquire energy greater than w2and gets the opportunity to continuously accelerate up to the anode. To implement a similar situation at a gas pressure of ˜ several tens of atmospheres are required fields with intensity more than 106In/see

Known methods to obtain free electrons, consisting in the use of the phenomena of the external photoelectric effect of metals and other materials under the action of the stream of electromagnetic radiation [13]. Quantum yield of photoemission, that is, the number f is toelectron, emitted when the absorption of one photon from clean metal surfaces in the visible region of the spectrum is of the order of 10-4the electron/photon, and when hν≤10 eV, where hν - energy of a quantum of electromagnetic radiation, does not exceed 10-2the electron/photon. Metals have a high quantum yield of photoemission ˜10-1the electron/photon only in the field of hν>12 eV and usually in the presence on their surface oxide films.

There are also known methods of burning fuel-air mixture without spreading flame front [14, 15]. When such methods of burning fuel to create the conditions for ignition of the fuel-air mixture and combustion it to the stage of the formation of the final products of oxidation synchronously in the whole volume of the combustion chamber.

It is known that, despite the diversity of ways of burning a hydrocarbon fuel with a flame front and without propagating flame front, they all have a common characteristic, due to the kinetics of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels. This feature stems from the fact that the chemical reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbons is a "chain reaction with degenerate branching" [16]. And stage branching circuit the most important in combustion processes, and especially in the processes of ignition of the fuel. The sequence of elementary reactions chain reactions with in the born branching" contains the initial reaction of the nascent chain and the main chain - reactions continue the chain, each stage of which is the formation of active radicals instead of "spent". In the process of chain reaction of oxidation is consistent with degradation of the source of hydrocarbon molecules with the formation of increasingly short molecules. At a certain stage of the development process of the destructive oxidation of the original hydrocarbons leads to the formation of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation. These products, due to the relative stability of its molecules accumulate in the reaction medium. However, they are not truly stable, and under the influence of external conditions with some probability of collapse, giving rise to two active radical, which carry out the fork and the emergence of a new chain reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon molecules. Thus, a distinctive feature of the kinetics of the oxidation of molecules of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation, and the formation of new chains and acceleration of the oxidation reaction occurs only after a preparatory period in the decay of accumulated metastable molecules. When reaching a certain speed of decay of accumulated metastable products of the reaction goes in the explosion, which corresponds to the amplamente fuel-air mixture.

All except [15], the above examples use the combustion of hydrocarbons to produce heat, the destruction of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons is due to raise the temperature T of the gas environment by increasing the energy of the translational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the gas environment. During increasing temperature an increasing share of the molecules has the energy of thermal motion in excess of the activation energy of the decomposition of a metastable molecules of intermediate products. In collisions of metastable molecules with other molecules, which occurs due to thermal motion, they can get extra energy sufficient to activate the process of disintegration of the molecule. When the mean energy (temperature) of the gas environment reaches a certain value, the rate of decay of metastable molecules and the formation of new circuits oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons is sufficient for irreversible development "thermal explosion".

In [17÷21] and other related detailed studies of the kinetics of the chemical reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbons made in the past 15÷20 years, shows that the key reaction, resulting in branching chains and irreversible transition to fire is the decomposition reaction PE the oxide of hydrogen:

where M is another molecule of the gas environment or the wall of the reactor.

Thus, the sensitivity analysis and the analysis of reaction pathways is made in [21], show that after the reaction initiationis a hydrocarbon radical) followed by reactionand reaction (2)performing the branching circuit. Further, the radicalsformed in reaction (2), can form radicalsfor example, in the reactions:generating in a large number of "precursors" of the subsequent branching of the chain and ensuring the development of thermal explosion. This branching of the chain is possible in the temperature range T:900 K<T<1100 K. For higher temperatures T>K, the mechanism of branching circuit becomes simple

and relatively independent of the nature of the fuel.

Reaction (2) is described by a kinetic equation of the first order. In order to place monomolecular decay, the molecule must possess energy, which can appear as a result of activating and deactivating collisions between molecules. The reaction rate depends on temperature and pressure of the gas environment.

In the initial stages once the development process of ignition, in the so-called low-temperature region, it is possible the accumulation and other metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons such as alkylperoxide and alkylhydroperoxide, which through a chain of chemical reactions, decays radicals and isomerization processes become relatively stable ketoheterocycle group. Temperature decay ketoheterocycle is about 800 K, which is slightly lower than that of molecules N2About2[18]. The collapse of ketoheterocycle leads to the formation of two active particles and branching oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons. However, this mechanism of branching chains degenerated nature, in compliance with which is immediately after the start, due to a small increase in temperature shifts the equilibrium reactions, generating complex compounds - "harbingers of branching, and stops the feeding of the reaction branching. After this comes developmental delay ignition (multi-stage ignition) until then, until you have achieved the conditions (temperature, accumulation of high concentrations of peroxides) dominant flow process branching chains characteristic of real systems, due to the decay reaction of molecules N2About2[20]. This is true and is the main osobennostyami processes of ignition of hydrocarbons for a laboratory RCM experiments the phenomenon of knock in spark ignition engines, ignition in diesel engines and the management process of ignition in HCCI engines. In each of these systems of N2About2formed at low temperatures and is relatively inert, until the temperature, increasing compression and exothermic reactions, reaches a level where the molecule is H2About2quickly collapses through reaction (2) and not "start" the branching chain reactions of oxidation [18].

The rate of change of the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2due to decay can be represented as:

where [M] is the molar concentration of peroxide;

k1-=1.2-1017*exp(-45500/RT) is the rate constant of reaction (2).

From the formula (4) we can obtain the expression for the time constant of decay" τ molecules of peroxide:

As an example, let us estimate the decay of the concentration of the peroxide molecules [M] ˜10-4mol/cm3obtained in [20] after the compression of the fuel-air mixture in the RCM experiment. Calculate τ (formula (5) give the values: τ900=7.8·10-3sec for T=900 K; τ1000=6.4·10-4sec for T=1000 K; τ1100=8·10-5sec for T=1100 K.

Development of the process of ignition of hydrocarbons above the Hema with thermal stimulation of the decay of metastable molecules of intermediate products is characterized by poor handling due to the statistical nature of the process of thermal degradation and lack of natural "mechanism" rapid impact on the temperature of the entire gas volume. During combustion of the fuel-air mixture by spreading flame front ignition of new portions of the fuel takes place by the same mechanism as discussed above, the mechanism is" radical thermal explosion, but with some peculiarities, due to the diffusion of active radicals from the flame area and heat transfer processes.

From the formula (5) also shows that the ignition process is sensitive to the value of the concentration [M] of molecules of hydrogen peroxide accumulated to that point. In turn, the value of [M] is determined by many parameters, such as the previous thermal history, i.e. the dynamics of thermal characteristics impact on the air-fuel mixture, the composition of the fuel-air mixture; the molecular composition of the fuel, and others that directly affect the rate of formation of molecules of hydrogen peroxide. It is clear that due to the large number of critical parameters, it is difficult to provide sufficient controllability, accuracy and repeatability of the moment of transition into an explosion. This feature is crucial for applications with periodic burning of the fuel-air mixture in a changing environment, for example, in internal combustion engines and is the main technical p is oblivi, limiting the practical implementation of some advanced technologies, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI (HCCI Engine) [14].

In addition, the main consequence of the presented mechanism of ignition of the fuel-air mixture and its combustion by flame front spreading in internal combustion engines with spark ignition is the limit is unreasonably low level of acceptable compression ratio r (r≤11÷12) due to the occurrence of knock (detonation), incomplete combustion, increased toxicity of products of combustion and, as a consequence, low efficiency.

Another unpleasant feature of reactions with thermal mechanism of stimulation of branching circuits is relatively slow development of irreversible process of ignition. Moreover, the speed of the development process is low not because of the "fundamental natural limits", but only due to the fact that at the initial stage of irreversible transition to a thermal explosion relatively slowly increasing the temperature and, therefore, slowly increasing the number of decaying metastable molecules of the number accumulated in the fuel-air mixture. This circumstance limits the speed of flame propagation, or, what is equivalent for most applications when continuous mode of combustion, the speedy is the efficiency of the supply air-fuel mixture in the combustion zone.

When carrying out combustion in a continuous mode, for example in air flow air jet or gas turbine engines, combustion in high-speed flow use different methods of gas-dynamic stabilization of the flame. One of them is placement prohealthcare body (stabilizer), which creates a redistribution of the pressure in the flow and, as a consequence, the area of reverse currents. In this method, the stabilization of the combustion products circulating in the area of reverse currents, serve as a constant source of ignition for the incoming fuel-air mixture. The stability of turbulent diffusion flame stabilizer in relation to the flow velocity and the fuel consumption is a very critical parameter that largely determines the characteristics of the power plant. The flame is stable, in cases where the feed rate of the fuel-air mixture does not exceed the value at which there are reverse currents, heating the new batch of fresh combustible mixture.

Method periodic burning of the fuel-air mixture without spreading flame front [15] based on the forced destruction of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons in the volume of the combustible mixture by the energy of the impact. In this way, when the ruin is the research Institute of metastable molecules is branching reaction, quickly develops a chain explosion in the whole volume of the fuel-air mixture, which were destroyed molecules. Thus, the destruction of metastable molecules functionally replaces the ignition of the fuel-air mixture. This method of burning fuel-air mixture when used as an energy impact of a weak shock wave or stream of electromagnetic radiation is closest to the present invention and is selected as a prototype.

Proposed in [15] energy impacts associated with the use of weak shock waves, can only be used in periodic mode, the combustion of the fuel-air mixture in the conditions of the internal combustion engine and can not be extended to cases of continuous combustion characteristic of the combustion of the fuel-air mixture, for example, in a continuous flow mode. Another proposed in [15] type of energy impacts by irradiation of the combustible mixture stream of electromagnetic radiation with quantum energy, sufficient for destruction of metastable molecules, in principle, can be used in a continuous mode of combustion. However, the practical application of this type of energy impacts there are fundamental difficulties associated with creating a source of electromagnetic radiation, possessing the th required flux density of radiation (as each quantum of electromagnetic radiation destroys only one molecule, absorbing this quantum, to destroy the required number of metastable molecules, the density of which is in a gaseous environment of less than 3÷5%, you need to create threads radiation density ˜1015÷1019photons/cm2and difficulties make it work, in the combustion chamber. There are also fundamental difficulties ensure uniform illumination of the entire volume of the combustion chamber due to the high absorption of radiation in the gas environment. For these reasons, it is problematic to implement such a blowout of the combustion zone, which is required to sufficiently complete and uniform destruction of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons in the combustion zone of the fuel, and to provide conditions for the rapid development of the radical-chain explosion.

The technical result of the present invention is the implementation of the instant reaction of the radical-chain explosion in the whole volume of the fuel-air mixture through the implementation of nearly simultaneous destruction of most of the accumulated metastable molecules intermediates leading to the formation of a large number of active radicals, razvetvlyayushchikh and generating new chain reaction of oxidation of the hydrocarbon fuel. The invention is in charge of the AET increase the combustion efficiency of hydrocarbon fuel, the increase in the rate of flame spread and increase combustion stability during the continuous mode of combustion, as well as accelerate the development process of ignition and oxidation of the fuel to the final product in comparison with the known methods of implementing the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by implementing a mass of branching chain reactions of oxidation of the hydrocarbon molecules.

To achieve the technical result in the well-known method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel, which implement stimulated destruction of molecules metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons accumulated in the gas volume of the fuel-air mixture by the energy impact of the proposed fuel-air mixture to enrich the free electrons, and the energy impact on the molecules of the combustible mixture to make it through inelastic collisions with free electrons, accelerated by an electric field, the intensity E which is less than the stress of the transition to independent gas discharge.

Also provided the following specific improvements of the method of burning hydrocarbon fuel:

- enrichment of the air-fuel mixture of free electrons is carried out by its ionization;

- enrichment of the fuel-hcpa what's a mixture of free electrons is carried out by injection of electrons;

the intensity E of the accelerating electric field is 0.1÷0.2 part of the strength of the electric field breakdown of the gas gap;

- enrichment of the air-fuel mixture of free electrons and their accelerated by an electric field carry out pulse, and the pulses enrichment of the combustible mixture of free electrons coincide in time with the pulses of the accelerating electric field;

the fuel - air mixture is passed through a zone in which produce continuous enrichment of free electrons, and the area in which produces the acceleration of free electrons in an electric field, the flow velocity of the fuel-air mixture and the geometry of the zones of influence are selected so that the lifetime of free electrons exceeds the time between the moment of their formation and the time of exposure in the area of influence of the accelerating electric field;

- acceleration of free electrons carry alternating electric field;

- acceleration of free electrons carry alternating electric field of the microwave range with Eeff˜(1÷5)·10-16·N/cm;

as ionizing radiation use of hard electromagnetic radiation containing photons with energy higher than the ionization potential of at least one of the gas components, sostavljajushhih the fuel-air mixture;

- hard electromagnetic radiation get through the moving of the electric discharge on a dielectric surface with ε≥2;

as hard electromagnetic radiation using bremsstrahlung of electrons in the field of soft x-rays";

- hard electromagnetic radiation in the soft x-rays get through the moving of the electric discharge on a dielectric surface with ε≥2 when the rate of rise of the potential difference at the electrodes dU/dt>1012In/sec;

as ionizing radiation uses high-energy electrons;

- free electrons produced by photoemission irradiation conductive photoemitter flow of electromagnetic radiation with quantum energy not less than the threshold energy "output" of photoelectrons in the fuel-air mixture.

To implement the method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel, an apparatus containing a combustion chamber with a source of power influence. Feature of the device, unlike the prototype, is that the source energy of the impact is from the source of the accelerating electric field, comprising a system of electrodes with controllable switches connected to the source of high voltage, and devices enrichment free electr the us air-fuel mixture.

Supports the following versions of the device:

as an enrichment device free electrons of the fuel-air mixture applied to a source of ionizing radiation;

- enrichment device free electrons in the form of photoemitter included as a cathode in an electrical circuit system of the source electrodes of the accelerating electric field;

- combustion chamber made in the form of capacitor plates which are electrodes of the source of the accelerating electric field, and the device is enrichment posted by free electrons in the gap between the electrodes;

- enrichment device free electrons consists of two electrodes and an electromagnetic radiation source placed at the periphery of the electrode gap;

as the high voltage electrodes of the source of the accelerating electric field used in the moving plasma discharge source of ionizing radiation;

system source electrodes of the accelerating electric field consists of two electrodes with potentials of different sizes, made permeable for the pumped fuel-air mixture and forming a zone of excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the fuel-air mixture, and a source of free electrons is implemented as a zone Oka the population of hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, this device entered the third electrode potential below the smaller capacity of the two source electrodes of the accelerating electric field, and the source electrode of the electric field with less potential adjacent to the zone of oxidation and forms together with the third electrode of the transport system of free electrons in the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the fuel-air mixture.

The invention is illustrated the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a device for implementing a method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel with the destruction of metastable molecules by excitation of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom due to inelastic collisions with free electrons, moving in an electric field.

Figure 2 shows the diagram of a device for implementing the method with continuous combustion of the fuel-air mixture.

Figure 3 shows the diagram of a device for implementing the method in a continuous mode of combustion of the fuel-air mixture when used as a source of free electrons zone of oxidation (combustion) of hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture.

Figure 4 shows a diagram of the device when used as a source electrode of the accelerating electric field of the moving plasma discharge East is cnica ionizing radiation.

Figure 5 shows the typical dependence of the electron energy losses per unit path from the energy of the electrons.

Figure 6 is shown in relative units efficiency of different mechanisms of energy loss by electrons depending on the relationship of the electric field to pressure to molecular nitrogen [22].

Figure 7 presents the results of a calculation of the time constant of decay τ vibrationally excited molecules of hydrogen peroxide H2About2for option molar concentrationcharacteristic for practical systems [20].

A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel is as follows: prepared fuel-air (oxidizing) a mixture of 1 previously subjected to compression or directly into the combustion chamber bounded by a shell 2, or enter the compressed mixture in the combustion chamber; then the gas mixture enriched free electrons by injection or form free electrons directly in the volume of the gas mixture, for example, by partial ionization with the formation of free electrons e-and ions And+by means of an ionizing radiation source 3 (Fig 1). Free electrons are accelerating electric field created by the electrodes 4, having tension E, smaller than the intensity of the transition to Samos is hotelname discharge, in particular, the tension F is 0.1÷0.2 part from the strength values of the breakdown of the gas.

In the case of a periodic combustion of the fuel-air mixture to the point of injection of free electrons in the air / fuel mixture or the formation of free electrons by ionization of the fuel-air mixture must precede or coincide in time with the influence of an electric field, which is created using electrodes 4 are placed in the combustion chamber. That is, all the time, or in part-time action of the accelerating electric field in the volume of the fuel-air mixture must be free electrons. While the duration of the accelerating electric field should be sufficient for irreversible development of the process of ignition of the fuel-air mixture.

Free electrons under the influence of an electric field with intensity E acquire sufficient energy for the excitation of vibrational States of the molecules of the fuel-air mixture 1 by inelastic collisions with these molecules, including molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, including metastable molecules. The excitation of the metastable States of molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide facilitates their decay into two radical, HE•that branch can the th oxidation reaction of hydrocarbons, quickly bring fuel-air mixture before ignition and, together with the vibrational excited molecules of other intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, reduce the time of reaction of oxidation up to the formation of the final products of combustion.

In the case of continuous combustion of the fuel-air mixture (figure 2) in flow-through mode using a sustained electric discharge in the gas for excitation of vibrational levels of the molecules of the gaseous medium and stimulated destruction of metastable molecules of hydrogen peroxide, along the combustion chamber (reactor) miss compressed prepared or prigotovlyaemye in the reactor volume of the fuel-air mixture, which crosses the stream penetrating ionizing radiation 3 and/or zone of injection of free electrons (zone enrichment), and enters the gap between the electrodes 4 to which is applied a potential difference U, generates between the electrodes, the electric field necessary tension that is At work device undergoing the same processes as in the previous case, but in continuous time mode. The flow velocity of the fuel-air mixture and the geometry of the zones of ionizing and electrical effects on the mixture are selected so that the lifetime of free electrons exceeds the time between the moment of their education the Oia and the time of exposure in the area of influence of an electric field.

In continuous mode, the combustion of the fuel-air mixture, when used as a source of free electrons oxidation zone 5 (figure 3) hydrocarbon fuel-air mixture, the latter is passed along the hollow chamber through the gas-permeable electrodes 6 and 7 with the potentials of different sizes, giving a gap between the electrodes, the electric field necessary tension for the vibrational excitation of molecules. The electrode 6 with a lower potential is adjacent to the zone of oxidation of 5. The third electrode 8 is set at a potential lower than the potential of electrode 6. Electric potentials of the electrodes 6 and 8 are picked such that the electric field generated in the gap between these electrodes, pulled free electrons generated in the combustion zone as a result of chemical reactions of oxidation of the fuel, for example, in the reactionin the gap between the electrodes 6 and 7. After the free electrons e-fall within this interval, they are under the influence of an electric field E trying to enter energy and produce excitation of vibrational levels of molecules incoming fuel-air mixture 1. Next, the flow of the combustible mixture 1 with vibrationally excited molecules enters the oxidation zone 5, and then there is intensified combustion processes. The product stream is orenia 9 flows out of the combustion chamber. In this method there is no need of applying firing burners or stabilizer burning, creating the reverse currents of combustion products, which play the role of control devices. In fact, since the destruction of the metastable molecules functionally replaces the ignition, the need to burn the reverse currents of the burning fuel-air mixture disappears. This, as well as the fact that, compared with conventional methods of burning rate combustion vibrationally excited air-fuel mixture increases significantly raise the flow velocity of the combustible mixture through the reactor.

In one embodiment of the method it is proposed to use only the electrodes 6 and 8. In this case, the electric potentials of the electrodes are selected so that the free electrons are pulled out of the oxidation zone 5 electric field formed in the gap between the electrodes 6 and 8, and its intensity E is sufficient for excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the air-fuel mixture at collisions with free electrons moving in this field.

Can also be used for excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the gaseous fuel-air mixture sustained microwave discharge, the amplitude of the electric field Emicrowavewhich should be Emicrowaveɤ 5 kV/cm·ATM. If the radiation parameters are chosen so that Eeff˜(1÷5)·10-16·N/cm, where Eeff=(Emicrowave/21/2)·(1+ω22eff)-1/2where ω is the angular frequency of the microwave radiation, νeffeffective collision frequency of electron - neutral molecule, N is the concentration of molecules of the gas environment.

To enrich the free electrons of the fuel-air mixture in sufficient concentration, there are several modifications of the source of ionizing radiation.

In one embodiment of the invention as a source of ionizing radiation is proposed to use a source of hard electromagnetic radiation containing photons with energy higher than the ionization potential of at least one of the gas components constituting the air-fuel mixture. Such radiation sources can be: gas discharges of various types, developing directly in Ionithermie gas atmosphere; gas discharges in isolated from the main volume of the gas environment; excimer or other types of lasers having the desired wavelength of radiation; other known sources of hard electromagnetic radiation. The flux density of the electromagnetic radiation used for ionization, can be reduced compared with about what tipam in ˜ 106once through multiple use of free electrons and due to the "flowing" of long-lived excitation from excited molecules of nitrogen (N2composing ˜75% of the molecules of the gaseous medium, the molecules of the intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons in the relaxation process when multiple mutual collisions of molecules of the gas environment.

In another embodiment of the invention it is proposed to use for ionization of the gas volume of the fuel-air mixture soft x-ray radiation with quantum energy of the radiation from the units to several tens of Kev (Kev). Such radiation has sufficient penetrating power to a relatively uniform ionization of the gas volume, typical for commonly used combustion chambers. In practice, a possible implementation of pulse sources of soft x-rays. Therefore, the considered variant of implementation refers to the use of periodic burning of the fuel-air mixture in internal combustion engines.

In particular, it is possible to use a pulsed discharge source of soft x-ray radiation on the basis of "runaway" electrons. To satisfy the criterion of "runaway" electrons in heavily congested bit intervals. In the proposed variations is the implementation of the invention uses the device, depicted in figure 4. This device consists of two or more electrodes placed on the surface of the insulator 10 with the magnitude of the dielectric constant ε>2. As an example, the implementation will describe the operation of the device, containing two electrodes. One of the electrodes 11 on the rear surface of the dielectric 10 under the other electrode 12 and extends on the front surface, forming a discharge gap 13 on the surface of the dielectric. When application of the pulse voltage U to the electrodes 11 and 12, the dielectric is polarized in an electric field, forming a connected electric charges with a density of σ on a dielectric surface, which weaken the electric field inside the dielectric in ε time. Near electrode 12, where the value of the maximum electric field associated charge on a dielectric surface reaches the maximum value. As a consequence, between the electrode 12 and the surface polarization charges of the dielectric arise giant local strain. In the result of the polarization of the dielectric as if "translates" the potential value of the surface potential is [(ε-1)/ε]U11with the lower electrode 11 on the front surface of the dielectric in the vicinity of the electrode 12. If fast enough, dU/dt>1012In/sec, the increase of the potential difference U, p is erogennyh to the electrodes 11 and 12, ions of the gas environment is not able to neutralize related charges on a dielectric surface and the electric field ELoknear electrode 12 reaches values of the order of 108In/see In this electric field intensity occurs explosive emission of electrons [23] from the surface of the electrode 12. Thus emitted electrons at the initial stage of gaining energy we>w2(figure 5) and this is observed condition to perform "criterion runaway electrons", and realized the condition of continuous acceleration of electrons up to an energy of several tens Kev. In the process of their interaction with the gas occurs bremsstrahlung in the field of soft x-rays, which performs preionization gas environment, generating free electrons in the gas volume and preparing the conditions for the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the gas mixture. After excitation in the gas volume of the electric field intensity Eyfree electrons gain energy and inelastic collisions with molecules of the gas environment excite vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules. Electric field with intensity Eyis created in the volume of the fuel-air mixture system of electrodes, which are connected through managed switches R and R1(4) to h is qualitym electric power sources. As one of the electrodes of the source of electric fields can be used in structural elements and the walls of the combustion chamber and the other electrode is placed on suprotivno side of the combustion chamber on the dielectric substrate mounted on one of the structural elements or the wall of the combustion chamber. In one embodiment (figure 4) implementation of the proposed use as a high-voltage source electrodes of the electric field of the moving plasma discharge that occurs in the development process of the breakdown of the gas gap on the dielectric surface.

In one embodiment of the invention it is proposed to use for ionization of the gas fuel and air mixture and prepare the ground for subsequent excitation of vibrational levels of the molecules of a gas stream of fast electrons, which forms in the gas secondary low energy electrons. As a source of fast electrons can be used β-active isotopes or sources of accelerated electrons.

In another embodiment of the invention it is proposed to use in conjunction with the ionization of the gaseous fuel-air mixture, in which process get in the volume of the gas environment free electrons, an additional source of free electrons. As an additional source of free electrons proposal is prohibited to use the emitter of the photoelectrons. As the emitter of the photoelectrons is proposed to use the structural elements and the walls of the combustion chamber. The inevitable "contamination" of the inner surface and structural elements of the combustion chamber films of oxides and other compounds, as a rule, reduce the work function of electrons from a metal surface and therefore do not prevent the use of these surfaces as photoemitters. In another embodiment, the implement can be used specialized photoemitter with a high quantum yield of photoelectrons in the spectral range of exciting electromagnetic radiation λ≈200÷400 nanometers. For the formation of free electrons photoemitter must be caught using a source of electromagnetic radiation having a spectrum of radiation with quantum energy above-threshold photoemission from this photoemitter, and the emitter should be connected into the circuit as the cathode. In the proposed implementation, the cathode system of electrodes forming an electric field acting on the free electrons can be photoemitters. In one embodiment, the implementation in periodic mode, the combustion of hydrocarbons is proposed to use as the source of electromagnetic radiation, lightening photoemitter, the moving plasma discharge on the surface the surface of the dielectric. Measured in [24] the efficiency of the conversion of stored energy in the UV radiation in the spectral range 250÷350 nm was 2%. When the accumulated energy ˜50 millijoules such a flow of electromagnetic radiation (˜2·1015photons) will create a ˜1012÷1014photoelectrons (free electrons). In the practical implementation of the proposed device for the enrichment of the fuel-air mixture of free electrons, the combustion chamber may be made in the form of a capacitor, the dielectric of which is the air / fuel mixture, and the "plates" of the capacitor electrodes are system acceleration of free electrons. The role of one of the electrodes, as already mentioned, can perform the structural elements and the walls of the combustion chamber. The enrichment device in the form of an ionizing radiation source or source of electromagnetic radiation, lightening photoemitter, can be placed in the gap between the electrodes. In another embodiment, the device of the enrichment of free electrons in the form of an ionizing radiation source or source of electromagnetic radiation can be dispersed, for example to have several bit intervals, and placed on the periphery of the combustion chamber. When the radiation source is oriented so that the flux of ionizing radiation is of apralan in the gap between the electrodes, and the stream of electromagnetic radiation is directed at photoemitter.

When used as preobrazuemyh electrodes of the moving plasma discharge on a dielectric surface, for example in accordance with option 4, the moving plasma discharge will be an effective source of free electrons. When the characteristic of the application of the electric field E of the electrons from the plasma cathode will be stretched in the air-fuel mixture and to carry out the process of excitation of vibrational States of the molecules of the gas environment.

Development of the process of ignition of the fuel-air mixture after excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the gaseous medium in all cases described in the previous examples, the implementation of the device (Fig 1÷figure 4)is based on a similar scenario, due to the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, in which the destruction of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons.

A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel, in which the destruction of metastable molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, consists in the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules by inelastic collisions of free electrons moving through the molecules of the RNA gas fuel-air environment under the influence of an electric field. Usually the air-fuel mixture of approximately 75% is composed of molecules of nitrogen (N2. Therefore, free electrons when moving through this molecular gas will be mainly to test collisions with nitrogen molecules. When inelastic collisions of electrons transfer energy between collisions, different degrees of freedom of molecules. Figure 6: curve 1 shows the proportion of energy transmitted per unit time on the excitation of vibrational levels; curve 2 - share the excitation of electronic levels; curve 3 - ionization when the motion of an electron through molecular nitrogen with pressure P under the action of the electric field E. are Similar dependencies, and for other molecular gases. From Fig.6 shows that the values of the reduced electric field E/P<15 V/cm·Torr, the main mechanism of energy loss by the electrons is the excitation of vibrations of the molecules. Upon excitation of molecular gases such as CO2WITH N2where the maximum cross section of vibrational excitation σv≈10-15cm2located in region 1÷2 eV and the value of the cross section drops sharply with increasing and decreasing electron energy, up to 98% of the energy consumed by the excitation of vibrations. Under the effect of inelastic collisions with electrons of the nitrogen molecules pass from the lower level of the v0 to excited vibrational levels v1÷8. Vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules with zero dipole moment, live for a very long time, and essentially the only mechanism of removal of their vibrational energy are clashes with unexcited molecules, including molecules of intermediate products. During these collisions of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules exchange of vibrational quanta that have a value of 0.29 eV, with other molecules. Ultimately, this leads to the excitation of vibrational levels of the metastable molecules and other molecules of intermediate products involved in the chain reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbons.

Focusing on the home, it should be noted that this mechanism has the greatest efficiency for the excitation of vibrational levels of molecules in the electronic ground state. The reason for this is the use of a relatively weak electric field ˜3÷4 kV/cm·ATM (kilovolts per centimeter on the atmosphere). In such fields the electric power is consumed almost entirely on the excitation of vibrations, and the proportion of energy going for the excitation of electronic levels and ionization, is practically zero. The key for this application feature dependent gas development is Yes, supported in such electric fields, is a three-dimensional character of the discharge, exciting the entire volume, where there are free electrons and where the electric field penetrates, no Contracting discharge. This allows evenly enough to excite the molecules of the gas environment and to create conditions for the volume auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture.

Another, important for practical applications, the feature of the proposed method is the high efficiency of free electrons. Despite the fact that the gaseous fuel-air mixture, in which the moving electrons is electronegative environment and the lifetime of free electrons in motion in this environment is limited not only by recombination with positive ions, but also the processes of adhesion to molecules electronegative components of the gas environment, the number of inelastic collisions during the lifetime of the free electron reaches ˜103÷104. During the time between inelastic collisions of the electron manages to gain energy ˜0.5÷1.5 eV. When inelastic collisions this energy goes entirely to the excitation of vibrational levels of the molecules. The vibrational energy of the molecules after such collisions corresponds to thousands of degrees, and the translational energy is heat the new equilibrium with the environment. The high density of vibrationally excited molecules and long lifetime of excited States of molecules of nitrogen (N2leads to rapid stimulation (mainly through the transfer of vibrational quanta" from excited molecules of nitrogen (N2) metastable and other molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons directly involved in the oxidation reactions.

Taking into account the vibrational excitation to the corresponding vibrational energy Evthe rate constant k1,v(T;Evreactions (2) for vibrationally excited molecules can be represented as:

where m1=1.2·1017- the pre-exponential factor of the rate constant for reaction (2), α - utilization of vibrational energy. It is seen that for vibrationally excited molecules with energy Evthe activation barrier as would have reduced the value of the α·Fv.

For the considered case of monomolecular reactions spontaneous dissociation of hydrogen peroxide (2) is α≅1. The results of the calculation of the time constant of decay of vibrationally excited metastable molecules H2About2made using expression (6)shows that the excitation of vibrational levels significantly expands the scope of the working temperature, where it is possible to quickly (for example, τ<0.5·10-3s) the process of ignition prepared fuel-air mixture. And, most importantly, to the excitation of vibrational levels of development in the ignition of the fuel-air mixture does not occur due to insufficient high temperature, and after a quick process of excitation of vibrational levels (less than 1 µs) is almost instantaneous development of Autoignition. Thus, there is an effective remote "mechanism" (actually trigger) process control ignition. Presents a family of curves corresponding to levels of excitation of vibrational States up to an energy of 0.1÷1.5 eV, when compared with the curve "A", the corresponding dependence of the time constant of decay τ0molecules of H2About2temperature in Kelvin, there is much left, which means that the same rate of decay at lower temperatures. When using the proposed method, for example, in the internal combustion engine of the fuel-air mixture is compressed in the compression stroke, thus increasing the temperature of the gas mixture, pressure, occur a chain reaction of low-temperature multi-stage ignition, which are formed and accumulate metastability H 2About2and other molecules of intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. As an example, consider the case when the engine is running in this mode, after the compression stroke, the temperature of the fuel-air mixture is 850 K. the time Constant of the decay of metastable molecules H2About2corresponding to this condition , the air-fuel mixture is on the curve "a" to point A1(Fig.7). It is seen that τA1˜3·10-2sec and no ignition of the fuel-air mixture near the "top dead center" to say no. Usually, in such and such (when τ large) cases, combustible mixture is ignited by the spark plug. (In practice, in internal combustion engines with compression of the prepared fuel-air mixture, the combustible mixture is ignited always with one or another ahead near the upper dead point). In contrast, in the proposed method at the time corresponding to "top dead point", carry out energetic influence on the air / fuel mixture, resulting in the excitation of vibrational levels of the molecules of the gas environment. After that, the relaxation process, in less than 10-6s, mostly excited nitrogen molecule N2transfer the excitation energy to the molecules of intermediate products and, of course, is the end, excite vibrational degrees of freedom in almost all of the accumulated molecules H2About2. In the excitation of vibrational States of metastable molecules is the time constant of decay τ decreases sharply. Values τ for different temperatures and excitation energies of the vibrational levels of molecules N2About2can be found by using the family of curves shown in Fig.7. In the present case acceptable for practical use time decay ˜5·10-4sec and, accordingly, the time development of the auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture will correspond to the excitation energy Ev≥0.3 eV, equal to the energy received by the exchange of one quantum of vibrational energy of the excited molecules of nitrogen (N2. Thus, from Fig.7 shows that stimulated the spontaneous ignition of the fuel-air mixture in internal combustion engines is possible for all significant modes of engine operation.

It is also possible the development of auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture in a different way. The reaction of the "high temperature" fork (3) has an activation energy 70.3 kJ/mol and can play a significant role in the development process of spontaneous only at temperatures over 1100÷1200 K. However, the evaluation was performed using the expression (6), the La reaction "high-temperature" fork (3), show that after excitation of vibrational levels of the molecules of the gas environment for effective process temperature branching circuit according to this path goes down on ˜300÷500 K. For this reason, many modes are possible such mechanism C, which immediately after the excitation of vibrational levels of the molecules of the gas environment develops kinetically simple and weakly dependent on the type of fuel the process of branching chain reactions (3).

Significant kinetic feature of the proposed method of burning hydrocarbon fuel is that when using it because of the strong nonequilibrium reaction system, when the vibrational temperature of the excited molecules corresponds to thousands of degrees, and "progressive" temperature is almost unchanged in comparison with the initial (referring to the beginning of the process of excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules) value, as if removed "degenerate" nature of branching chain reactions. This means that not blocked the emergence of new molecules "harbinger" education peroxide molecules - moleculesthey continue to form in the fuel-air mixture and provide recharge of molecules of peroxide during the reactionThus, the initial is taliah development C after vibrational excitation of molecules the simultaneous process of branching and reactions (2)and reaction (3). When the oxidation process of hydrocarbons involving vibrationally excited molecules of intermediate products, the energy of the molecules is sufficient, the mechanism of branching chain oxidation process proceeds to reaction (3).

The reaction branching (3) is the main reaction branching in the process of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen system [25]. Therefore, the proposed method of burning fuel can be used for burning of hydrogen fuel, for example in internal combustion engines, rocket engines or other power plants that use hydrogen as fuel.

When implementing the proposed method of burning process C develops synchronously in the whole volume of the fuel-air mixture, which was subjected to the energy of the impact. This eliminates the possibility of occurrence of a phenomenon called "thud", which occurs when the ignition of the last portions of unburned air-fuel mixture (exhaust gas) in the well-known workflow engine with spark ignition. In the process of development volumetric ignition of the combustible mixture loses its meaning the concept of off-gases, as virtually all of the combustible mixture passes through the stages itself the ignition synchronously in time. This also increases the speed and completeness of fuel combustion as due to a more rapid increase in the number of destroyed metastable molecules, and by reducing the effective activation energy for endothermic reactions throughout the main chain oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons. All this allows to raise the compression ratio of the fuel-air mixture in a gasoline internal combustion engines using standard grades of gasoline to r>15. Assessment criterion is valid compression level when using this type of fuel is a limit on the temperature of the fuel-air mixture during compression. This temperature should not exceed in the "top dead point" value, which occurs with appreciable speed thermal decomposition of molecules of hydrogen peroxide. That is, the temperature and pressure of the fuel-air mixture at the end of the compression stroke, and the fuel should be such that the delay time of ignition of the combustible mixture was greater than the length of the passing of the last 20°÷30° before upper dead point by the angle of rotation of the crankshaft. Conventionally, for the boundary temperature for standard grades of gasoline at almost all significant modes of operation of the automobile engine can be set to ˜900 K [26].

The use proposed is the procedure of burning hydrocarbon fuel for internal combustion engines in addition to the above advantages, associated with increased compression, faster and more complete combustion of the fuel and, consequently, reducing the toxicity of exhaust gases and improve fuel economy, also has additional advantages. One of the most important is the increase of the coefficient of performance (COP.) converting thermal energy into mechanical energy in comparison with engines that use spark ignition, by eliminating the additional back pressure on the piston arising from the combustion of the fuel charge to "top dead point" in the process of completion of the compression stroke.

A significant advantage of the proposed method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel for internal combustion engines is the reduction of harmful emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOxwhere x<2, due to additional oxidation of molecules NOxto molecules of NO2which then effectively restored in the catalytic Converter to source products N2and O2. The process of "additional oxidation" occurs in the combustion chamber due to the fact that formed during the combustion of the fuel-air mixture of molecules of NOxalso are the energy impacts from accelerated free electrons and are in a vibrational excited state. P. and effective energy of the molecules of NO xexceeds the activation energy of the reaction "additional oxidation", resulting in molecules of NO2.

The advantages of the proposed method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel in a continuous mode before izvestnimi ways combustion are the following factors: an increase in the speed and completeness of fuel combustion, which allows to increase the maximum number passed through the reactor fuel and air (oxidation) of the mixture, and consequently, to improve the power characteristics of the installation; the possibility of increasing the velocity of the combustible mixture; the ability to do without stabilizers burning; the ability to do without firing burners increase the stability of combustion.

Used sources of information

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2. U.S. Patent 4092558.

3. RF patent №2161728 EN.

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7. Glycinin, S. and others "proceedings of the II all-Union conference on the physics of electrical breakdown of gases", Tartu, June 5-8, 1984, part 2, s.431-433.

8. Month G.A. and other Preprint of Institute of atmospheric optics SB as USSR No. 3, Tomsk, 1972.

9. Andreev, S.I. and other EC, Vol.3, No. 8, s.

10. Dashuk P.N., and other "technical physics Letters", v.7, VIP, s.

11. Dashuk PN. and other "JETP Letters", t, VIP, s (1975.

12. Askaryan GA "JETP Letters", vol. 1, p.44 (1965).

13. J.S.Escher // Semiconductors and Semimetals. V.15, p.195-300, 1981.

14. "HCCI Engines"httD://www.ca.sandia.gov/CRF/03 combeng/03 CE-CIE.html.

15. European Patent EP 1192341 B1.

16. Semenov N.N. "Chain reaction". L., Goskomizdat, 1934.

17. ..Westbrook, W.J.Pitz, W.R.Leppard, "The Autoignition Chemistry of Paraffinic Fuels and Pro-Knock and Anti-Knock Additives: A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Study", paper no.912314, Proceeding of the SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, Toronto, Canada, October 7-10, 1991.

18. Charles K. Westbrook, "Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems", Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 USA, 1994.

19. H.J.Curran, et al, "A Comprehensive Modeling Study of iso-Octane Oxidation" Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551.

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21. Esser S., et al, "Chemistry of the combustion of higher hydrocarbons and its relation to engine knock" / Proc. 1-st Int. Symp. on diagnostics and modeling of combustion in reciprocating Engines. / The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, 1985. p.335.

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23. Spooge and other Phys, t, issue 1, s (1975).

24. K.Watanabe, at al, J. Appl. Phys., 51 (5), 2355 (1980).

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26. Warnatz, UMAS, Rdbl. "The burning", Moscow, Fizmatlit, p.132-134 (2003).

1. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel, which implement stimulated destruction of molecules metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons accumulated in the gas volume of the fuel-air mixture, by saving the practical impact, characterized in that the air-fuel mixture is enriched by free electrons, and the energy impact on the molecule mixture is performed by inelastic collisions with free electrons, accelerated by an electric field, the intensity E which is less than the stress of the transition to independent gas discharge.

2. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the enrichment of the fuel-air mixture of free electrons is carried out by its ionization.

3. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the enrichment of the fuel-air mixture of free electrons is carried out by injection of electrons.

4. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the intensity E of the electric field of 0.1-0.2 part of the strength of the electric field breakdown of the gas gap.

5. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the enrichment of the fuel-air mixture of free electrons and their accelerated by an electric field carry out pulse, and the pulses enrichment of the combustible mixture of free electrons coincide in time with the pulses of the accelerating electric field.

6. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the air-fuel see the camping pass through the area, which produce continuous enrichment of free electrons, and the area in which produces the acceleration of free electrons in an electric field, the flow velocity of the fuel-air mixture and the geometry of the zones of influence are selected so that the lifetime of free electrons exceeds the time between the moment of their formation and the time of exposure in the area of influence of the accelerating electric field.

7. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the acceleration of free electrons carry alternating electric field.

8. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the acceleration of free electrons carry alternating electric field of the microwave range with Eeff˜(1÷5)·10-16·N/cm, where N is the concentration of molecules of the gas environment.

9. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 2, characterized in that as ionizing radiation use of hard electromagnetic radiation containing photons with energy higher than the ionization potential of at least one of the gas components constituting the air-fuel mixture.

10. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 9, characterized in that the hard electromagnetic radiation get through the moving of the electric discharge on the surface the STI dielectric with ε ≥2.

11. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 9, characterized in that as hard electromagnetic radiation using bremsstrahlung of electrons in the field of soft x-rays".

12. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 11, characterized in that the hard electromagnetic radiation in the soft x-rays get through the moving of the electric discharge on a dielectric surface with ε≥2 when the rate of rise of the potential difference at the electrodes dU/dt>1012.

13. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 2, characterized in that as ionizing radiation uses high-energy electrons.

14. A method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 3, characterized in that the free electrons produced by photoemission irradiation conductive photoemitter flow of electromagnetic radiation with quantum energy not less than the threshold energy "output" of photoelectrons in the fuel-air mixture.

15. The device for implementing the method of burning a hydrocarbon fuel containing a combustion chamber with a source of power influence, characterized in that the energy source of the exposure consists of a source of the accelerating electric field, comprising a system of electrodes with managed switches, plug the sources of high voltage, and devices enrichment of free electrons of the fuel-air mixture.

16. The device according to item 15, wherein as the device enrich the free electrons of the fuel-air mixture applied to a source of ionizing radiation.

17. The device according to item 15, wherein the enrichment device free electrons in the form of photoemitter included as a cathode in an electrical circuit system of the source electrodes of the accelerating electric field.

18. The device according to item 15, wherein the combustion chamber is made in the form of capacitor plates which are electrodes of the source of the accelerating electric field, and the device is enrichment posted by free electrons in the gap between the electrodes.

19. The device according to item 15, wherein the enrichment device free electrons consists of two electrodes and an electromagnetic radiation source placed at the periphery of the electrode gap.

20. The device according to item 15, wherein the high voltage source electrodes of the accelerating electric field used in the moving plasma discharge source of ionizing radiation.

21. The device according to item 15, wherein the electrode system of the source of the accelerating electric field consists of two electrode is with the potentials of different sizes, made permeable for the pumped fuel-air mixture and forming a zone of excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the fuel-air mixture, and a source of free electrons is implemented in the form of the zone of oxidation of the hydrocarbon fuel-air mixture in the device entered the third electrode potential below the smaller capacity of the two source electrodes of the accelerating electric field, and the source electrode of the electric field with less potential adjacent to the zone of oxidation and forms together with the third electrode of the transport system of free electrons in the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules of the fuel-air mixture.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to household heating devices operating on liquid fuel (kerosene, diesel and other) without the use of additional types of energy, namely the design of the furnace and the burner evaporative type, in which air for combustion is carried out under natural draught
The invention relates to methods of obtaining energy from substances

FIELD: supplying combustion engine.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises filtering member made of a trancated cone diverging downward and mounted in the housing provided with lid, coil magnets made of a trancated cone diverging upward, inlet connecting pipe with threaded slot, outlet connecting pipe tangential to the housing, and branch pipe for discharging contaminants with threaded slot. The bottom of the housing is provided with a settler made of a nonmagnetic hopper whose narrow part points downward. The inlet branch pipe is mounted in the top part of the lid over the axis of the housing. The outlet branch pipe is mounted in the bottom section of the housing. The filtering member is made of conducting material. The branch pips for collecting contaminants is arranged along the axis of the settler. The top section of the branch pipe for collecting contaminants is mounted at a level of the housing. The spiral made of a conducting material is arranged over the outer side of the branch pipe for collecting contaminants. The filtering member and spiral are interconnected through the electric wires with leads arranged on the outer surface of the device.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of cleaning.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: according to invention, working mixture in combustion chamber of engine is activated by microwave pulse with frequency of signal not less than natural resonant frequency of combustion chamber. Microwave pulse is applied to working mixture igniting energy pulse so that initial phase of its leading edge leads of ignition for some time. Microwave pulse ignites working mixture in combustion chamber by microwave elecromagnetic field. Pulse of working mixture igniting energy in forced ignition engines gets to working mixture igniter, for instance, spark plug, and in engines with compression ignition, its duration corresponds to duration of fuel injection into combustion chamber through nozzle. Activation of molecules of working mixture by microwave electromagnetic field facilitates ignition of mixture and increases rate of combustion. Duration of microwave pulse after working mixture ignition energy pulse provides maintenance of process of activation of molecules of working mixture in process of combustion.

EFFECT: reduced fuel consumption of engine, facilitated starting of engine at low ambient temperatures.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for magnetic modification of fuel in internal combustion engine. Proposed device makes it possible to modify fuel by magnetic field owing to additional action of magnetic field when fuel passes through peripheral fuel modification chamber along outer cylindrical surface of permanent magnet. Device contains cylindrical housing, cover, inlet and outlet fuel unions with inlet and outlet channels, magnetic system formed by circular permanent magnets arranged in housing coaxially, one after the other with clearance, with like poles pointed to each other, and with centering insert. Each permanent magnet is located between inlet shell with cylindrical projection and outlet shell with inner hole. Magnetic system is provided with central fuel modification chamber, for fuel passing along inlet channel of inlet fuel union through number of holes of inlet shell equidistant from axis of device, end face fuel swirler chamber formed in outlet shell and communicating with central fuel modification chamber, intermediate chamber formed by conical surfaces made, respectively, on end face of cylindrical projection of inlet shell and on outlet shell, inlet chamber placing inlet channel in communication with number of holes in inlet shell. Housing, cover and centering insert are made on nonmagnetic material. Inlet and outlet shells are made of ferromagnetic material. Device is furnished with peripheral fuel modification chamber, central channel, bypass channels, ring clearance, centering splines, distance bushing and sealing gasket. Fuel modification peripheral chamber is located between outer cylindrical surface of permanent magnet and part of inner cylindrical surface of housing, being placed in communication with end face fuel swirler chamber through bypass channels and with central channel through ring clearance. Central channel is made in inlet shell and it communicates with intermediate chamber. Centering splines are made on cylindrical projection of inlet shell and they are in contact with inner surface of centering insert. Distance bushing is located in clearance. Sealing gasket is placed between cylindrical projection of inlet shell and outlet shell, being made of any elastic fuel resistant material.

EFFECT: provision of complete combustion of fuel, improved economy, reduced content of harmful substance in exhaust gases.

3 dwg

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