Hazardous material storage device

FIELD: storage of hazardous materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device for keeping in storage hazardous materials such as spent radioactive nuclear fuel has cylindrical concrete housing accommodating three-dimensional pre-stressed hardware and axially elongated hazardous-material storage area. Pre-stressed hardware includes hardware fittings spirally passed about storage area and disposed in concrete housing close to outer surface.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of hazardous material storage.

7 cl, 8 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a device for the storage of dangerous substances, in particular exothermic hazardous substances of a type of radioactive spent nuclear fuel. More specifically, the invention relates to a device having essentially cylindrical concrete body with elongated in the axial direction of the storage area for hazardous substances.

Devices of this type can be used for temporary and short-term storage of interim storage while waiting for regeneration or other treatment in the case of spent nuclear fuel and long-term storage.

In the publication WO 96/21932 and German patent A1-3515971 shown embodiments of such devices.

In the devices known from the aforementioned documents, as well as in other known devices of the same General type of concrete building has a Central storage area for placement of hazardous substances. Concrete wall surrounding the storage area, the thickness of which is considerably greater than the width of storage area, space reinforced.

In the device described in the publication WO 96/21932, the valve includes an axial pre-stressed cables or rebar located on the ring between the storage area and the cylindrical outer surface of the concrete shell, and pre napryajenno the armature, wound around the outer surface. Of course, the last valve is applied only after laying the concrete shell and curing at least to some extent.

Concrete building in the device according to German patent A1-3515871 also has a Central storage area for placement of hazardous substances. However, in this device, the valve is distributed throughout the cross section of the concrete wall of the casing and entirely embedded in the concrete.

In accordance with the present invention a device for the storage of dangerous substances, in particular exothermic hazardous substances of a type of radioactive spent nuclear fuel containing essentially cylindrical concrete body, including volumetric pre-tension reinforcement and having elongated in the axial direction of the storage area for hazardous substances according to the invention the pre-tense valve includes reinforcing details, passing in a spiral around the storage area and placed in a concrete building near its outer surface.

Reinforcement details can be located in two groups, one of which is inside the other, with the direction of reinforcing steel elements of one group is opposite to the direction of reinforcement details of the other group.

Reinforcement details can be Armat the data terminals, ropes or wire.

With this design of concrete building has a very effective reinforcement, which is also advantageous from the point of view of manufacture.

A concrete case can be provided with end caps, for example made of steel, and reinforcing parts can be fixed to the end caps.

Each end cap may include an inner plate, siteplease concrete casing, and the outer plate at a distance from the inner plate over at least the greater part of the end cap, and the space between the plates at least partially filled with concrete.

Each end cap may have a rail that runs along the outer edge of the end cap, and reinforcing parts attached to the rail. The rail can be located in the recess formed in the end cap. The recess may be formed in the outer plate of the end cap and the wall of the base of the recess can engage the inner plate.

End caps provide a simple and efficient connection of reinforcing steel elements by means of the prestress and the anchor means, and the desired distribution of the tension force on the end surfaces of the concrete shell and the introduction of the lifting forces in the concrete case through reinforcement details.

In addition, Thor is Evie cover can be used for attachment to a lifting utilities type of lifting loops or other devices for attaching lifting hooks, lifting clamps or similar devices.

Below the invention is described in more detail with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings, which depict the following:

figure 1 is a perspective view in axial diametrical section of the device for the storage of dangerous substances, having a storage area formed eight storage compartments, each of which is adapted for placement of the nuclear fuel element;

figure 2 is a view in diametrical section of the end cap device for the storage of hazardous substances, part of the armature, fixed to the end cover, and parts of elements that serve as formwork for the concrete shell;

figure 3 represents a perspective view of the end cover shown in figure 2, the parts of the valve attached to the end cap, and side parts of the casing and end cover and parts of the casing shown in diametrical section;

figure 4 is a view in horizontal section of the device for the storage of hazardous substances, shown in figure 1;

figure 5 is a perspective detailed view in enlarged scale of the device for storage of hazardous substances is shown in the upper right part of Fig.1;

6 is a view in section along part of the cylindrical surface indicated by the arcuate line VI-VI of figure 5, the Academy of Sciences of the cluster means for the reinforcement details;

7 is an axial section of a modified version of the exercise device for the storage of hazardous substances in accordance with the invention;

Fig is a perspective view in section of the upper part of the device for the storage of hazardous substances, as depicted in Fig.7.

Device for the storage of hazardous substances, shown in figure 1-6 made in the form of barrel 10, intended for use, in particular for the storage of hazardous materials in the form of spent, but still radioactive and exothermic (heat generating) elements of nuclear fuel in anticipation of regeneration or other activities, and the storage time is, for example, from one or a few years to many decades. In the drawings is shown a barrel 10 during use, i.e. in a sealed condition and containing fuel elements (not shown). Fuel cells, as suggested here, United in the fuel blocks type fuel assemblies or bundles of fuel elements.

In General, the barrel 10 is made in the form of a vertical cylindrical body having an axial through-cylindrical Central channel 11 round cross-section. The main part of the space accommodated by the barrel, occupied by the concrete body 12, which is also made in the form of a cylinder having a cylindrical Central channel is wglogo cross section.

The cylindrical outer surface of the concrete body 12 is closed by a cylindrical shell 13, with the Central channel aligned with a cylindrical Central tube 14, which forms the main part of the Central channel 11. The shell 13 and the Central tube 14 are permanent parts of the casing, in which is placed the concrete body 12, which means that they remain parts of the barrel 10. As will be apparent from the following description, these parts are made from material of high thermal conductivity of the steel type.

The ends of the concrete shell 12 closed circular lower end cap 15 and similar to the top end cap 16. As will be apparent from the subsequent detailed description, the end caps 15, 16 made of sheet steel and like the shell 13 and the Central tube 14 and they are integral parts of the formwork.

In the concrete case 12 pre-walled tense valve 17, which is fixed to the end caps 15, 16 and pre-volumetric strain of the concrete case, i.e. in the axial direction and in all radial directions. The armature 17, which will also be described in more detail below, placed near the cylindrical outer surface of the concrete body 12.

The number of closed cylindrical vessel 18 storage hermetically sealed and form a distributed UTS the key storage (fuel bays), capacity of stored fuel elements as a whole, that is seamlessly embedded in the concrete body 12. In the illustrated embodiment, the number of vessels 18 storage is eight, and they are placed so that their axes lie on an imaginary cylindrical surface which is concentric with the concrete body 12 and the Central channel 11. As seen in the drawings, mainly in figures 1, 4, the distance separating the vessels 18 storage from the Central tube 14, is significantly less than the distance separating the vessels 18 storage and the shell 13. Storage bays formed by the vessels 18 store filled with fluid cooling agent is water.

Each vessel 18 storage cooling agent circulates by natural convection (thermosyphon circulation) in a closed cooling system that includes a tube 19, the ends of which are connected with the interior of the vessel 18 storage at upper and lower ends of the vessel and which is located mainly in the outer radial portion of the concrete body 12. Thus, the cooling agent transfers part of the heat generated in the vessel 18 of the store, out to this part of the concrete shell, and from this part of the heat can dissipate into the surrounding air or water. Additional heat is carried away inside the Central channel 11, from which it can convection is to asiatica into the environment via air or water, flowing upwards through the channel.

That part of the cooling system, which is located outside the vessel, 18 storage, also includes a receptacle 20 of the extension adjacent to the upper end of the storage vessel.

End covers 15, 16 are essentially identical, and in the following description they are primarily presents the top end cap 16. Both end caps 15, 16 serve as end walls of the casing, in which is placed the concrete body 12, as fasteners for fitting 17 of the concrete shell and as a protective detail the ends of the concrete shell in the finished barrel 10. In addition, the upper end cover 16 can serve as a working platform during tension reinforcement and any removal in the future the contents of the vessels 18 storage. This includes removing the exemption from the concrete directly above the vessels 18 storage so that you can reopen the upper ends of the storage vessels.

As is evident from the submitted drawings, the end cap 16 mainly consists of the upper, or outer plate 21 and the lower or inner plate 22. In the completed barrel 10 plates 21, 22 are connected together in a suitable way, for example, by welding, and the space between them is partially or completely filled with concrete. In the space between the plates is also possible to place the equipment that I have is accessible from the outside of the barrel 10 and is used for example, for the purposes of monitoring and alarm type equipment for temperature and radioactivity, leak detection, and communication with monitoring stations.

Both plates 21, 22 are round and have a Central hole of approximately the same diameter as the Central tube 14. On its inner and outer edges of the plates are provided with facing down a cylindrical edges 23, 24 on the outer plate 21 and 25, 26 on the inner plate 22. Flanges 23, 24 on the outer plate 21 pass over the edges 25, 26 on the inner plate 22. The upper end of the shell 13 is included between the edges 23, 25, and accordingly the upper end of the Central tube 14 enters the space between the edges 24, 26.

On the outside in the radial direction part of the inner plate 24 rests a ring-shaped steel rail 27, which serves as a fastener for the two groups are evenly spaced around the circumference of the fixing part (rebar, wire or cable) 28, 29 of the valve 17, and as a means for the introduction of pre-tensioning forces in the concrete body 12. Additionally, the rail 27 serves as a fastener for multiple spaced at a distance around the circumference of the device (not shown) for attachment of lifting devices used for lifting su is th barrel 10.

For each of the fasteners 28, 29 rail 27 is supplied with a mounting seat 30 to the anchoring means, which is shown in figure 5, 6, where his example serves as a nut 31 and connected to it a washer 32. These anchor means 31, 32 are available for manipulation through the ring of holes 33 in the outer plate 21.

The Central part of the outer plate 21 is lowered and equipped with a number of holes 34, one such hole directly above each receptacle 18 storage. In the inner plate 22 is made corresponding hole 35. These holes are of such dimensions that the fuel elements can easily enter into the open upper ends of the receptacles 18 storage before the formation of the concrete shell 12 by means of concrete placement. The diameter of the holes 34, 35 preferably has at least the same size as the diameter of the vessels 18 storage.

Next to the holes 34 of the upper plate 21 is also provided with auxiliary means, symbolically represented in figure 1 the points 36, to be installed in a certain position and fixing of suitable tools for exemption from concrete places for holes, when the contents of the vessels 18 storage you want to make available through more or less long time storage after the barrel 10 has been completed, for example, when the stored fuel elements is s must be extracted, to subject them to examination or regeneration or other treatment.

In the upper end cap 16 is formed by a ring of holes 37, intended for the passage of pipes for laying concrete, the so-called pipes for underwater concreting (these pipes not shown)through which the concrete is introduced into the space defined between the shell 13, the Central tube 14 and the end covers 15, 16.

The lower end cover 15, in essence, may be identical to the top end cap 16, but may also be mutated at least so that it has no holes corresponding to the holes 34, 35, 37 of the upper end cover.

Figure 2-6 steel reinforcement 17 is shown in more detail. A characteristic feature of the valve 17 is the location of each of the reinforcing parts 28, 29 of these two groups of spiral lines, namely a cylindrical helical line between the end covers 15, 16. In one of these two groups of reinforcing parts 28 are located on an imaginary cylindrical surface a little closer to the shell 13 than reinforcing part 29 of the other groups that are also located on an imaginary cylindrical surface and the direction of which is opposite to the direction of reinforcement details of the first group. Two imaginary cylindrical surfaces are concentric with the shell 13 and the Central Tr is bcoi 14. Accordingly, the angle of helix of all reinforcement details of approximately 45°and, at least in some of their intersections reinforcing parts are connected properly wire a bandage or other suitable fittings (not shown).

For reasons that will become apparent, each armature part 28, 29, respectively, enclosed in a tubular sheath (not shown).

Making illustrated barrel 10 can be performed in various ways, depending on the detailed design of the barrel, intended use barrels available production equipment, etc. Subsequent brief description of the manufacturing process should be regarded as illustrative example of manufacturing performed in more or less direct connection with the loading of vessels 18 storage of the fuel elements. However, the main stages of the described manufacturing process can be regarded as applicable and appropriate in most cases. The sequential order of various steps may vary.

Initially, the lower end cap 15 is placed on the support rack. This end cap is substantially completed, that is, the space defined between the plates, already filled with the hardened concrete so that tor the Wake of the cover is able to withstand the load, which applies laid later mobile concrete mix, concrete forming the body 12. Alternatively, the lower end cap 15 can not be filled with concrete, but in this case it is necessary to provide suitable supporting struts between the plates so that the pressure applied lying on top of the concrete, not deformed end cap.

Then mount the receptacles 18 storage with tubes 19 of the cooling agent. Unite them accordingly for education site, which can result in the desired position and keep it in such position by means of appropriate accessories. In addition, the lower end cap 15 establish and fix the shell 13 and the Central tube 14.

The valve 17 can be mounted before or after placing the shell 13 at the lower end cap 15. If required, the reinforcing parts 28, 29 and their shells, if you use the shell, you can join in the node (reinforcement cage), which can be raised in a certain location and attached to the lower end cap 15. If required, this node can also be attached to the upper end cap 16 to the operation of the lifting and the fixing of, or the upper end cap can be attached to the upper end cap 16 when the valve 17 is provided in a specific location.

When the Asti, forming formwork for concrete housing 12, is collected and the node formed by the vessels 18 storage, mounted, storage vessels fill with liquid cooling agent (water) to a predetermined level. At this time the upper edge of the vessel 18 store still open. Then fuel elements are placed in the receptacles 18 that are secured by the relevant internal elements supporting fuel elements in a predetermined position. After that, storage vessels, sealed lid or other suitable closing means, if you want, after you replace the liquid cooling agent to another, liquid or gaseous cooling agent. The just-mentioned operations are performed through the openings 34, 35 in the upper end cap 16.

Then stack the concrete through a lot of pipe laying (not shown), which pass through openings 37 and lower until such time as they are opened in the lower end cap 15. The concrete mix is fed through a pipe laying, and when the mobile concrete mixture increases, pipe laying is also raised so that they are always open slightly below the surface of the concrete.

If the upper end cover 16 was not pre-filled with concrete or was not fully filled in the space between the outer plate 21 and internally the plate 22 placed concrete. To carry this out properly after concrete placement in the space defined by the shell 13, the Central tube 14 and end caps 15, 16, for example, after the concrete is placed in this space, provided the opportunity of setting and curing for about 24 hours. However, the space in the outer part of the end cap, i.e. the space where the rail 27 remains unfilled for some more time, because the anchor means 31, 32 should still be available for manipulation to reinforcement details may have been pre-strain and securely fastened in a state of pre-stress.

The introduction of fuel cells in the vessels 18 storage and laying of concrete to form the concrete body 12 can be favorably carried out with the space defined by the shell 13, the Central tube 14 and end caps 15, 16, fully or to a suitable level filled with water. This ensures the efficient and continuous cooling of the fuel elements.

After the concrete body 12 provided with the opportunity of setting and hardening within a reasonable time, e.g., within 2-4 days, reinforcing the parts 28, 29 pull. It is accordingly performed by using control coil racks, which is uedineny with reinforcement details in the usual way through the holes 33 in the outer plate 21 and the corresponding holes in the lower end cap 15. Shelter reinforcement details in tubular casings, which may be filled with grease, if necessary, ensures that between the end covers 15, 16 the tension is maintained throughout. Any necessary follow-tension valve 17 can be carried out after passing some time. When the tension is finished, the tubular sheath can be pumped concrete. Then the space accommodating the rail 27 and anchor devices 31, 32, can be filled with concrete, and in the lower Central part of the upper end cover 16 can be placed annular closing plate.

As soon as the concrete has hardened enough to permit transportation of the barrel 10, the barrel is moved and placed in the burial place in an open space under the roof or in the water.

Many of these barrels 10 can be stacked in the stack so that the Central channel 11 formed shaft, in which the air or water rises up through natural convection (thrust exhaust pipe)caused by the heat transferred from the vessels 18 storage through the concrete and the Central tube 14, and/or under the action of a fan or pump. The heat taken away in a radial direction outward from the storage vessels to the outer side of the barrel 10 by means of a cooling agent circulating through the vessels 18 storage is carried away by means of the PTO air or water, in contact with the shell 13.

When the barrel 10 is completed, the lower part of the upper end cover 16 can provide the annular closing plate of steel.

The device 40 for storing, shown in Fig.7, which is hereinafter also referred to as a barrel, primarily intended for temporary or other relatively short-term storage of hazardous substances, especially during transport of the elements of the nuclear fuel, for example, when moving elements of the nuclear fuel from pools of temporary storage to the sites of long-term burial.

The barrel 40 is different from the barrel 10 figure 1-6 the fact that its concrete casing 41 is provided with a Central cavity 42, which does not pass through it completely, but only from the top edge of the concrete shell down to a level that is located at a distance above the bottom end of the concrete shell. The cavity 42 is aligned with the receptacle 43 storage open type, forming a storage compartment for an item In nuclear fuel.

Another difference is that the barrel 40 has no separate cooling means. Because the storage is short term in nature, the heat generated in the fuel element can be absorbed by the concrete case without excessive heating of the barrel. However, if the barrel 40 requires a separate cooling means, it is possible to provide near kwasnik axial channels, located on a ring around the vessel 43 storage and pass axially through the barrel. For heat dissipation, held outward from the vessel 43 storage by natural convection of air or water can flow up through the channels.

In the upper part of the vessel storage for non-permanent sealing of the vessel 43 storage is located a sealing means 44, not shown in detail. This sealing means can be relatively easy to remove, so it can be removed from the tank 10 item In nuclear fuel.

An additional difference between drum 10 and the barrel 40 is that the two end caps 47 and 48 are constructed differently.

As in the previous embodiment, two end plates 47, 48 are essentially identical, except that the lower end cover 47 has a Central opening.

The upper end cap 48 has an outer or upper plate 49 and the inner or lower plate 50. These plates have a downward cylindrical flanges 51, 52 on the upper plate 53, 54 on the bottom plate for the same purpose, as in figure 1-6. Contour corresponding to the edges 51, 52, also performed on the plates of the lower end cover 47.

Near its outer edge, each end cover 47, 48 has an annular recess 55 in which the top plate 9 engages with the inner plate 50. In the annular, open upward, the groove formed by the recess 56 is koltseobraznyj steel rail 56, which, like the rail 27 in the previous embodiment, serves as a fixing element for prestressing the valve 59, formed of two groups of reinforcing steel elements 57, 58 and acting in the same way as the valve 17 figure 1-6. After the tension reinforcement details of the groove is closed annular closing plate 60, and you can fill it with concrete. Similarly depression in the Central part of the upper end cap 48 can be closed by a closing plate (not shown), which is established after sealing the vessel 43 storage.

For laying concrete in the space defined by the shell 61, the vessel 43 storage and two end caps 48, 49 in the upper end cap 48 includes a number of holes 62 (Fig). These holes can also be used for concrete placement in the open space between the outer and inner end plates after concrete placement, concrete forming the body 41.

An additional difference is that the outer side of the concrete shell 41 is provided with a metal casing 63, which runs throughout the section of the vessel 43 storage, which holds the element In nuclear fuel, and for her, the top and bottom. This covering, which is suitably made of steel and has a large wall thickness, comprising, for example, 10 cm Is added to the radiation protection provided by the concrete section of the housing 41, which it surrounds. Therefore, the diameter of the concrete shell can be much smaller than in the case where protection against radiation provides one concrete case.

In the vessel 43 storage fuel element rests on a cushion pad 64, supported by the wall of the base of the storage vessel, and it is held in a Central location in the storage vessel with the help of a number of spaced around the circumference of the ribs 65, mounted on the inner side of the vessel 43 storage.

1. Device for the storage of dangerous substances, in particular exothermic hazardous substances, the type of radioactive spent nuclear fuel containing essentially cylindrical concrete body, including volumetric pre-tension reinforcement and having elongated in the axial direction of the storage area for hazardous substances, characterized in that the pre-tense valve includes reinforcing details, passing in a spiral around the storage area and placed in a concrete building near its outer surface.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the reinforcement details location is by the two groups, one of them is inside the other, with the direction of reinforcing steel elements of one group is opposite to the direction of reinforcement details of the other group.

3. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the concrete body provided with end closures, and reinforcing parts attached to the end caps.

4. The device according to claim 3, wherein each end cap includes an inner plate, siteplease concrete casing, and the outer plate at a distance from the inner plate over at least the greater part of the end cap, and the space between the plates at least partially filled with concrete.

5. The device according to claim 4, wherein each end cap has a rail that runs along the outer edge of the end cap, and reinforcing parts attached to the rail.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the rail is located in the recess formed in the end cap.

7. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that the recess formed in the outer plate of the end cap and the wall of the base of the deepening of the internal gears of the plate.



 

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