Method for nuclear fuel storage and system for manufacturing nuclear fuel storage container

FIELD: handling radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for nuclear fuel storage in container includes introduction of nuclear fuel in fuel collector, as well as preparation of formwork to receive concrete body and installation of fuel collector into formwork. Formwork is immersed in tank and concrete is placed in immersed formwork to form concrete housing. Formwork with concrete housing formed therein is extracted from tank. System for manufacturing nuclear fuel storage container and for holding fuel in fuel collector installed in concrete housing that forms part of storage container has water tank. In addition it has tools for assembling formwork for storage container concrete housing and facilities for conveying formwork and fuel collector to water tank. It also has facilities for introducing nuclear fuel in fuel collector, facilities for concrete placement in formwork, and those for removing formwork from water tank. Nuclear fuel storage method includes piling of containers so that their central channels are aligned and held open for intercommunication. Fluid cooling agent is supplied to bottom end of central channel in lowermost storage container and discharged from top end of central channel in uppermost storage container.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of radioactive waste isolation.

25 cl, 7 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method of storage of nuclear fuel, including spent nuclear fuel removed from a nuclear reactor and is to be stored for more or less long period of time, for example, when waiting for regeneration, destruction or transportation to the place of final disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, the invention relates to a system designed for the manufacture of the container for storage of nuclear fuel in it.

Aware of the contents of spent nuclear fuel in large containers for storage of concrete; such containers can be in the form of a parallelepiped, or, more often, it is a round cylindrical reinforced vertical concrete case, for example, having a height of approximately 6 m and a diameter of 2.5-3 m Examples of embodiments of such storage containers are disclosed in German patent N 3515871-A1 and publications WO 96/21932. Fuel to be stored in the storage container placed in the tank or receiver fuel, made of steel or other suitable material, which vmurovyvayut in the concrete case.

When the spent fuel removed from a nuclear reactor, it is usually placed in a water tank near the reactor, often within a nuclear power plant, where it is stored until then, until the lane is being taken to a processing plant or to the place of burial, type final disposal of radioactive waste.

The technical result of the present invention is to provide a rational and safe way to store nuclear fuel container, including the movement of nuclear fuel in the receiver of the fuel, and an appropriate system for manufacturing a container for storage of nuclear fuel.

According to the invention created a way to store nuclear fuel storage container having a concrete case and the receiver fuel, imbedded in the concrete case, containing the following steps:

the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel;

providing formwork for concrete building and the installation of the receiver of the fuel inside the casing;

placing the casing in a submerged position in the vessel containing water;

laying of concrete immersed in the formwork for the formation of the concrete shell;

removing the tank from the form and educated in her concrete case.

These steps are not necessarily performed in the order in which they are mentioned.

Nuclear fuel can be introduced into the receiver fuel after placing the casing in a submerged position in the tank.

Nuclear fuel can be moved to the receiver fuel from an underwater position in the adjacent tank or reservoir.

After the introduction of the nuclear fuel in the receiver tank is VA and sealing receiver fuel you can move the formwork, located in a submerged position in the adjacent tank or a section of the tank, which produce concrete in the formwork.

Nuclear fuel is placed in a shipping container, can be placed in the adjacent reservoir or tank, and shipping container in the tank or reservoir is placed in a submerged position.

Nuclear fuel can be introduced into the receiver of the fuel before entering the receiver of the fuel in the casing, and the receiver of the fuel with the introduction of a fuel is placed in the casing when the casing is submerged position in the tank.

The receiver of the fuel with the introduction of a fuel when it is in the submerged position, you can move from the reservoir or tank containing water, immersed in the formwork.

The receiver of fuel can be integral to build in concrete.

Concrete case can be performed in the form of essentially straight vertical cylinder.

Concrete case can be performed with a Central, axial through-channel, and the receiver of fuel to run in a concrete case in the form of many separate resealable sections of the receiver, distributed around the Central channel, and nuclear fuel is distributed in sections of the receiver when it is administered in the receiver of fuel.

The casing can be assembled as a permanent formwork of p is at least the following components: a bottom end cap, the top end cap and the outer cylindrical wall connected to the end caps, and valves mounted in the casing and fixed to the end caps.

The valve can be performed in two groups of reinforcing steel elements passing through the spiral along two imaginary cylindrical surfaces arranged concentrically with the outer cylindrical wall of the casing from the inner side of this wall, and near it, and reinforcement details of each group are spaced at equal distances around the circumference and have the same direction, and the direction of reinforcing steel elements of one group is opposite to the direction of reinforcement details of the other group.

Concrete can be laid in the formwork through at least one vertical pipe laying, the outlet of which is located near the bottom of the casing at the beginning of concrete placement, and rises as the implementation of concrete placement, constantly lying slightly below the surface of the stacked concrete.

Reinforcement details you can stretch to at least some extent after a partial, but not complete solidification of the concrete.

The formwork can be collected and to provide the receiver of the fuel out of the tank, in which nuclear fuel is injected into the receiver fuel.

According to the invention is created the system for manufacturing a container for storage of nuclear fuel, in particular spent nuclear fuel, and content of the fuel receiver fuel in the concrete case, forming part of the storage container containing a water reservoir with a depth equal to at least the height of the to-be manufacturing a storage container, devices for the Assembly of the formwork for the concrete shell of the storage container, devices for moving the casing and receiver fuel water tank, provisions for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel, facility for laying concrete in the formwork, submerged in a water tank, for education in the formwork of the concrete shell and devices for extracting from the water reservoir casing with educated in her concrete case.

The water reservoir may contain a first section to be shipped placement of nuclear fuel and a second section for submerged placement of formwork.

The depth of the first section of the reservoir, respectively, equal to at least the sum of the height of the storage container and the height of the fuel elements, such as assemblies of fuel elements or fuel rods containing nuclear fuel and are introduced from above into the receiver fuel. This depth allows you to save fuel cells are constantly immersed. The depth is preferably such that the fuel elements n the when not closer to the surface of the water, than 2-3 meters After the fuel cell is introduced into the receiver of the fuel, and the receiver fuel sealed, the formwork is moved to a different section of the tank, where it is concrete. This section of the tank may have a smaller depth than the first section of the tank, but the depth should be equal to at least the height of the storage container, so that the entire storage container could be permanently submerged.

The system may contain provisions for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel placed in the mold, and devices for sealing receiver fuel holds nuclear fuel.

Provisions for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver of the fuel may contain means for moving fuel from the first section of the reservoir to the second section of the tank and for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver of the fuel in the second section of the tank.

The water tank can have multiple sections, along a closed line, preferably in a circle, and have the equipment to move the casing between the sections of the tank.

The water tank may contain third section of the tank immersed placing formwork nuclear fuel, is introduced into the receiver fuel.

In this section of the reservoir of the fuel elements can be placed in anticipation of their introduction is made receiver of fuel. This additional section of the tank must also be of such depth that the fuel cells could be continuously immersed in water, and their upper parts preferably should be at least 2-3 m below the water surface.

Section of the reservoir can be interconnected via gateways.

Fixtures for the Assembly of the formwork can be located near the water tank.

Devices to remove the formwork and the concrete shell, formed in it, the water reservoir may contain a means for transporting containers to store to the place of their burial.

According to another variant implementation of the invention, the method of storage of nuclear fuel contains the following steps:

providing a multitude of essentially cylindrical storage containers, each containing a concrete case and the receiver fuel containing nuclear fuel and imbedded in the concrete case, and is located in the center, passing in the axial direction through the channel, which at least partially formed by a concrete casing and in heat exchange communication with the receiver fuel for receiving heat;

stacking of containers in the stack so that their Central channels are aligned and are in open communication with each other;

the fluid flow of the cooling agent is in the lower end of the Central channel of the lower storage container and expelling the fluid cooling agent from the upper end of the Central channel of the upper storage container.

Below the invention is described in more detail with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings, which depict the following:

figure 1 represents a perspective view of the axial diametral cross-section of the container for storage of nuclear fuels, with the receiver fuel containing eight storage compartments adapted to accommodate the nuclear fuel element;

figure 2 is a view of the diametrical cross-section of the end cap of the container for storage of nuclear fuel, part of the armature, fixed to the end cover, and parts of elements that serve as permanent formwork for the concrete shell;

figure 3 is a view in axial section of a modified variant of the implementation of the container for storage of nuclear fuel that can be produced in accordance with the invention and which is intended for temporary, short-term storage of nuclear fuel during transport;

figure 4 is a schematic perspective view of the system for the manufacture of containers for the storage of nuclear fuel in accordance with the method according to the invention and for the placement of manufactured containers for storage at the place of burial;

figure 5 is a schematic top view of another variant of the implementation system for the manufacture of containers for storage in accordance with the way the m according to the invention;

6 is a perspective view of the system shown in figure 5, where some parts are cut to make visible internal parts;

7 is a detailed view in section on line a-a In figure 5.

Shown in figure 1 a container for storage of nuclear fuel, in the following also called barrel 10 is only an example of the storage container suitable for storage of nuclear fuel, in accordance with the invention, namely a container for containing the concrete case and at least one collector or receiver of fuel, imbedded in the concrete case and the employee for content of nuclear fuel during storage. Subject to storage of nuclear fuel can take many forms, but an implementation option of the container or barrel 10, as shown in figure 1, is particularly useful for the storage of fuel in the form of assemblies of fuel elements or bundles of fuel rods. This also applies to the barrel, shown in figure 3.

The barrel 10 is in the form of a vertical cylindrical body having an axial through-cylindrical Central channel 11 round cross-section. The main part of the space accommodated by the cylinder occupied by the concrete body 12, which has the same General shape as the whole barrel.

The cylindrical outer surface of the concrete shell 12 closed cylin the historical shell 13, and its Central channel aligned with a cylindrical Central tube 14, which forms the main part of the Central channel 11. The shell 13 and the Central tube 14 are a permanent part of the casing, in which is placed the concrete body 12, which means that they remain parts of the barrel 10.

The ends of the concrete shell 12 closed circular lower end cap 15 and similar to the top end cap 16. As will be apparent from the subsequent detailed description, the end caps 15, 16 made of sheet steel and, like the shell 13 and the Central tube 14, they are permanent parts of the formwork.

In the concrete case 12 pre-walled tense valve 17, which is fixed to the end caps 15, 16 and volumetric pre-strain of the concrete case, i.e. in the axial direction and in all radial directions. The valve 17 is placed near the cylindrical outer surface of the concrete shell 12.

The receiver fuel containing many closed circular cylindrical sections of the receiver or vessel 18 storage, embedded in the concrete body 12 so that the concrete in contact with the storage vessels, there are no joints. Storage vessels hermetically sealed and form a distributed storage bays (fuel bays), intended for content stored fuel is of ways. In the illustrated embodiment, the number of vessels 18 storage is eight, and they are placed so that their axes lie on an imaginary cylindrical surface which is concentric with the concrete body 12 and the Central channel 11.

As is evident from the drawings, particularly figures 1 and 3, the distance separating the vessels 18 storage from the Central tube 14, is much smaller than the distance separating the vessels 18 storage and the shell 13. Storage bays formed by the vessels 18 storage, fill with fluid cooling agent such as water.

Each vessel 18 storage cooling agent circulates by natural convection (thermosyphon circulation) in a closed cooling system that includes a tube 19, the ends of which are connected with the interior of the vessel 18 storage at upper and lower ends of the vessel and which is located mainly in the outer radial portion of the concrete body 12. Thus, the cooling agent carries away part of the heat generated in the vessel 18 of the store, out to this part of the concrete shell, and from this part of the heat can dissipate into the surrounding air or water. Additional heat is carried away inside the Central channel 11, from which it can convection to dissipate into the environment via air or water flowing up through Cana is.

That part of the cooling system, which is located outside the vessel, 18 storage, also includes a vessel 20 of the extension adjacent to the upper end of the storage vessel.

End covers 15, 16 are essentially identical, and in the following description, they are primarily presents the top end cap 16. Both end caps 15, 16 serve as end walls of the permanent casing, in which is placed the concrete body 12, as fasteners for fitting 17 of the concrete shell and as a protective detail the ends of the concrete shell in the finished barrel 10. In addition, the upper end cover 16 can serve as a working platform during tension reinforcement and either delete the contents of the vessels 18 storage in the future. This includes removing the exemption from the concrete directly above the vessels 18 storage so that the upper ends of the storage vessels could re-open.

As is evident from the submitted drawings, the end cover 16 is composed mainly of the upper or outer plate 21 and the lower or inner plate 22. In the completed barrel 10 plates 21, 22 are connected together in a suitable manner, for example, by welding, and the space between them is partially or completely filled with concrete. In the space between the plates can also be beneficial to place the equipment, which is up to is accessible from the outer region of the barrel 10 and is used for example, for the purposes of monitoring and alarm, the type of equipment for temperature and radioactivity, leak detection, and communication with monitoring stations.

Both plates 21, 22 are round and have a Central hole of approximately the same diameter as the Central tube 14. On its inner and outer edges of the plates are provided with facing down a cylindrical edges 23, 24 on the outer plate 21 and 25, 26 on the inner plate 22. Flanges 23, 24 on the outer plate 21 pass over the edges 25, 26 on the inner plate 22. The upper end of the shell 13 is included between the inner edges 23, 25 and, accordingly, the upper end of the Central tube 14 enters the space between the inner edges 24, 26.

On the outside in the radial direction part of the inner plate 24 rests a ring-shaped steel rail 27, which serves as a fastener for the two groups spaced around the circumference at equal distances fasteners (rebar, wire or cable) 28, 29 of the valve 17 and as a means for introducing a prestress force in the concrete body 12. Additionally, the rail 27 serves as a fastener for a multitude of spaced around the circumference of the device (not shown)for attachment of lifting devices used for lifting the entire barrel 10.

The Central part of the outer plate 21 is lowered and provided with many holes 31, one such hole directly above each receptacle 18 storage. In the inner plate 22 is provided corresponding hole 32. These holes are of such dimensions that the fuel elements can easily enter into the open upper ends of the receptacles 18 storage before the formation of the concrete shell 12 by means of concrete placement. The diameter of the holes 31, 32 preferably has at least the same size as the diameter of the vessels 18 storage.

Near holes 32 of the upper plate 21 is also provided with auxiliary means, symbolically represented by points 33, for positioning and fixing of suitable tools for exemption from concrete places for holes, when the contents of the vessels 18 storage you want to make available through more or less long time storage after the barrel 10 has been completed, for example, when the stored fuel elements must be extracted in order to subject them to examination, or regeneration, or other processing.

In the upper end cap 16 is formed by a ring of holes 34 for the passage of pipes for laying of concrete (not shown)through which the concrete is introduced into the space defined between the shell 13, the Central tube 14 and face the new caps 15, 16. In addition, there is a ring of holes 35 through which available to manipulate the fastening device for reinforcing parts 27, 28.

Bottom end cap 15 on the merits may be identical to the top end cap 16, but it can also be modified, at least, so that it has no holes corresponding to the holes 31, 32, 34 of the upper end cover 16.

Figure 2 steel reinforcement 17 is shown in more detail. A characteristic feature of the valve 17 is the location of each of the reinforcing parts 28, 29 of these two groups of spiral lines, namely a cylindrical helix, between the end covers 15, 16. In one of these two groups of reinforcing parts 28 are located on an imaginary cylindrical surface a little closer to the shell 13 than reinforcing part 29 of the other groups that are also located on an imaginary cylindrical surface and the direction of which is opposite to the direction of reinforcement details of the first group. Two imaginary cylindrical surfaces are concentric with the shell 13 and the Central tube 14. Accordingly, the angle of helix of all reinforcement details of approximately 45°and, at least in some of their intersections reinforcing parts are connected in a suitable manner with a wire band or other appropriate with digitalnymi parts (not shown).

For reasons that will become apparent, each armature part 28, 29, respectively, enclosed in a tubular sheath (not shown).

Shown in figure 3, the container 40 for storing nuclear fuel, which is also referred to as a barrel, is primarily intended for temporary or relatively short-term storage of nuclear fuel, especially during shipment or movement of elements of the nuclear fuel, for example when moving elements of the nuclear fuel from storage tanks to long-term burial.

The barrel 40 is different from the barrel 10 to 1, 2 to the fact that it only has one receiver fuel or receptacle 41 of the store, which is located in the centre and is not intended to surround the concrete completely. Instead, the vessel 41 storage sealed by means of a separate non-permanent or re-openable sealing device 41, which in figure 3 is shown only schematically, since it may be of any suitable conventional design. Figure 3 also shows the fuel element held in a Central location in the storage area defined by the vessel 41 storage, resting it on the booster cushion 43.

Another difference is that the barrel 40 does not have a separate device for cooling. Since storage has the t short-term the heat produced by the fuel cell, can be absorbed by the concrete case without excessive heating of the barrel. However, if the barrels require separate cooling medium can be provided by multiple end-to-end axial channels which are arranged in a ring around the vessel 41 storage and pass axially through the barrel. Air or water can flow up through the channels by natural convection to carry away heat conducted outward from the vessel 41 storage.

An additional difference is that the outer side of the concrete shell 44 is equipped with a metal casing 45, which runs throughout the section of the vessel 41 storage capacity of the fuel cell, and beyond it, up and down. This covering, which is suitably made of steel and has a large wall thickness, for example, part 10, see This added to the radiation protection provided by the concrete section of the housing 44, which it surrounds. Therefore, the diameter of the concrete shell 44 may be significantly less than in the case where protection against radiation provides one concrete case.

The valve 46 is essentially identical to the valve 17 in figure 1. However, the end cover 47, 48 are slightly different from caps, shown in figure 1. In this case, the rail 27 is located on the outer side of the outer plate 47A, 48 is in the annular recess, wall base which engages with the outer side of the inner plate 47B, 48V end caps.

Accordingly, the design shown in figure 3 the end cap can also be used for a container for storage of nuclear fuel, shown in figure 1. This is advantageous in that the reinforcing parts 46A, B more accessible to tension and secure than in the construction shown in figure 1.

Shown in figure 4 the installation or system for manufacturing a sealed container 10 for storage of nuclear fuel contained in nuclear fuel can be placed accordingly at the place where storage containers are contained during storage, regardless of whether this is the final destination or temporary place of burial of radioactive waste. For example, the burial place may be near a nuclear power plant or some other place where it is stored spent nuclear fuel. In this case, nuclear fuel, assumed to be temporarily contained under the water in the tank, which is specially designed for such short-term storage and from which it moves into the system corresponding to the invention. Figure 4 this reservoir 50 contains three separate sections of the tank.

From the reservoir 50 nuclear fuel is moved into the transport con is anarah or containers 51 for temporary storage of waste of this type, as shown in figure 3, for example, in another tank or system 52 tanks, has three sections 53, 54, 55 tank, which can be connected to each other respectively through gateways (marked on figure 4 only schematically by the reference position L). In figure 4, the movement of the containers 51 symbolically shown by arrows A, which are also depicted in symbolic form devices that are required to move, the type of lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control equipment, etc.

Section 53 of the tank, which is specially designed to receive containers 51 to temporarily store coming from the tank 50 is filled with water to a depth that is at least equal to, and preferably at least 2-3M more than the sum of the height of the shipping container 51 for storing and height of the fuel elements contained in the container 51. Thus, when the containers 51 are based on the base section 53 of the tank, the fuel elements can be lifted from the container 51 and then horizontally to move without penetration through the surface of the water. Fuel cells preferably should never be placed closer to the surface than 2-3 meters

Alternatively, the fuel elements can be deleted from the containerof for temporary storage of the side sections of the tank and put it in a rack or other suitable holders in the tank.

In the adjacent section 54 of the tank of fuel elements extracted from the transport container 51 is injected into the vessels 18 storage mounted in the casing, which is prepared for the manufacture of barrels 10 and immersed in water contained in section 54 of the tank. Fuel cells extract from section 53 of the tank and move underwater in section 54 of the tank, where they are dipped in the vessel 18 storage in the mold. Throughout this operation, the fuel elements are fully immersed in water. To this end, the depth of the water in section 54 of the tank at least equal to the height of the formwork and the height of the fuel elements, and preferably more than a few meters.

In figure 4, the movement of the fuel elements contained in the container 51, the vessels 18 storage symbolically shown by the arrow B, which also shows in symbolic form are required to move the device, the type of lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control equipment, etc.

Formwork gather in the workplace 56 for Assembly around the tank 52 and then lift and move the section 54 of the tank and placed on the base of the tank. The Assembly can be executed using pre-mounted nodes that transport working on the place for the Assembly, where these nodes collect the formwork. This is shown schematically in figure 4, where the workplace 56 for Assembly contains three sections, 57, 58, 59.

In the first section 57 is mounted the lower end cap 15 and the shell 13 and the Central tube 14 mounted on the lower end cap. The so formed node 60 then move in section 59, where a group of vessels 18 storage, forming the receiver fuel add to the site and fixed there in a location with suitable supporting and fastening means. This step can be performed in sections 57, symbolized by the arrow C, which also symbolises the fixtures required to perform phase-type lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control equipment, etc.

In section 58 of the workplace 56 to build the top end cap 16 and the valve 17 are combined so as to form a node 61, which is then raised and moved to section 59 and unite with the node 60 to form a complete casing 62. This stage is symbolized by an arrow D, which is also in symbolic form displays fixtures required to perform phase-type lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control the work equipment, etc.

The node formed by the casing 62, then lift and move the section 54 of the tank, and lower on the basis of this section of the reservoir and fill with water. Before the vessels 18 storage is filled with a cooling agent such as pure water. This stage is symbolized by the arrow E, which is also in symbolic form displays fixtures required to perform phase-type lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control equipment, etc.

Now the fuel elements are moved from section 53 of the tank in the vessel 18 storage in the mold 62 (arrow). Of course, then the fuel cell replaces the following part of the pure water in the vessel 18. Because of the pre-filling of storage vessels cooling agent of the clean water avoid contamination of the cooling agent. Water depth in section 54 of the tank, of course, must be large enough to guarantee that the fuel elements will not be closer to the surface than 2-3 meters

Then the vessels 18 storage seal, after which the casing 62 is moved to section 55 of the tank. The depth of the water there are enough large to ensure that the formwork will be totally immersed. The depth of the water is preferably such that the top of the casing is at least 2-3 m below the surface the surface of the water. Moving the formwork section of the tank is symbolically depicted by the arrow F, which is also in symbolic form displays fixtures required for the execution stage of the move, the type of lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control equipment, etc.

In section 55 of the tank casing 62 are filled with concrete, obtained from the nearby concrete node 63. The concrete in the formwork preferably performed using one or more so-called beenapproved for underwater concreting, that is, pipe laying, used for underwater concrete placement, which pass through holes 34, 35 in the upper end cap 16, down to the location near the lower end cap 15. When the upper surface of the concrete supplied to the casing rises, tube or pipe laying up so that the lower end of the pipe is always a little below the surface. The concrete during installation can be subjected to vibratory compaction.

The stage of concrete placement, described in the previous paragraph, symbolically depicted by the arrow G, which is also in symbolic form displays fixtures required to perform this step, the type of lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary lifting the salvage and control equipment, beenapproved for underwater concreting or pipe laying, etc.

When the concrete sets and hardens to some extent, but will not reach its ultimate strength, for example, via one or two days, the valve 17 becomes somewhat tense, acting on the upper end cover 16. Then complete the barrel 10 can be removed from section 55 of the tank. After passing some extra time armature 17 additional strains on one or more stages, until it reaches its final tension. This further tension appropriately performed with both end caps 15, 16. Shelter reinforcement details in tubular casings, which may be filled with grease ensures complete transfer of tension between the end covers. When the tension is finished, the shell and the cavity of the rails 27 to the end caps, you can enter the concrete.

After any necessary control and alarm equipment added to the barrel 10, the completed barrel is transported to 64 place of burial (figure 4). In this place the barrel 10 can be stacked in the stack, for example, three barrels each stack, leaving an open space between the stacks so that the air or water, if the burial site is in the water, can flow between the stacks. Stack, matched with the public, placed on the stand, which allows air or water to flow inward and upward through the shaft formed by the aligned Central channel 11 in barrels 10. If it is desired or required, such a shaft can extend up through the extension pipe with the aim of increasing the thrust in the pipe or thermosiphon flow, which mine produces heat air or water caused by the heat generated in the nuclear fuel in barrels 10 and conducted to the mine.

Removing formwork 62 formed in it a concrete case, the actions performed with the completed barrel 10 after extraction, including moving to 64 place of burial, as described in the previous two paragraphs, symbolically depicted by the arrow N. This arrow also represents in symbolic form the fixtures required to perform this step, the type of lifting or transporting mechanism, and any other necessary handling and control equipment, etc.

Near section 55 of the tank system is 65 purification, through which circulates the water in this section of the reservoir for cleaning.

Shown in figure 5-7 technological system or installing largely embodies the principles of the system, shown in figure 4, but differs in the construction of the reservoir 52, that is, part C themes, in which fuel cells are injected into the storage vessels mounted in the casing, and the casing is laid concrete. Details figure 5-7, for which there are corresponding parts in figure 4 have the same reference position, as in figure 4.

The tank 52 figure 5-7 differs from reservoir figure 4 mainly because it has a round design that is similar to the hopper of the form in which the casing 62 is moved along the curved trajectory.

The most remote part of the tank 52 is formed by the outer wall 52A, which has a circular cylindrical shell design that is similar to the farm, with the outer shell B, the inner shell S and many walls S connecting the outer and inner shell. The open space between the outer and inner shells can be used as storage space for equipment and materials used in the manufacture of barrels.

Inside the outer wall 52A and concentric with it is a round cylindrical inner wall 52F. The space between the outer wall 52A and the inner wall 52F, and the space inside the inner wall is filled with water. This space forms section 53 of the tank, where the transport container 51 for storage and fuel cells In place before they move in vessels 18 storage in the casing 62.

In concealers the m space between the outer wall 52A and the inner wall 52F are additional sections 54A, V, 55A, 55V, 55C of the tank. From these sections of the reservoir section 54 of the reservoir can be regarded as a relevant part of section 54 of the tank in figure 4, while section 55A, 55V tank can be regarded as relevant to the rest of the section 54 of the tank and section 55 of the tank, respectively, in figure 4. Section 54A and 55C of the tank does not have direct analogues in figure 4.

From the workplace 56 for Assembly assembled formwork 62 defined therein vessels 18 storage move, for example up above section 53 of the tank, where they are placed on the carriage 70, which can move along the track 71. This track passes through a circular line or path through all the sections of the tank, except section 55C of the tank, and may be slightly inclined in the direction of movement of the carriages 70, to facilitate movement. The track, which, of course, may be constructed in any other appropriate manner, the casing 62 can move from section 54 of the tank to the subsequent sections 54A, 55A, 55V, 55C. So this move could be done without too much mixing water contained in various sections, using gateways, presents shown in the drawings, the radial walls, formed distinction between sections 54A/W, W/55A and 55A/55C of the tank.

Alternatively, the casing 62 can be moved inside the clubs the tank and between them by means of the lifting mechanism.

Section 55C of the tank is used as described below to hold the barrel 10 open to retrieve the stored nuclear fuel.

The manufacture of the barrels 10 and content of nuclear fuel perform essentially the same way as in the system shown in figure 4.

The casing 62, collected in the workplace 56 for Assembly and storage vessels mounted in the casing to serve as a receiver fuel lift over section 54A of the tank, using a suitable lifting device. In the illustrated embodiment, section 54A of the tank can hold the casing 62 for the two barrels at the same time, but it also can make the size and design for the content of formwork or for one barrel, or more than two barrels.

When the casing 62 to the barrel 10 should be loaded fuel elements from section 53 of the tank, this formwork section 54A of the tank, which is nearest to next section V tank moves in this section of the reservoir through an intermediate gateway. Fuel cells are moved from the Central section 53 of the tank in the vessel 18 storage in the casing 62, the moving section 62, and then the vessels 18 storage seal in the manner described above.

Loaded thus formwork 62 then moves from section V tank all the tion 55A tank through an intermediate gateway. In section 55A of the tank is laying the concrete shell of the barrel in the manner described in relation to figure 4. Section 55A of the tank can hold the casing 62 for the two barrels at the same time, but it can also be made to the content of the forms to one barrel or more than two barrels. If it is made for the maintenance of formwork for two or more barrels, it can also serve as a buffer space so that the casing for the barrel, which is already laid, could remain in the section 55A of the tank, while the place in section 55V tank for free, without hindering the placement of concrete in the formwork for the next barrel. After concrete placement, which is supplied from the concrete node corresponding to the shown in figure 4, the casing 62 is laid in concrete moves in section 55V tank, where the concrete sets and hardens and where you can do more work with more or less completed now the barrel 10, the type of initial tension and/or subsequent tension reinforcement details.

When the concrete in the barrel 10 are sufficiently hardened, the barrel is lifted from the section 55V tank to move into a place of burial, shown in figure 4 corresponding to 64 place of burial, if required, after additional work with barrels was performed around the tank 52.

Section 55C of the tank uses the I, if for some reason the barrel 10 containing nuclear fuel will need to be open to retrieve or inspection of nuclear fuel. This may be necessary if the fuel is subject to regeneration or should be removed from the barrel for another reason.

In this case, the barrel 10 is dipped in section 55C of the tank and open. If the barrel is made in accordance with figures 1 to 3, the opening perform, escaping from the concrete above the storage vessels, so that the stored fuel elements can be lifted and moved to the center section 53 of the tank and put in the transfer drums 51, not rising to the water surface for carrying out any stage of the process section of the tank or even approaching it.

In the modification method according to the invention, the casing 62 is not supplied with storage vessels, shown in figure 1 corresponding receptacles 18 storage, before the formwork is placed in section 54 of the tank. Instead, use storage vessels in the form of special containers for fuel, load nuclear fuel, when the containers for fuel are located in a separate tank, or tanks, or section 53 of the tank.

In this modification, a part which corresponds to the casing 62, prepare so that she could take the containers for fuel after it is placed in the under 54 of the tank. For example, the portion of the casing, which corresponds to a node 60 of the casing, it is possible to provide a suitable guide elements and supports, ensuring proper positioning of containers for fuel in the formwork prior to concrete placement. The portion of the casing, which corresponds to a node 60 of the casing, it is possible to first place in section 54 of the tank, in which the containers for fuel placed in this part, after which the mount portion corresponding to the node 61 formwork.

It should be understood that the illustrated and described system and fixtures for the manufacture of barrels are only examples of the invention and that the practical details can vary widely within the scope of the invention. For simplicity of illustration and explanation of the invention, lifting and other equipment supply of materials required for the manipulation and movement of components and materials, omitted or illustrated only symbolically, for example, by arrows. The design of such devices and their mode of operation do not form part of this invention and can be fully accepted.

1. The method of storage of nuclear fuel in the storage container having a concrete case and the receiver fuel, imbedded in the concrete case, containing the following steps: introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel; ensure Uchenie formwork for concrete building and the installation of the receiver of the fuel inside the casing; placing the casing in a submerged position in the vessel containing water; laying of concrete immersed in the formwork for the formation of the concrete shell; removing the tank from the form and educated in her concrete case.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which nuclear fuel is injected into the receiver fuel after placing the casing in a submerged position in the tank.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which nuclear fuel is moved to the receiver fuel from an underwater position in the adjacent tank or reservoir.

4. The method according to claim 2 or 3, wherein after the introduction of the nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel and sealing receiver fuel move the formwork, in submerged position in the adjacent tank or a section of the tank, which produce concrete in the formwork.

5. The method according to claim 3, in which nuclear fuel is placed in a shipping container, place in the adjacent reservoir or tank, and shipping container in the tank or reservoir is placed in a submerged position.

6. The method according to claim 1, in which nuclear fuel is injected into the receiver of the fuel before entering the receiver of the fuel in the casing and the receiver of the fuel with the included nuclear fuel is placed in the casing when the casing is submerged position in the tank.

7. The method according to claim 6, in which the receiver of the fuel with the included nuclear fuel, when it is in the submerged position, move from a tank or reservoir containing water, immersed in the formwork.

8. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, in which the receiver integral fuel vmurovyvayut in the concrete.

9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, in which the concrete body operate in an essentially vertical cylinder.

10. The method according to claim 9, in which the concrete body perform with a Central, axial through-channel, and the receiver perform fuel in the concrete body in the form of many separate resealable sections of the receiver, distributed around the Central channel, and nuclear fuel is distributed in sections of the receiver with its introduction in the receiver of fuel.

11. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 10, in which the formwork is collected as a permanent formwork of at least the following components: a bottom end cap, the top end cap and the outer cylindrical wall connected to the end caps, and valves mounted in the casing and fixed to the end caps.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which the valves are in the form of two groups of reinforcing steel elements passing through the spiral along two imaginary cylindrical surfaces arranged concentrically with the outer cylindrical wall of the casing from the inner side of this wall, and near it, and reinforcement details of each group R is snezeni at equal distances around the circumference and have the same direction and the direction of reinforcing steel elements of one group is opposite to the direction of reinforcement details of the other group.

13. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 12, in which the concrete is placed in the casing through at least one vertical pipe laying, the outlet of which is located near the bottom of the casing at the beginning of concrete placement and rises as the implementation of concrete placement, constantly lying slightly below the surface of the stacked concrete.

14. The method according to any of PP-13, in which the reinforcement details of the strain to at least some extent after a partial, but not complete solidification of the concrete.

15. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 14, in which the formwork collect and provide the receiver of the fuel out of the tank, in which nuclear fuel is injected into the receiver fuel.

16. System for manufacturing a container for storage of nuclear fuel, including spent nuclear fuel, and content of the fuel receiver fuel in the concrete case, forming part of the storage container containing the water reservoir depth equal to at least the height of the to-be manufacturing a storage container, devices for the Assembly of the formwork for the concrete shell of the storage container, devices for moving the casing and receiver fuel water tank, provisions for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel, facility for laying concrete in the formwork, submerged in the water tank, for education in the formwork of the concrete shell, and devices for extracting from the water reservoir of the form and educated in her concrete case.

17. System according to clause 16, in which the water tank contains a first section to be shipped placement of nuclear fuel and a second section for submerged placement of formwork.

18. System 17, containing provisions for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuel placed in the mold, and devices for sealing receiver fuel holds nuclear fuel.

19. System p, in which provisions for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver fuels contain means for moving fuel from the first section of the reservoir to the second section of the tank and for the introduction of nuclear fuel in the receiver of the fuel in the second section of the tank.

20. System according to any one of PP-19, in which the water tank has many sections, along a closed line, preferably in a circle, and have the equipment to move the casing between the sections of the tank.

21. System according to any one of p-20, in which the water tank contains a third section of the tank immersed placing formwork nuclear fuel, is introduced into the receiver fuel.

22. System according to any one of p-21, in which section of the reservoir interconnected che is ez gateways.

23. System according to any one of p-21, in which the fixtures for the Assembly of the formwork are located near the water tank.

24. System according to any one of p-23, in which the fixture to remove the formwork and the concrete shell, formed in it, a water tank containing means for transporting containers to store to the place of their burial.

25. The method of storage of nuclear fuel, containing the following steps: providing a multitude of essentially cylindrical storage containers, each containing a concrete case and the receiver fuel containing nuclear fuel and imbedded in the concrete case, and is located in the center, passing in the axial direction through the channel at least partially formed by a concrete casing and in heat exchange communication with the receiver fuel for receiving heat; stacking of containers in the stack so that their Central channels are aligned and are in open communication with each other; a fluid flow of the cooling agent in the lower the end of the Central channel of the lower storage container and expelling the fluid cooling agent from the upper end of the Central channel of the upper storage container.



 

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