Fuel-air burner for gas-turbine engine combustion chamber

FIELD: gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel-air burner has fuel injector in the form of body with fuel feed and spray holes as well as axial- and tangential-flow air swirlers, air flow regulator disposed between rear side of injector body and inlet end of axial-flow swirler that forms slit duct together with its inlet end. Axial- and tangential-flow air swirlers are made in the form of open-end channels accommodating blades and each is provided with converging-diverging nozzle having internal and external channel walls. External channel wall of converging part of axial-flow swirler nozzle has curvature inverse relative to internal channel wall of tangential-flow swirler nozzle. Diverging part of axial-flow swirler is made in the form of cone whose vertex is disposed upstream of nozzle critical section. Angle between burner axis and generating line of cone is 30 to 90 deg. Critical section of axial-flow swirler converging-diverging nozzle is disposed upstream of point of intersection between external channel wall and fuel spray cone generating line.

EFFECT: reduced emission of pollutants in exhaust gases, improved starting characteristics and fuel economic efficiency, enhanced reliability of combustion chamber.

1 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, in particular to the structures of the main combustion chambers.

Known burner combustion chamber of a gas turbine containing a nozzle for spraying fuel into the compressed air to the primary and secondary bushing channels separated the first part concentric with the axis of the burner and having a cylindrical or conical tapering spray liner, and the outer secondary entrance channel on the outside radially limited located concentric with the second annular part with shodashi-diverging inner surface forming section with a narrowed throat section and in the direction against the flow adjacent the spray liner. Surface cuause-expanding ring of the details are crossing the generatrix of the cone fuel nozzle upstream from the site changes its curvature (DE, application No. 19627760, F 23 D 11/24, 1996).

A disadvantage of the known construction is the possibility of unstable zones of recirculation of hot gases around the nozzle, near the wall of the flame tube, deterioration of fuel economy when operating on poor fuel mixtures, reducing the range of stable operation and high carbonization. This is due to the absence of the output of the spray edge of the channel, the separation of the air flow and a violation of the mouth of byvshego flow in direct contact with the channel of the air. As the lack of a running cuause-extending annular parts with a spray liner crossing the generatrix of the cone of sprayed fuel nozzle upstream from changes in the critical section of the channel, which increases the formation.

Closest to the claimed is the air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing fuel injector in the form of a shell with holes feed and atomization of fuel, axial and tangential swirler air in the form of channels with open ends and blades inside the stabilizer air flow, placed between the back of the nozzle and the inlet end of the axial swirl, forming a slotted channel with its input end, each swirl equipped confused-diffuser nozzle (RU, patent No. 2134839, F 23 D 11/00, 1997).

A disadvantage of the known burners adopted for the prototype is an incomplete use of the possibilities of improving the fuel efficiency of the burner, increase range of stable operation, reducing the carbonization and improve the reliability of the engine start. These drawbacks are due to insufficient optimization of the ratio of flow sections confused-cone nozzles axial and the tangential swirler, geometrical parameters and maintains the social location of the output of the spray nozzles, which do not provide the same uniformity of the air-fuel mixture in the recirculation zone over the entire range of operation of the combustion chamber.

The technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to reduce the emission of harmful substances in exhaust gases, to improve the starting characteristics and fuel economy of the engine, to improve the reliability of the combustion chamber by improving the homogeneity of the air-fuel mixture and reduce the amount of high temperature zones of recirculation through the intensification of interaction between the air flow for axial swirler and the fuel sprayed by the injector, a fuller utilization of the energy of the air flow.

The essence of the technical solution lies in the fact that the air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing fuel injector in the form of a casing with feed holes and spray fuel, axial and tangential swirler air in the form of channels with open ends and blades inside the stabilizer air flow, placed between the back of the nozzle and the inlet end of the axial swirl, forming a slotted channel with its input end, and the axial and tangential swirler provided every confused-cone nozzle with internal and external Traktovaya walls, with the according to the invention the outer Traktovaya wall confused part of the nozzle axial swirl made with reverse curvature with respect to internal Traktovaya wall of the nozzle tangential swirl, this diffuser nozzle section axial swirl made in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is located upstream from the critical section of the nozzle, and the angle from the axis of the burner to the generatrix of the cone is 30 to 90°and the critical section confused-diffuser nozzle axial swirler located upstream of the crossing location external Traktovaya wall with forming raspisivaem cone of fuel.

Executing external Traktovaya wall confused part of the nozzle axial swirl with a reverse curvature with respect to internal Traktovaya wall of the nozzle tangential swirl generates smooth, with minimal loss of rotation and perpendicular to the direction of air flow for forming the fuel cone, which ensures maximum use of energy swirling flow of air for atomization of the fuel, eliminates the occurrence of pereobogaschennaya zone of recirculation of hot gases around the nozzle during operation of the combustion chamber on the lower modes, increases the fineness of the crushing of the fuel, increases the degree of mixing of air-fuel mixture, reduces the amount of high-temperature zones of recirculation in the primary zone of the combustion chamber by increasing the intensity of air flow for axial swirler fuel cone, respecively the injector.

p> The implementation of the diffuser portion of the nozzle axial swirl in the shape of a cone, the vertex of which is located upstream from the critical section of the nozzle, and the angle from the axis of the burner to the generatrix of the cone is 30 to 90°shortens the length of the high-temperature zones of recirculation in the cavity of the combustion flame tube due to the forced expansion of the flow of air-fuel mixture in the expanding channel, defined by the angle of the generatrix of the cone. This is because increasing the proportion of energy of the air flow for axial swirler spent fuel atomization, and reduced the proportion of energy of the air flow required for formation of the recirculation zone.

When α<30° worse starting characteristics of the combustion chamber due to excessive reduction of the Diametric size of the stream of fuel-air mixture.

When α>90° deteriorate the quality of atomization of the fuel and emission characteristics due to the significant changes of curvature of the inner Traktovaya wall of the nozzle tangential swirl and deterioration of interaction between threads for tangential and axial swirler.

The location of the critical section confused-diffuser nozzle axial swirl upstream of the crossing location external Traktovaya wall with forming raspisivaem cone that is Liwa excludes drops of fuel on the outer Traktovaya wall confused part of the nozzle axial swirl, what ensures no slippage of the flame nozzle with variable modes.

1 shows a longitudinal section along the axis of the burner angle α=30°.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section along the axis of the burner angle α=90°.

Air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine includes a fuel injector in the form of a housing 1 with channels 2 supply and spray of fuel 3, the axial swirler air 4 and tangential swirl air 5 in the form of channels 6, 7 with open ends 8, 9 and the blades 10, 11 inside. The stabilizer 12 thread 13 of the air located between the back side 14 of the housing 1 of the nozzle and the inlet end 8 of the axial swirl 4, forms a slotted channel 15 with its input end face 8. The axial swirler 4 provided with a confused-diffuser nozzle 16 with external Traktovaya wall 17, and the tangential swirl 5 provided with a confused-diffuser nozzle 18 with the inner 19 and outer 20 Traktovaya walls. External Traktovaya wall 17 confused part 21 of the nozzle 16 of the axial swirl 4 is performed with a reverse curvature with respect to internal 19 Traktovaya wall of the nozzle tangential swirl and external Traktovaya wall 17 of the diffuser portion 22 is made in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is located upstream from the critical section of the nozzle 16, the angle α from the axis of the burner to the generatrix con the sa is 30-90° . The critical section of the nozzle 17-23 confused-diffuser nozzle 16 axial swirl 4 is located upstream of the crossing location generatrix 24 raspisivaem cone fuel 3 external Traktovaya wall 17. In addition, figure 1 shows: POS front wall of the flame tube, option 26 - cavity combustion flame tube, POS - spray package nozzle.

Powered air-fuel burner as follows. Fuel 3 through the channels 2 is fed to a spray package 27 of the nozzle 1, and further into the cavity of the combustion of the flame tube 26. Simultaneously compressed by the compressor flow 13 of the air flowing around the outer contour of the stabilizer 12 passes through the slotted channel 15 in the axial swirler 4. Thread 13 of the air entering the channel 6 axis of the swirler 4, twists, and directed external Traktovaya wall 17 in the confused part 21 of the nozzle 16 axial swirler 4, raspisyvaet aerosol fuel 3. In the diffuser portion 22 of the nozzle 16 of the axial swirl 4 formed external Traktovaya wall 17, atomized spray of fuel is pre-mixed in the swirling flow 13 axial swirl 4 and next to the desired concentration in the diffuser portion of the nozzle 18 tangential swirl, forming in the cavity combustion 26 near the front wall 25 of the flame tube steady, homogeneous air-fuel mixture zone recircul the tion, and thereby reduces the emission of harmful substances in exhaust gases, improves the starting characteristics and fuel efficiency of the engine increases the reliability of the combustion chamber.

Air-fuel burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing fuel injector in the form of a casing with feed holes and spray fuel, axial and tangential swirler air in the form of channels with open ends and blades inside the stabilizer air flow, placed between the back of the nozzle and the inlet end of the axial swirl, forming a slotted channel with its input end, and the axial and tangential swirler provided every confused-cone nozzle with internal and external Traktovaya walls, characterized in that the external Traktovaya wall confused part of the nozzle axial swirl is made with a reverse curvature with respect to internal Traktovaya wall of the nozzle tangential swirl while the diffuser portion of the axial swirl made in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is located upstream from the critical section of the nozzle, and the angle from the axis of the burner to the generatrix of the cone is 30 to 90°and the critical section confused-diffuser nozzle axial swirler located upstream of the crossing location external Traktovaya St the NCI generating raspisivaem cone of fuel.



 

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