# Digital detector of complicated signals

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device implements algorithms of discontinuous Fourier transformation and fast folding of received and bearing signals, to provide search-less detection of complicated signals with sizeable bases. Digital synchronized filter processes at video-frequency with use of standard digital assemblies and elements. Device has multipliers 3,4,14,15, phase changer 2 for π/2, circuit for delay for length of signal element 1, low frequency filters 5,6, analog-digital converters 7,8,12, microprocessor systems of discontinuous Fourier transformation 9,10, microprocessor systems of reversed discontinuous Fourier transformation 16,17, generator of bearing pseudo-random series 11, microprocessor systems of discontinuous Fourier transformation of bearing pseudo-random series 13, square-ware generators 18,19, adder 20, arithmetic device for taking square root 21, threshold device 22, discontinuous process pulse generator 23, device for splitting frequency in two 24, clock generator 25, interconnected by appropriate functional connections.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.

2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of radio communications, transmission systems discrete data using complex wideband signals based on a pseudo-random sequences of maximal period and signals Golda with binary phase shift keying (0, π) and is designed to build digital detectors of complex signals.

The closest to the technical characteristics of this device is the optimal detector complex signals with unknown amplitude and random initial phase [1, s]. This device has a maximum noise immunity in the normal noises with known parameters of the received signal, in addition to the amplitude and initial phase of high-frequency oscillations. The detector prototype contains two multiplier, the oscillator carrier frequency, the phase shifter on π/2, two identical concerted filter, two Quad and the adder. The generator of the harmonic of the reference oscillation futuremouse circuit generates two quadrature harmonic oscillations Cos(ω_{0}t) and Sin(ω_{0}t), where ω_{0}- carrier frequency of the received signal. The use of quadrature channels allows to eliminate the influence of the random initial phase of the carrier wave. The outputs of multiplier products of the input signal is translated in videocasting region which are elements of a complex signal,
which are processed by two identical agreed filters.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that for normal operation of the detector requires a priori information about the frequency of the received signal to convert the signal at videobest and complexity of manufacturing the agreed filters, especially for large databases of signals used.

To eliminate the mentioned disadvantages of the analog detector prototype is proposed to use a digital detector of complex signals. Due to the fact that the carrier frequency of the received signal due to various reasons not known with the required accuracy serves to highlight modulating the function of a mixture of signal and noise is to use the autocorrelation method of signal processing, as the optimal method of reception of signals of unknown form. The autocorrelation method applied to the problem of allocation of elements of a complex signal is the multiplication of the received signal and delayed by the duration element in a complex signal.

Photomanipulating pseudorandom sequence of the received radio signal can be represented in the form

s_{1}(t)=Ad_{i}[rect(t-iτ)]Cos(ω_{0}t+ϕ_{0}), 0≤t≤T_{c}, i=0,1 ... N-1

where a is the signal amplitude;

ω_{0}that ϕ_{0}- carrier frequency and initial the phase of the harmonic oscillations;

T_{c}- duration signal;

τ - duration element signal;

d_{i}=(1, -1) - elements pseudo-random sequence;

In the interval duration element signal the result of the multiplication will be

y_{1}(t)=s_{1}(t)s_{1}(t-τ)=Ad_{i}Cos(ω_{0}t+ϕ_{0})Ad_{i-1}Cos(ω_{0}(t-τ)+ϕ_{0})=

=1/2A^{2}d_{i}d_{i-1}[Cos(ω_{0}τ)+Cos(2ω_{0}t-ω_{0}τ+2ϕ_{0})].

After adfilternone high-frequency component by using a lowpass filter will get

Z_{1}(t)=1/2A^{2}d_{i}d_{i-1}Cos(ω_{0}τ).

As can be seen, that when the autocorrelation processing eliminates the dependence on the initial phase ϕ_{0}harmonic oscillations, but there is a factor of Cos(ω_{0}τ)that depends on the value of the carrier frequency and duration of the element signal. To eliminate this dependency, you must enter the quadrature channel. Accept. the signal is passed through fazovrashchatelei chain π/2 and we obtain

S_{2}(t)=Ad_{i}[rect(t-iτ)]Cos(ω_{0}t+ϕ_{0}-π/2)=

=Ad_{i}[rect(t-iτ)]Sin(ω_{0}t+ϕ_{0}), 0≤t≤T_{c}, i=0,1 ... N-1.

After multiplication in the quadrature channel get

y_{2}(t)=s_{2}(t)s_{1}(t-4
)=Ad_{i}Sin(ω_{0}t+ϕ_{0})Ad_{i-1}Cos(ω_{0}(t-τ)+ϕ_{0})=

=1/2A^{2}d_{i}d_{i-1}[Sin(ω_{0}τ)+Sin(2ω_{0}t-ω_{0}τ+2ϕ_{0})].

At the output of the lowpass filter of the second channel will receive

z_{2}(t)=1/2A^{2}d_{i}d_{i-1}Sin(ω_{0}τ).

Note that the product of the elements of the sequence d_{i}d_{i-1}of the elements (1, -1) is equivalent to addition modulo two elements of d_{i}d_{i-1}composed of (1, 0). One of the properties of linear recurrence sequences is that, if the sequence is folded modulo two with the same sequence but shifted some unequal period of the signal the number of elements [2, p.58], we get the same sequence, but with a different shift. The same is true for sequences Golda, because they are obtained by summing modulo two two different recurrent sequences of maximal period. Thus, the sequence

d_{k}=d_{i}d_{i-1}, k=0, 1 ... N-1

will the same sequence as received, but with a different delay.

Hence, the outputs of low-pass filters in both channels is allocated modulating the function of the d_{k}with some unknown constant coefficients Cos(ω_{0}<
) and Sin(ω_{0}τ). Later in both channels is identical to the digital processing of the selected modulation function of the received signal.

Analog signals from outputs of low-pass filters in both channels is quantized. The sampling frequency associated with the maximum frequency spectrum of the modulating function. Typically, the emitted signal on the transmission side is limited by the range of the main lobe of the spectrum of the modulating function. The width of the main lobe is determined by the duration of elementary symbol and is equal to the clock frequency f_{τ}=1/τ, which must be taken for the maximum frequency of the spectrum discretizing signal, that is, f_{max}=f_{τ}. Then, according to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling frequency is chosen equal to

f_{d}≥2f_{max}=2f_{τ}.

To define the signal we will use the discrete convolution of two time functions - signal output from the quadrature channel and the reference signal generated in the generator copy of the signal of the detector. The calculation of the discrete convolution should be produced by the algorithm is not temporary, and in the spectral region, which requires fewer operations, especially when using the "fast Fourier transform".

Because the digital detector should produce the output signal coincident in shape with mutually-correlation function of the received and reference signals, the signal processing can be implemented by algorithm "high-speed convolution. After analog-to-digital conversion sequence is encoded in the number of times

x_{1}(k)=z_{1}(kT_{d}), k=0, 1 ... N_{d}-1,

where T_{d}the sampling interval equal to T_{d}=1/f_{d};

N_{d}=E_{C}[T_{c}/T_{d}] is the number of samples per signal duration;

E_{C}[x] is the integer part of the number x,

served on micropocessor system, performing a discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Its output is a sequence of spectral coefficients

S_{1}(n)=DFT[x_{1}(k)], n=0, 1 ... N_{d}-1

multiplied by the sequence of spectral coefficients

S0(n)=DFT[x_{0}(k)], n=0, 1 ... N_{d}-1,

obtained from the reference sequence generator of the copied signal. Thus obtained sequence

S10(n)=S1(n)S0(n), n=0, 1... N_{d}-1

exposed in microprocessore system inverse discrete Fourier transform (DPF)

H1(k)=DPF[S10(n)], k=0,1 ... N_{d}-1.

The output of the second quadrature channel similarly get

S2(n)=DFT[x_{2}(k)], S20(n)=S2(n)S0(n) and H2(k)=DPF[S20(n)].

In modern practice, DFT and ODPF is carried out in the same device. To eliminate the effect of the coefficients of Cos(ω_{0}τ) Sin(ω_{0}τ) the outputs of both channels vonvodat is to be squared and added.
Finally the output signal of the digital detector has the form

H(k)=[H1^{2}(k)+H2^{2}(k)]^{l/2}.

The claimed device with digital processing complex photomanipulating (0, π) signal is shown in figure 1. It contains:

1 - the delay circuit for the duration of the element signal τ;

2 - Phaser π/2;

3, 4, the first and second multiplier products;

5, 6, the first and second low pass filters;

7, 8, the first and second analog-to-digital converters;

9, 10, the first and second microprocessore system DFT;

11 - reference generator pseudo-random sequence;

12 - the third analog-to-digital Converter;

13 - microprocessor system DFT reference sequence;

14, 15 - the third and fourth multiplier products;

16, 17, the first and second micropocessor system ODPP;

18, 19, the first and second Quad;

20 - adder;

21 - arithmetic unit cure the square root of the number;

22 - threshold device;

23 - the pulse generator sampling;

24 is a frequency divider by two;

25 is a generator of clock pulses;

The device operates as follows. The received radio signal from the input of the detector is fed to the first input of the first multiplier (3) directly, and to the first input of the second multiplier (4) through a phase shifter on π/2 2).
On the second inputs of the multiplier products (3) and (4) the signal passes through delay element (1) for the duration of the element signal τ. The plot of the signals at the outputs of various devices of the digital detector is shown in figure 2. The first chart shows a pseudo-random sequence (modulating function) u(t)you want to allocate for processing, and the reference pseudosuchia sequence uo(t), which is supplied from the generator copy of the signal. The reference sequence is a mirror reflection of the received sequence, i.e. uo(t)=u(T_{c}-t), where T_{with}- the duration of the signal. Here are recurrent sequences maximum period of 15 elements. The second graph shows the function s1(t) - harmonic signal modulated by the phase sequence of u(t) with some delay. In the drawings, which shows two dependencies, one of them rises (or falls) for clarity. The third graph shows the dependence of y1(t) and y2(t) at the outputs of the first and second multiplier products. The fourth graph shows the signals (x1_{k}and x2_{k}with output filters low frequencies after sampling them in analog-to-digital converters. The signals x1_{k}and x2_{k}represent a sequence of digital samples, the following intervals sampling rate T_{d
. The last chart shows the inverse discrete Fourier transform for discrete convolutions signal of the first quadrature channel and the reference sequence N1kdiscrete convolution signal of the second channel and the reference sequence H2kand the resulting function Hk=(H1k 2+H2k 2)1/2}

which is a function of cross-correlation of the received signal and the reference sequence generator of the copied signal. Signal H_{k}and is the output of the digital detector, which detects the signal. After selecting the maximum count of H_{k max}and comparing it with a threshold, the decision about the signal, if it is exceeded.

Thus, the combination of the entered devices and their relationships allows to eliminate the influence of the a priori uncertainty about the carrier frequency and to carry out digital processing of the received signal for detection, which was absent in the prototype.

Therefore, the technical solution meets the criterion of "novelty". In addition, because the required technical result is achieved of all the newly introduced set of essential features, which are known in the patent and scientific literature is not detected on the day of filing, the invention meets the criterion of "from rettelse" level.

Sources of information

1. Varakin LA communication Systems with noise-like signals. - M.: Radio and communication, 1985. - 384 C., Il.

2. Dadonov N.G. and Senin A.I. Orthogonal and quasiorthogonal signals. Edited Amoresano. M: Communications, 1977. - 224 S., Il.

Digital detector complex signals containing the first and second multiplier products, Phaser π/2, characterized in that it further introduced the delay circuit for the duration of the element signal, the first and second low pass filters, first and second analog-to-digital converters, the first and second microprocessor systems the discrete Fourier transform, the generator of the reference pseudo-random sequence, the third analog-to-digital Converter, microprocessor system of the discrete Fourier transform of the reference pseudo-random sequence, third and fourth multiplier products, the first and second microprocessor systems inverse discrete Fourier transform, the first and second Quad, adder, arithmetic the device taking the square root of a number, a threshold device, the pulse generator sampling frequency divider by two, the clock, and the first input of the first multiplier connected to the input of the detector directly, the first input of the second multiplier connected to input about what augites through the Phaser on π /2, the second inputs of the first and second multiplier products connected to the input of the detector through a delay circuit for the duration of the element signal, the output of the first multiplier connected in series through the first low pass filter, the first analog-to-digital Converter, the first microprocessor system of the discrete Fourier transform, the third multiplier, the first microprocessor system inverse discrete Fourier transform and the first squarer connected to the first input of the adder, the output of the second multiplier connected in series through a second low pass filter, the second analog-to-digital Converter, the second microprocessor system of the discrete Fourier transform, the fourth multiplier, a second microprocessor system inverse discrete Fourier transform and the second the squarer connected to the second input of the adder, one output of the pulse generator sampling through serially connected frequency divider by two, the clock pulse generator of the reference pseudo-random sequence, the third analog-to-digital Converter and a microprocessor system of the discrete Fourier transform of the reference pseudo-random sequence is connected to the second inputs of the third and fourth multiplier products, another generator output pulse is s sample rate connected to the second inputs of the first, the second and third analog-to-digital converters, the output of the adder through the arithmetic unit taking the square root of a number is connected to the input of the threshold device, the output of the threshold device is a digital output detector complex signals.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in antiference radiolinks.

SUBSTANCE: the method is featured by the fact that the pseudorandom sequence with clock pulse f_{p} and for expansion of the spectrum is divided into two orthogonal sequences, one of which contains only even harmonics of the initial pseudorandom sequence, and the other - only the odd ones, then each of the obtained sequence is multiplied with a simple phase-manipulated signal, then the upper side band is separated from the spectrum of one obtained signal, and the lower side band - from the spectrum of the other signal, these unlike side bands are summed up, in each side band two narrow sections of the spectrum symmetrical relative to frequency f_{0}+1/2f_{p}, in the upper side band and relative to frequency f_{0}-1/2f_{p} in the lower side band, one of the separated sections of the spectrum in each side band of the separated spectrum sections is amplified to the known magnitude, and the other, symmetrical to it, is inverted, after which the separated and remained non-separated sections of the spectrum in both side bands are summed up, the separated narrow spectrum sections in each side band are altered according to the pseudorandom law.

EFFECT: enhanced anti-interference of the radiolink is attained due to the fact that in the method of normalization of the composite phase-manipulated signal consists in expansion of the spectrum of the simple phase-manipulated signal obtained by multiplication of the carrying sinusoidal oscillation with frequency f_{0} and the binary information signal.

6 dwg

**FIELD: radio engineering; portable composite phase-keyed signal receivers.**

**SUBSTANCE: proposed receiver has multiplier 4, band filter 6, demodulator 8, weighting coefficient unit 5, adding unit 7, analyzing and control unit 10, synchronizing unit 3, n pseudorandom sequence generators 2 ^{1 }through 2^{n}, decoder 1, and switch unit 9. Receiver also has narrow-band noise suppression unit made in the form of transversal filter. Novelty is that this unit is transferred to correlator reference signal channel, reference signal being stationary periodic signal acting in absence of noise and having unmodulated harmonic components that can be rejected by filters of simpler design than those used for rejecting frequency band of input signal and noise mixture. Group of synchronized pseudorandom sequence generators used instead of delay line does not need in-service tuning.**

**EFFECT: facilitated realization of narrow-band noise suppression unit; simplified design of rejection filters.**

**1 cl, 8 dwg**

**FIELD: automatic data acquisition systems. **

**SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed for data acquisition from burglar and fire alarm sensors, electricity, heat, and gas meters, and from fiscal memory of cash registers involves use of unique random or pseudorandom plurality of differences in initial phases of closest harmonic pairs, mentioned plurality being chosen so as to minimize peak factor of total signal. In case of operation of fire alarm sensor it is sufficient to transfer only one character to alarm control console unambiguously identifying location of operating sensor; as a rule, such character is conditional number or address pre-assigned to sensor.**

**EFFECT: reduced power requirement of subordinate system units and/or enhanced range of their operation.**

**1 cl, 2 dwg**

FIELD: communications.

SUBSTANCE: method and device realize nonlinear transformation, opposite to characteristic of communication channel, using digital block for input of pre-distortions relatively to input broadband signals. Signals with inputted pre-distortions after passing through conversion channel with increase of frequency are amplified by means of power amplifier. Portion of signals, received at output of power amplifier, is sent back to adaptive controller through connection means. Check communication signals are processed by adaptive controller to produce energy of out-band emission as goal function, parameters of pre-distortions of refreshed by using multi-parameter optimal value search module.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: each cell in communication system can function in accordance to a set of coefficients of decrease of power of transmission, providing for required power level for greater percentage of clients with concurrent decrease of interference level. Operation of cell phone cells is organized with use of adaptive repeated use algorithm, by means of which a possibility is provided to perform effective distribution and redistribution of system resources with consideration of changes, occurring in system.

EFFECT: higher speed of operation, higher efficiency.

24 cl, 17 dwg, 15 tbl

FIELD: communications.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, base station transfers into access terminal along direct traffic channel only when base station has data for sending to access terminal. Each access terminal generates periodic changes of data transfer speed on basis of received signal of direct communication line. Then, each access terminal minimizes period, within which it transfers along check communication line, without controlling power by disabling transmitter on basis of changes of speed of data transfer.

EFFECT: better traffic capacity.

6 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has transmitter radio signal exciter 1, power amplifier 2, low frequencies filter 3, in track of which first high-speed commutator is used on p-i-n diodes 12; control device 17, output of which is connected to control inputs of high-speed commutators on p-i-n diodes. Low-frequencies filter is made in form of serially connected resonance contours, and during operation of receiver control device provides for disabling of exciter and locking of power amplifier, and first high-speed commutator on p-i-n diodes connects one end of inductiveness coil to body, second end of which is low-frequency filter output.

EFFECT: higher speed of operation, higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: computer science.

SUBSTANCE: system has keyboards, output connecting device, central processor unit, modems, wireless communication device, identification block, processing center. Wireless communication device and each modem have a set-point generator, phase manipulator, scrambler, first mixer, first heterodyne, amplifier of first intermediate frequency, first power amplifier, duplexer, transceiver antenna, second power amplifier, second mixer, second heterodyne, amplifier of second intermediate frequency, multiplier, band filter, phase detector and descrambler.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

5 dwg

FIELD: communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: in communication system with alternating speed portions of frame are blocked in predetermined and predictable way, then power control commands identification is performed in closed cycle, of frames, erroneously generated on basis of blocked portions. Identified power control commands are ignored. If identification of erroneous power control command occurs after reaction of transmitting station to these commands, then transmitting station restores transfer energy in accordance to state, under which it was, if erroneous commands of power control were identified prior to reaction to them.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

7 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: radio communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: the system has one or several switching points and or several terminals keeping radio communication with the switching points, the graph in radio communication between the switching point and the terminal is transmitted in frame, the switching point is made for appointment of the transmission power over the descending communication line at least in two time intervals for the given terminal from the time intervals determined with the aid of the mentioned frame. The radio communication system switching point is made for generation of transmission power to the terminal at definite time intervals so that the ratio of radio signals transmission power to the terminal in each time interval and interference power caused by transmissions to other terminals would exceed the threshold value, predetermined on the power ratios in the time interval.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of transmission.

27 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering; digital audio-casting receivers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for reducing noise in frequency-modulated in-band digital channel audio-casting system includes reception of composite signal incorporating useful signal and noise signal; demodulation of composite signal to obtain first demodulated signal; calculation of first binary relaxed solution basing on first demodulated signal; processing of composite signal to obtain processed signal where frequency-modulated signal of first adjacent channel is suppressed; demodulation of processed signal to obtain second demodulated signal; calculation of second binary relaxed solution basing on second demodulated signal; and combining of first and second relaxed solutions to obtain output signal. Receivers implementing proposed method are also given in description of invention.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of suppressing noise from frequency-modulated signals with respect to digital part of audio-cast signal.

29 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: mobile communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: absolute-value character being transmitted presents forward-channel signal power at least in one time slot corresponding to chosen time slot, and relative-value character presents variation between forward-channel signal power in slot corresponding to one of mentioned remaining time slots and signal power of forward channel in preceding time slot.

EFFECT: enhanced quality and throughput capacity of forward channel.

60 cl, 17 dwg, 7 tbl

FIELD: signal transmission.

SUBSTANCE: the essence of proposed method of the frequency band division of a transmitted signal consists in the following: 1) the sum of one-band oscillation and its envelope are multiplied indirectly with unequally polar rectangular pulses; 2) the multiplication signal is coherently detected. In this case the frequency band decreases by two times. The device has a transmitted signal source, one-band oscillation shaper, envelope separator, adder of one-band oscillation and its envelope, 90° phase shifter, amplifier-amplitude limiter, differentiating circuit, trigger, member for exclusion of the constant component, signal multiplier, coherent detector and frequency divider by two times.

EFFECT: quality increase and decrease of the frequency band of a transmitted signal without loss of information.

2 cl, 2 dwg