Method of shooting of rocks with frozen earth spots

FIELD: mining; construction industry; methods of breaking rocks from massifs with lenticular permafrost massifs.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mining and construction and is intended for breaking rocks from massifs with the lenticular permafrost spots. The technical result is improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting. The method provides for boring of the downward primary and additionally boreholes, their charging with explosive charges (explosives), stemming of boreholes and firing of charges of explosives. At that while boring the primary boreholes in the case of presence of the lenticular permafrost spots determine their contours in plane and marks of the roofing and soil of these lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the boreholes. The additional boreholes they drill inside the contour with a crossover of the indicated lenticular permafrost spots, but not deeper than the primary boreholes, At that determine marks of the roofing and soil of the lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the additional boreholes, and at a charging of the additional boreholes the charges of explosives place inside the crossing lenticular permafrost spots.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and construction, and in particular to methods of blasting rocks with inclusions of permafrost on open-pit mining, and is intended for blasting rocks from arrays with lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

There is a method of blasting permafrost rocks, including drilling down-hole, loading charges explosives (he), stemming wells and blasting explosive charge. When this exercise crushing permafrost is not at full capacity, for example, in areas of permafrost, the same methods of blasting, and that rock [1], but with large specific costs CENTURIES [2].

However, the method does not provide a given degree of crushing when the detonations of rocks with lenticular inclusions of permafrost, as you increase the output characteristics of the zones of these inclusions and pereselenie mass containing a data enable.

The closest technical solution to the claimed method is blasting rocks with inclusions of permafrost in surface mining, including drilling down main and additional wells, the loading of the explosive charge, stemming wells and blasting explosive charge [3]. Additional wells have between the main wells and their depths are equal to the length of the stemming in the main.

This method E. fective when the detonations of rocks from the top of the seasonally frozen layer, but it does not provide high-quality crushing rocks with lenticular inclusions of permafrost, as these inclusions have a different position and power within destructible array.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of blasting rocks with lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

Achievable technical result is to increase the quality of crushed rock with lenticular inclusions of permafrost and the possibility of regulating the degree of fragmentation across the exploding volume of rocks.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of blasting rocks with inclusions of permafrost in surface mining, including drilling down main and additional wells, loading charges explosives (he), stemming wells and blasting explosive charge according to the invention in the process of drilling the main wells in the presence of lenticular inclusions of permafrost determine their path in the plan and mark the roof and floor of these inclusions in depth wells, additional wells are drilled inside the path with the intersection of these inclusions, but no deeper than the main wells, thus determine the level of the roof and soil inclusions in depth additional wells, and when charged additional wells charges In the place inside the crossed lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

In addition, all key wells, charged with explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

Also key wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, charge combined explosive charge, and within these inclusions place CENTURIES with greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES outside the inclusions, and other major well charge the explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

Instead of the combined explosive charge possible loading of the main wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, the explosive charge with a greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES in the charges of the other major wells.

However before loading additional wells produce stemming their bottom to a height of from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells above the soil lenticular inclusions, and charge these wells by the explosive charge, the height of which 2-5 diameters of the wells below the roof lenticular inclusions.

Perhaps stemming the bottom part of the additional wells to produce water, and loading their charges CENTURIES after the freezing of this water. It is also possible stemming the bottom of these wells to carry solid bulk Tabachnyk material, followed by pouring water in them, the amount of which will not exceed Iset volume migrenoznogo space specified tabachnogo material in the well.

Specified in the independent claim of the set of features includes all features, each of which are necessary and together sufficient to obtain a technical result.

Definition drilling of the main wells in the presence of lenticular inclusions of permafrost their contour in plan and elevations of the roof and floor of these inclusions in the depth of the wells allows you to set the parameters of occurrence of these inclusions inside destructible array, including their capacity for the depth of the wells, and to adjust the design and parameters of the explosive charge in the main wells to regulate the degree of fragmentation across the exploding volume of rocks. The location of additional wells within the outline plan lenticular inclusions of permafrost guarantees the intersection of each additional well data inclusions throughout their area within the shattered unit. The drilling of additional wells crossing these inclusions, but no deeper than the main wells, provides positioning and capacity of inclusions on the depth of each additional wells on the entire height of the destroyed volume of rocks. The above features allow to charge additional wells by blasting charges, which are evenly placed inside cross these wells lisoures the s inclusions permafrost throughout their area, and volume. This increases the energy saturation of the array inside the lens-shaped inclusions and improves the efficiency of their crushing. With this in mind, the totality of all features specified in the independent claim, really improves the quality of crushed rock with lenticular inclusions of permafrost and gives the ability to control the degree of fragmentation across the exploding volume of rocks that solves the problem of the invention to achieve a technical result.

Loading all major wells explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, technology simplifies loading and tamping wells, and installation of explosive network.

The loading of the main wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, combined explosive charge in which within these inclusions place CENTURIES with greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES outside the inclusions, and the loading of the rest of the main wells explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks containing these inclusions can further increase the energy saturation of the array inside the inclusions, to improve the efficiency of crushing and appropriate at a very considerable difference in the limit of the host rocks and inclusions, especially when pological the different temperatures, for example, in the summer.

The loading of the main wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, the explosive charge with a greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES in the charges of the other major wells, further improves the efficiency of the crushing of the inclusions and the host rocks and greatly simplifies the technology of loading these wells compared with their combined loading explosive charge.

The stemming bottom additional wells to a height of from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells above the soil lenticular inclusions of permafrost and the loading of these wells explosive charge, which height is 2-5 diameters of the wells below the roof inclusions, exclude the thrust of the explosion in the direction of the host rocks, with less resistance to blasting. Therefore, despite the decrease in the mass of the charges inside the inclusions, it also increases the efficiency of crushing. That is, the ends of the explosive charge in the additional wells must be from the soil and the roof of inclusions at a distance of from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells. At smaller distances may directed action explosion in the direction of the host rocks, and at large - a significant decrease in the weight of the charges inside the inclusions, which in both cases will lead to lower efficiency crushing inclusions. Smaller values of these distances sootvetstvuyushchim the diameters of the wells and lower power transmissions, and higher values smaller diameter wells and more power inclusions.

Application for tamping the bottom part of the additional water wells and loading their charges CENTURIES after freezing of this water improves the quality of tamping, as the water freezing into ice, it expands in volume and more tightly locks the bottom part of the wells, which further increases the efficiency of crushing lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

The stemming bottom additional wells solid bulk Tabachnyk material, followed by pouring into water, the volume of which does not exceed migrenoznogo space specified tabachnogo material in the well, allows for loading of additional wells immediately after pouring water. By the time of the explosion happens the freezing water, stemming turn into a monolith, will expand to lock the bottom part of the borehole even better than pure ice, owing to the greater its density and strength. This further increases the efficiency of crushing lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

Figure 1 shows the exploded block ledge career in the plan, figure 2 - section a-a figure 1.

The method is carried out by sequentially perform the following operations.

Taking into account the specific conditions (properties of the blasted rock mass containing the lens is exceptionally permafrost, cliff height and the angle of its slope, the diameter of the wells and the size limit of the conditional piece in the blasted rock mass) determined by publicly known methods or the results of previous explosions in similar conditions parameters downhole explosive charge without regard to the presence of inclusions.

In accordance with the found values of resistance for bench bottom, the distance between the wells in a row, the distance between the rows of wells, the length (depth) of the well, the angle of down-hole and the shape of the grid wells are drilling the main well (vertical or inclined).

In the process of drilling the main well change the drilling speed, color and condition issued on the surface of products of destruction determine the presence, contour in plan, mark the roof and floor and power lenticular inclusions of permafrost depth of each well.

Inside the loop in terms of lenticular inclusions of permafrost Buryats additional downstream wells. These wells are drilled with the intersection of these inclusions, but no deeper than the main wells. This also determines the level of the roof and the soil and the capacity of inclusions in depth additional wells.

Next make loading and stemming the main and additional wells.

When loading the main wells the following options:

1 - all key wells in the th number of cross lenticular inclusions of permafrost, charge the explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks containing these inclusions. This is the simplest and best option from the point of view of technology and performance loading and tamping wells, and installation of explosive network;

2 - key wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost charge combined explosive charge. Within these inclusions place CENTURIES with greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES outside of inclusions. Other key wells, charged with explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusions. This option is more complicated and less productive than the first one, but it provides a great possibility of regulating the degree of fragmentation across the exploding volume of rocks;

3 - key wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, charge the explosive charge with a greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES in charge of the rest of the main wells. This option has the main advantages of the first two options, and the feasibility of its application is determined by the capacity of inclusions and economic factors.

In the process of loading the main wells produce installation of downhole explosive networks, which is carried out by the method adopted in the enterprise.

After loading the main wells produce them more vulnerable the ku.

Additional wells, charged with explosive charge which is placed inside they crossed lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

Before loading additional wells produce stemming their bottom to a height of from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells above the soil lenticular inclusions. The stemming may be water, and the loading wells explosive charge after freezing of this water. It is also possible stemming the bottom of these wells to produce solid bulk Tabachnyk material, and then well be filled with water, the volume of which does not exceed migrenoznogo space specified tabachnogo material in the borehole. In both cases, the implementation of improved quality tamping, but the latter option is preferable, because the loading can be performed immediately after tamping the bottom of the well.

After tamping the bottom part of the additional wells performs the loading of the explosive charge, the height of which 2-5 diameters of the wells below the roof lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

Thus, the ends of the charges in the additional wells are separated from the soil and roof lenticular inclusions range from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells. Smaller values of these distances correspond to large diameter wells and lower power transmissions, and values smaller diameter wells and b is a larger capacity inclusions.

In the same way as when loading the main wells in the process of loading additional wells produce installation of downhole explosive networks, and at the end loader - stemming top uncharged part of the additional wells.

Any type suitable for the specific conditions the sequence of operations for loading the main and additional wells: after drilling; first key, and then additional wells;

individual rows of wells; the types used in the loading of EXPLOSIVES in case of use of various EXPLOSIVES and other Stemming top uncharged parts of the wells may also be performed in a different sequence: immediately after loading each well of the explosive charge, after the loading of all core and additional wells or be coincident in time with the loading of separate groups of wells.

After the stemming of all core and additional wells produce mounting surface explosive network, its connection with downhole explosive networks and borehole charges blasting EXPLOSIVES taken at one of the open-pit mining methods of blasting charges.

Examples of the method

In all embodiments produced blasting overburden in the coal mines. Rocks are the siltstone is, the mudstones and fractured sandstones. Within these host rocks were deposited lenticular inclusions of permafrost, which has greater resistance to blasting than the host rock.

The scarp N was equal to 12 m Diameter wells dSLEequal to the charge diameter dZARwas 160 mm (machine rotary drilling SBR-160). The down-hole direction is vertical. The specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES (Grammont 79/21) for enclosing rocks - 0.46 kg/m3. Capacity 1 L.M. wells at a density of loading of 850 kg/m3- 17,1 kg For the main wells made the following parameters: the distance between the wells in row a - 7 m; the distance between rows of wells b - 4 m; the shape of the grid wells - chess; depth of well lSLE- 13,5 m; the length of the tamping lZab- 4.5 m; length perebor llane1.5 m; the length of the charge lZAR- 9 M.

Example 1

On exploding the block was drilled in a staggered grid 7×4 m key wells 1-42 (Fig 1, 2). In the process of drilling established that well 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12-17, 19-24, 26-28, 30, 31, 34 and 35 cross lenticular inclusion 43 permafrost (figure 2), the contour of which in figure 1 is shown in dashed lines. When this depth of each well were determined level of the roof 44 (figure 2) and soil 45 43 inclusion and its power.

Next, on the basis of the results obtained within the path in the PL does not include 43 drilling additional wells 46-64 (figure 1) crossing the inclusion 43, but no deeper than the main wells and determined the level of the roof and soil and switching power, depth additional wells.

Then spent loading all major wells 1-42 charges 65 (figure 2) Grammont 79/21, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusion 43, with simultaneous installation of downhole explosive networks (not shown) and stemming the top uncharged parts 66 wells solid bulk Tabachnyk material (cutoff concentrator or other).

Additional wells 46-64 charged charges 67 Grammont 79/21, which was placed inside the lens-shaped inclusions 43, and at the same time carried out the installation of downhole explosive networks (not shown). But before loading additional wells were producing stemming their bottom 68 water to a height (distance) from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells above the soil 45 enable 43, and the loading was started after the freezing water. The height h of the charges 67 additional wells 46-64 took below of the roof 44 enable 43 also at a distance equal to from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells. Smaller values of distances corresponded with lower power enable 43, and higher values more power enable. Figure 2 power lenticular inclusions 43 is 1,84 m, 4.2 m and 6.2 m for additional wells 54, 55 and 56 according to the government. Therefore, the distance amounted to wells 54 - 2dSLEor 0,32 m wells 55 - 3,5dSLEor 0.56 m and wells 56 - 5dSLEor 0.8 m Similarly determined distances with other additional wells. Then made stemming top uncharged parts 69 additional wells in the same solid bulk Tabachnyk material (cutoff concentrator).

After the stemming of all wells, surface mounted explosive network (not shown), connected it with downhole explosive networks and carried out the blasting hole charges CENTURIES.

Example 2

The blasting unit was carried out as in example 1, but stemming the bottom part 68 (2) additional wells 46-64 (1, 2) made of solid granular material (cutoff concentrator). After these wells were filled with water, the volume of which amounted to 30-40% of the volume specified tabachnogo material in the borehole, i.e. does not exceed the amount of its migrenoznogo space. Charged additional wells 46-64 charges 67 Grammont 79/21 immediately after tamping their bottom 68.

Example 3

The blasting unit was carried out as in examples 1 or 2. However, the basic well 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12-17, 19-24, 26-28, 30, 31, 34 and 35 (Fig 1, 2)crossing the lenticular inclusion 43 permafrost charge combo for the poisons CENTURIES (not shown). Inside inclusion 43 posted CENTURIES with greater concentration of energy and heat of explosion (granulit AC-8)than the BB out on Grammont 79/21). Other key wells 1,2 4, 5, 8, 11, 18, 25, 29, 32, 33 and 36-42 charged, as in examples 1 or 2, charges 65 Grammont 79/21, that is, the charges corresponding to the properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusion 43.

Example 4

The blasting unit was carried out as in examples 1 or 2. However, the basic well 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12-17, 19-24, 26-28, 30, 31, 34 and 35 (Fig 1, 2)crossing the lenticular inclusion 43 permafrost, charged with charges of granulite AC-8, having a greater concentration of energy and heat of the explosion than Grammont 79/21, which I owe to the rest of the basic well 1,2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 18, 25, 29, 32, 33 and 36-42.

Sources of information

1. Technical rules of blasting on the surface. - M.: Nedra, 1972, s.

2. Guide to drilling and blasting method of loosening of frozen and permafrost soils and tills. - M.: stroiizdat, 1972, p.9.

3. Kutuzov BN. The destruction of rocks by explosion. Textbook for high schools. 3rd ed., Rev. and supplementary): MHI, 1992, s.

1. Blasting rocks with inclusions of permafrost in surface mining, including drilling down main and additional wells, loading charges explosives (he), stemming wells and blasting charges In the, characterized in that in the process of core drilling wells in the presence of lenticular inclusions of permafrost determine their path in the plan and mark the roof and floor of these inclusions in depth wells, additional wells are drilled inside the path with the intersection of these inclusions, but no deeper than the main wells, thus determine the level of the roof and soil inclusions in depth additional wells, and when charged additional wells, the explosive charge is placed inside the crossed lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that all the main borehole charge of the explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the main wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, charge combined explosive charge, and within these inclusions place CENTURIES with greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES outside the inclusions, and other major well charge the explosive charge, the relevant properties of rocks, containing lenticular inclusions of permafrost.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the main wells crossing lenticular inclusions of permafrost, charge the explosive charge with a greater concentration of energy of the explosion than CENTURIES in the charges remaining basically the wells.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before loading additional wells produce stemming their bottom to a height of from 2 to 5 diameters of the wells above the soil lenticular inclusions.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional wells, charged with explosive charge, which height is 2-5 diameters of the wells below the roof lenticular inclusions.

7. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the stemming bottom additional wells produce water, and loading their charges CENTURIES after freezing the water.

8. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the stemming bottom additional wells produce solid bulk Tabachnyk material, and then these wells fill in water, the volume of which does not exceed migrenoznogo space specified tabachnogo material in the well.



 

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4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining of mineral raw material, applicable at opening of workings or manbreaking.

SUBSTANCE: a trapezoidal recess is made in the cartridge-shape charge of blasting destruction obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the charge. The recess is positioned at the cut of the generating line and the change end face. In the charged blast-hole (or well) the recess is directed towards the non-charged blast-hole or towards the additional exposed plane.

EFFECT: enhanced utilization factor at opening of workings and holes at mass breaking.

8 dwg

Method of blasting // 2260770

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises making well charge of individual members of the blasting agents that receive one or several strikers. The members are separated with spaces filled with a liquid with a density of 800-1400 kg/m3. The strikers are actuated so that the detonation of blasting agent is completed simultaneously in the bulk. The height of the active section of the charge of blasting agent interposed between the boundaries of the liquid and location of the striker are calculated from the formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry; openpit mining of ferruginous quartzites.

SUBSTANCE: method is proposed in two versions. According to first version, method includes drilling at bench parallel rows of vertical boreholes at angle β relative to strike line of layers determined by the following relationship: β=arc cos (cos 45°-sinγ·cosα)/(sinα·cosγ), where α is angle of dip; γ is angle between plane of blast wave front and vertical. Then, boreholes are charged with explosive followed by tamping at simultaneous blasting in each row for forming inclined compression blast wave. According to second version, proposed method includes drilling parallel rows of vertical boreholes at angle β relative to strike line determined by the following relationship: β= arc cos (cos 45°-sinγ·cosα/(sinα·cosγ)±ψ, where α is angle of dip; γ is angle between plane of compression blast wave front and vertical; ψ is angle of turn of compression blast wave front around vertical axis relative to strike line which is determined as follows: ψ=arc sin(υel·t/L) where υel is velocity of propagation of elastic wave in mass; t is interval of time between blasts of charges in first and last boreholes of row; L is length of this row of boreholes; sign of angle ψ is selected that angle between line of each row of boreholes and line of crest of bench of shoulder is close to or is equal to 90°, after which boreholes are charged with explosive followed by tamping and successive blasting in each row forming inclined compression blast wave.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of softening the ore.

3 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: mining; construction industry; methods of breaking rocks from massifs with lenticular permafrost massifs.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mining and construction and is intended for breaking rocks from massifs with the lenticular permafrost spots. The technical result is improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting. The method provides for boring of the downward primary and additionally boreholes, their charging with explosive charges (explosives), stemming of boreholes and firing of charges of explosives. At that while boring the primary boreholes in the case of presence of the lenticular permafrost spots determine their contours in plane and marks of the roofing and soil of these lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the boreholes. The additional boreholes they drill inside the contour with a crossover of the indicated lenticular permafrost spots, but not deeper than the primary boreholes, At that determine marks of the roofing and soil of the lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the additional boreholes, and at a charging of the additional boreholes the charges of explosives place inside the crossing lenticular permafrost spots.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: mining art, applicable for mining by open method in rocky and semirocky rocks at placing of high benches on planned contour.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in collaring of inclined holes from the upper bench to be height of a doubled bench, for production of a cut-off slot at formation of the upper inclined part of the bench and contour vertical holes from the intermediate bench to the same depth for formation of the lower vertical part of the bench, loading and blasting. The novelty in the method is in the fact that the drilling of holes of the contour row from the intermediate bench is performed in three stages: initially in the first stage drilled is the part, of inclined holes from the initial to the final point of the section of sloping with one direction of inclination, in the second stage drilled are the inclined holes of the contour row having the same inclination and the same distance between the holes as in the first stage, but in the contrary direction, in the third stage between the mentioned inclined contour holes drilled are vertical contour holes, the inclined holes of the contour row are loaded by a permanent charge from the face to the mouth of the holes, and in the vertical contour holes positioned between the inclined contour holes, the amount of the charge is changed successively from the face to the mouth, corresponding to the minimum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench is the minimum charge in the vertical contour hole, which in proportion with removal from the bottom of the lower bench successively increases, reaching its maximum value at the bottom of the intermediate bench, at the maximum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench the value of the charge in the vertical contour hole from the face to the mouth is changed in the reverse order.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sloping.

7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining industry, applicable in driving of horizontal workings.

SUBSTANCE: compensation and blast holes are drilled in a rock mass over the entire length of the raise. The blast holes are charges partially or completely, and they are subjected to a short-delay blasting into compensation holes and then the formed compensation cavities. The interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession, depending on the detonation characteristics of the explosive, charge diameter, physico-technical properties of the rock mass, height and diameter of the newly formed compensation cavities should provide for breaking of the rock from the mass and full outburst of the rock mass from the cavity, i.e. to prevent the pressing effect of the rock mass in the contour of the raise.

EFFECT: determined the interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession with prevention of the rock mass pressing in the contour of the raise, which allows to increase the height of the blasted section and enhance the physico-technical properties of the raise driving.

1 dwg, 1 ex, 2 tbl

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