Method for heating of drying drum of, for example, smoothing machine from the inside by means of linear emitters of infrared radiation with restricted wavelength

FIELD: elongated material drying processes used for heating drums of smoothing and finishing machines in textile engineering and pulp-and-paper industry, drums in polymeric film production, and also for drying of sewing articles after washing, for example, of passenger's bed cloths in railway transport, as well as in depot.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing drum inner surface to infrared radiation with restricted wavelength, said radiation being emitted from three linear emitters arranged in parallel with axis of rotation in spaced relation with respect to rotating cylindrical surface; furnishing linear emitters with reflectors and attaching to immovable pin so that they define apexes of isosceles triangles, which may be rotated relative to pin with following fixing thereof; connecting emitters through voltage regulator to power supply network as parallel electric resistors. Method provides for simultaneous maximal heating of drum cylindrical wall in the region thereof contacting with material to be dried.

EFFECT: simplified adjustment procedure, reduced power consumption and increased efficiency in utilizing of electric energy, and wider operational capabilities.

2 cl, 6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the drying of long materials: wet textile fabrics, weaving beam after Litovka, paper; fabric, as well as heating film materials relating to or covering the rotating cylindrical surface, and for drying textiles.

1. The level of technology.

Known methods of heating the drying drum by continuous feed in their inner cavity of superheated steam with the simultaneous discharge of condensate[1, 2, 3, 4]. The disadvantages of these methods are the difficulty of obtaining and transporting steam, the complexity of removing and disposing of the condensate, the need to use large amounts of water, suitable for drinking, and it is processed.

Known methods of heating the drying drum by using as a coolant of the combustion products of different natural gases, including the burning of the gas mixture inside the drum[5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Compared to steam heat the products of combustion of gaseous fuels allow for a higher temperature of the heating drum. The disadvantages of these methods are the fire hazards, the complexity of communications for supplying combustible gases or hot mixtures after burning, the harmfulness for the environment of both the combustion products and condensate. In addition to burning it is adimy high air flow and complex design of nozzles and nozzles inside the drum.

A known method of heating the drying drums built-in rotating transformer [11]. The transformer of length equal to the length of the drum, for example a three-phase, placed inside the drum. Active load of the transformer are the jackets with the ends of the drum. The transformer is heated, heats the cylindrical shell of the drum.

The disadvantages of this method are the low efficiency and high consumption of electricity; the need for complex and bulky insulation of all parts of the drum; high design complexity, its installation and Assembly, high intensity.

Known methods of heating the drying drums inside the high-frequency currents, placing inside the drum on the fixed axis of a cylindrical one-piece or composite inductors with a gap relative to the inner wall of the drum[12, 13, 14, 15]. The most important disadvantages of these methods are: high complexity, requiring high frequency generators, protective screens, etc.; low efficiency; the inability to manufacture drum light non-ferrous metals or plastics, which are not induced eddy currents; high energy intensity of the heat and the inability to control the temperature.

The known method of contact electrical heating of the cylindrical wall from the inside [16, 17]. In this way a pair of e is Strogov loose heat conductive powder, placed between them, which, in turn, through contact with the shell of the drum heats it. The implementation of this method is the most simple. The disadvantages include high intensity. This is due to the fact that the powder is poured down and can be located only in the lower part of the drum, and the heat of the wall of the drum should be delivered in the contact zone, a drying material with the cylindrical wall of the drum. Blown air from the outside cylindrical wall is continuously cooled, so the powder is heated and not in the zone of drying cloths.

2. The closest technical solution (prototype) found during the patent information research ways of heating is a heating method of the drying drum through line heater limited length, freely suspended on a stationary axle, inside the drum, parallel to the generatrix of its cylindrical surface [18]. Part of the internal cavity of the drum filled with heat transfer fluid (water)in contact with the linear heater, and the heater through the hollow stationary axle is connected to the electrical network.

When power is applied, the heater heats the water, and the water heats the cylindrical shell of the drum in the region of their contact.

The advantage of the prototype compared to counterparts who is the simplicity of the method and its functioning.

3. Barriers to obtaining technical results.

3.1. The inability to provide sufficient heating of the cylindrical wall of the drum. This is because electrical energy through heating of the linear heater and due to its contact with water, heats the water. At boiling water temperature may not exceed 100-105°whereas the required temperature of the cylindrical outside wall should reach 120-140°in the area of contact with the dried material, such as a grinding machine[1, 2] [1, 2].

When boiling the steam rising from the water, through contact with the inner cylindrical rotating drum surface, condenses and flows down, the cooling water. A rotating cylindrical shell of the drum is intensively cooled by outside air, and in the area of contact with her dried material is cooled material. The cooling water in the zone of its contact with the linear heater through condensation occurs in cycles: the water boils → vapor deposited on the inner walls of the → going to drop → the condensate drains → water cooled, ceases to boil → again boils etc.

The uneven heating of the wall of the drum is obvious. In addition, the evaporation of the water cannot be heated continuously cooling the cylinder surface, even up to 80°C.

3.2. Insufficient function of the national capabilities of the method.

This drawback is due to the fact that the greatest heating of the drum is provided only in his limited lower part, while the drying material on the grinding machine comprises a cylindrical surface in an arc up to 180° and top, bottom, and sides [1, 2].

3.3. Specific requirements for the material of construction of the drum. Because of continuous contact with hot water and fumes that must be corrosion-resistant alloys. This makes the implementation of the method is still expensive.

Thus, the method declared in the prototype, functionally unusable.

However, the linear heater, for example in the form of direct PETN, by its physical nature is a good linear source of infrared (heat) radiation. The heating elements are well known and are used mainly for heating by contact with a liquid or solid medium.

The main drawback of the linear infrared emitters (e.g., heating Elements) is a uniform dispersion of the energy of radiation in all directions from its axis.

4. The characteristics of the prototype, coinciding with the proposed technical solution.

Linear infrared emitter placed inside the drum, parallel to the generatrix of the cylindrical shell attached to a stationary hollow axis, through which is electrically connected to the power source.

5 object of the present invention to provide the following technical results.

5.1. Maximum heating of the cylindrical wall of the drum in the zone of its contact with the dried material and facilitating adjustments.

5.2. Reducing energy consumption and increasing the efficiency of energy use.

5.3. The extension functionality.

6. These technical results in the present method of heating the drying drum, for example, grinding machine from within a linear emitters of infrared radiation of limited length, in which these emitters have inside the drum with a gap relative to its inner surface, parallel to its surface and attach them to a stationary hollow axle, through the cavity of which is electrically connected to a source of electrical energy is achieved by the fact that the emitters are attached to the axis firmly, placing them so that one of them come under the line of contact of the dried material with a cylindrical body of the drum, the second feature by the middle of the arc of contact of the body with the material, and the third have in the middle between the first and second opposite relative to the axis side of the inner cavity, combining its functions heater with the function of contrast to the first two so that the overall center of gravity of the three emitters closer to the geometric axis of the drum. The emitters are placed in the focus of each concave of otragatel is, each of which is connected to the emitters tightly, placing them with a gap relative to the inner cylindrical surface, directing it reflected radiation flux.

The inner cylindrical surface make black and the hollow shaft is fixed with the possibility of angular displacement and subsequent fixing, connecting the emitters to the electric network as a parallel electrical resistance across the voltage regulator.

7. The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows schematically part of the drying section of the machine, similar sizing SHB 11/180-TO-3M-2 1992 release; figure 2 schematically shows a longitudinal section of the drying drum; figure 3 schematically shows a cross-section of the drum; figure 4 functional diagram of the heating of the cylindrical shell (wall) of the drum linear infrared emitter limited length; figure 5 shows a diagram of a serial connection of the emitters to the electrical network; figure 6 shows a diagram of a parallel connection of the emitters to the electrical network;

Schematic design illustrating the implementation of the method include the section (figure 1) drying drums 1, 2 (for grinding machine eleven of them)installed on the 3 axes in the fixed support 4 with the possibility of rotation. For rotating drums provided with kinematics the th transmission, for example, the sprocket 5 and the circuit 6, which is similar kinematically connected to the drive motor (not shown). The outer surface of the drums 1 and 2 interacts with covering their dryable long material 7, for example, weaving a needle on a grinding machine. The drums 1 and 2 are identical. Their differences lie in the fact that the drum 1 is covered by material 7 from above, and the drum 2 from below.

Clothes dryer 1, 2 includes a cylindrical housing 8 (2), the ends of which the left and right stationary, for example by bolts or screws 9 (shown conventionally), attached flat cap 10 with the pins 11. These cylindrical pins 11 through bearings 12 drum 1, (2), (8, 9, 10, 11) installed in the fixed support 4 of the vehicle body (not shown). The left trunnion 11 is equipped with a sprocket 5, interacting with the kinematic transmission 6 (figure 1). The trunnion 11 is made with a through axial holes (in the drawings are not marked). In these openings by means of bearings 13 on the inside of the drum 1 (2) coaxially him, with the possibility of rotation in bearings 13 mounted hollow axis 14, for example a pipe of circular cross-section. End of axle 14, opposite the sprocket 15 is made longer than the axle 11, and extends from the outside of the trunnion 11 part still clamped, for example, the screw 15 in a stationary bracket 16. To the hollow axis 14 within the bar which bans 1, 2, along her form, with three rows, two in a row, radially and rigidly attached (e.g. welded) to the hollow tube 17. Tube 17 is connected to the axle 14, forming an axial clearance with the lid 10, and the opposite from the axis 14 to the ends of the tubes 17 still attached ends (e.g., glued) to the generatrix of the cylindrical body 8 (parallel to the axis 14) and with a gap relative to the housing 8 linear emitters of infrared radiation 18. The tube 17 between the emitters 18 and the axle 14 in the same row ends still attached concave reflectors 19 (e.g., soldered) so that parallel their emitters 18 (for example, straight tubular heating Elements are located in the focal axis F of the reflectors 19 (Fig 3, 4). The rows of tubes 17 is attached to the axis 14 so that the angle between the first pair 17A (between the first row 17A) tubes 17 and the second pair 17B (3) is 90°and between the second pair 17B and the third pair 17V - this angle is 135°. Electric wires 20 (2) the ends of the emitters 18 through the internal cavity of the tubes 17 (17A, 17B, 17C) and the internal cavity axis 14 is connected to the voltage regulator (power) 21 (for example, Lattre), which, in turn, is connected to an electrical network ˜U.

Concave reflectors 19 are mounted with a gap between their edges and the cylindrical body 8, the reflecting surface towards the inner surface of the housing 8, what their profile is made of a parabolic or semi-circular (figure 4) with the circle center 0 and radius R. The focal axis F of the round reflectors 19 is located at a distance of 1/2R from the center 0 and the plane passing through the points 0 and F divides the cross-section of the reflectors 19 in half.

The emitters 18 wiring 20 is connected to an electrical network ˜U parallel to (6) or sequentially (figure 5).

The diagrams and drawings are also indicated: LK (1, 3) - tangent line material 7 of the outer surface of the drums 1, 2 (buildings 8). This line LK generatrix of the cylinder 8 is the beginning (in the direction of travel of the material 7) arc coverage (180°) the material 7 of the housing 8. ← ω (1, 3) - direction angular speed of rotation of the drums 1, 2.

The inner surface of the cylindrical body 8 is made of black 22 (figure 4), for example, is painted with black paint.

8. Implementation of the proposed method of heating the drying cylinder is as follows.

The voltage regulator 21 is connected to the electric circuit ˜U and set half of the electric power supplied through the wiring 20 to the linear infrared emitter limited length 18. The drums 1 and 2 slashing machine filled with long dried material 7 (Fig.). While the emitters 18, radiating heat to the inner cylindrical surface through its directional reflection by the reflector 19 is heated in the half-heat. Loosening the screw 15, the axis 14 (2) p is voracious so, that one series of tubes (17)-17B together with the emitter 18 and the reflector 19 is located below the line touch the PC drum 1 (2) with the material 7; the second row of tubes (17)-17A emitter 18 and the reflector 19 is placed under the middle of the arc of coverage of the drum 1 (2) material 7, and the third row of tubes (17)-17V placed in the middle between the rows 17A and 17B with the opposite about them apart from the axis 14 (Fig 3).

Since the majority of models, sizing machines, the angle of coverage of 180°, to cover an arc of 180° the angle between the rows 17A and 17B install 90°whereas the angle between the rows 17A and 17B, as well as between 17B and 17C same - 135°. Tube 17 in advance rigidly connected to the axle 14, so the installation of heaters 18 is realized once, and then fix the axis 14 by a screw 15, set by the regulator 21 full strength for the emitter 18, simultaneously including the drive of the machine (not shown). The emitters 18 by means of reflectors 19 are heated cylindrical body 8 of the drums 1, 2, and the transmission 5, 6 rotates the reels 1, 2, moving the material 7 to the cylindrical covered and heated surfaces of these drums. In the contact process wet material 7 with the heated wall 8 of the drums 1 and 2, the moisture from the material evaporates and, passing from the surface 7 of one of the drum (for example, 1) to another (e.g., 2), the material 7 is gradually dried. It is suitable for all kinds of what is the main purpose of slashing machine and dryer.

Located below the line LK emitter reflector 18 19 all the heat energy radiates in the contact zone LK supporting wall 8, moving together with the material 7 to the row of tubes 17A. Advancing the casing 8 with the material 7 from a number 17B to a number of heat 17A of the housing 8 is given to the material 7, the moisture evaporates and the wall of the housing 8 is cooled. A number 17A emitter 18 of the reflector 18 is additionally heated wall 8 in the middle of the arc of coverage of the housing 8 material 7. Additional heating walls (material) in the middle of the arc increases blogospere.

Thus, the placement of one of the radiator below the line of contact LC, and the other in the middle of the arc of coverage mentioned above makes it possible to heat the wall of the drum directly on the surface of touch with her material. However, such placement of the rows 17A and 17B creates unbalanced their total weight, inconvenience angular rotation axis 14 and increasing the strength of the clamping screw 15 (figure 2).

In addition, after the release of the rotating body 8 from contact with the material 7 it cools the surrounding air in an arc of approximately 180° (3).

The third emitter 18 with a reflector 19 with tubes 17B creates additional heating wall 8 of the drum 1 (2).

Air cooling wall 8 is considerably weaker than in contact with the material 7, so that the area of a number of 17th century in the region of a number of 17B (LK) corpus receives heated. Additional heating of the case in the field of LC creates maximum (relative to other areas of heating) the heating temperature, which is essential when the contact of the body with cold wet material.

Third row 17B with the heater 18 and the reflector 19 in addition to intermediate and vital to the heating wall 8 of the drum 1 (2), the compensating cooling of the blown air, plays an important role counterweight. Actually a lot of a number of tubes 17B with the reflector and heater balances the weight of the rows 17A and 17B (with emitters and reflectors) with respect to axis 14. This facilitates the rotation axis 14 (e.g., manually) and the set position of the emitters inside the drum 1 (2). For clamping axis 14 does not require a large effort and a single screw 15.

Thus, this is the first technical result in the task of the invention: maximum heating of the cylindrical wall of the drum in the area of its contact with the drying drum by placing one emitter of infrared radiation below the line of contact of the drum with the material at the beginning of the contact, and the second emitter in the middle of the arc of contact. When the desired maximum temperature of the drum under the tangent line LK provide, placing third emitter between the first two in the middle ove the opposite side of the axis.

This placement of the third emitter allows to combine its heating function with the function of a stabilizer, thereby to balance the mass of the first two and to facilitate adjustment emitters at their location inside the drying drum.

In cases where the arc of coverage of the material of the drum is, for example, 120°, the angle between the rows of tube-heater in the area of this arc is 60°and between the intermediate (balanced) and main - 150°.

Structurally, the heater elements (axis 14, the tube 17, the emitter 18 and the reflector 19) is identical for all drums particular drying machine, such as slashing.

The location of emitters of infrared radiation 18 in the focus F of the concave, for example, on a circle with radius R allows all the heat radiation guide in the area of heating, and to direct parallel beam [19]. Black surface 22 of the inner surface of the cylinder 8 (figure 4) absorbs more than 90% of the heat radiated energy radiation and rapidly diffuses the heat to the outer surface of the drum, and the mass of the moving wall 8 is the battery and the heat conductor. Install reflectors 19 with a clearance relative to the rotating surface 22 (figure 4) allows you to compress drop to the surface of the air to condense it into the gaps and work harder to heat the air near the wall the key 22 in the area of the emitters.

In the course of rotation of the drums heated air accompanies the surface 22, reducing its rate of cooling. This layer of heated air in contact with the surface 22, is also an additional source of heating the wall of the drum from the inside.

The emitters of infrared radiation 18 may be connected to an electrical network ˜U consistently (figure 5) or in parallel (6). However, the electrical power P consumed by the emitters in these connections, not the same. Using the known formula

where U is the voltage; R0the total resistance.

Note that this power is smaller, the greater the overall resistance.

At the same electrical resistance R of each transducer 18 serial connection gives R0=3R as the sum of the three R [20]. With a parallel connectionBecausethe parallel connection of the emitters gives less consumption of electricity for heating.

Thus, this is the second technical result in the problem of the invention is the reduction in energy consumption and increase efficiency of energy use.

Small, consumed by the heaters 18 power corresponds to a lower temperature they heat and less temperaturesare cylindrical wall 8 of the drum 1 (2). This is necessary when low humidity dries the material 7.

In cases of high moisture content of this material and, if necessary, rapid heating of the cylindrical wall 8 of the linear heaters 18 is connected in an electric circuit in series (figure 5). Using a serial connection (figure 5) or parallel connection (6) linear electric heaters, it is preferable to dry the material 7, respectively, very humid, with humidity up to 95% (for example, when drying paper suspensions in the manufacture of paper) and sredneplodny, with humidity up to 65% (e.g., weaving the needle at the sizing machines or linen after washing and cake in the centrifuge).

Infrared (heat) radiation and hot boundary layer of air near the inner surface of the cylindrical body are chemically inert to the material of this case. Therefore, the cylindrical body of the drums may be made of any available, inexpensive materials, expanding the functionality of the method.

Thus, this is the third technical result of the task of the invention is the extension of functionality.

Sources of information

1. Technical description and instructions for installation and adjustment of the machine SHB 11/180-TO-3M-2. Ed plant "Vicugnas", GLISPA, And hanowski region, 1992.

2. Patent of Russia №2037588, class D 06 21/00, epubl.

3. U.S. patent No. 4949475, CL F 26 13/16 In, 21.08.1990.

4. Patent of great Britain No. 1238757, CL F 26 B 13/14.

5. USSR author's certificate No. 1605085, CL F 26 B 13/06, epubl,

6. USSR author's certificate No. 579689, CL F 26 B, epubl,

7. U.S. patent No. 4683015, CL F 26 B 3/24, 1987.

8. USSR author's certificate No. 118224, CL F 26 B, 1972.

9. Patent of Russia №2027131, CL F 26 B 13/14, epubl.

10. Patent of Russia №2137996, CL F 26 B 13/14.

11. USSR author's certificate No. 90517, CL F 26 B 13/14 (declared 20.08.1948, epubl year).

12. USSR author's certificate No. 220744, class D 21 F 5/02, 1952.

13. Patent of great Britain No. 2227823 A, class F 26 B 13/14.

14. USSR author's certificate No. 731234, CL F 26 B 13/18, epubl.

15. Patent of Russia №2177129, CL F 26 B 13/18, epubl.

16. USSR author's certificate No. 514177, CL F 16 B 13/18, epubl.

17. the Federal Republic of Germany patent No. 1226287, NCI 39A37/14, 1966.

18. USSR author's certificate No. 596795, CL F 26 B 13/18, epubl.

19. Jarir. Physics. M.: Izd. Mir, 1981, Vol.2 str.

20. Jarir. Physics. M.: Izd. Mir, 1981, vol. 1 str.

1. The method of heating the drying drum, for example, slashing machine inside a linear source of infrared radiation of limited length, in which these emitters have inside the drum with a gap relative to its inner surface, parallel to its surface and priciple is tons of them to a stationary hollow axle, through which they are electrically connected to a power source, characterized in that the emitters are attached to the axis rigidly, by placing the emitters so that one of them come under the line of contact of the dried material with a cylindrical body of the drum, the second feature by the middle of the arc of contact of the body with the material, and the third feature in the middle between the first and second opposite relative to the axis side of the inner cavity, combining its functions heater with the function of contrast to the first two so that the overall center of gravity of the three emitters closer to the geometric axis of the drum, while the emitters are placed in the focus of each concave reflector, each of which is connected with the emitter tightly, placing them with a gap relative to the inner cylindrical surface, directing it reflected radiation flux, and this surface to make black and the hollow shaft is fixed with the possibility of angular displacement and a subsequent commit.

2. The method of heating the drying drum, for example, slashing machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the emitters of infrared radiation is connected to an electrical network as serial or parallel electrical resistance through the regulator voltage.



 

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