Process of steam catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feedstock

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon/steam mixture is subjected to preliminary reforming stage in contact with first steam reforming catalyst enclosed within externally heated preliminary reforming reactor in passage for furnace gas escaping from steam reforming reactor with flame heating. Stream subjected to preliminary reforming and escaping from preliminary reforming reactor comes into contact with second steam reforming catalyst enclosed within steam reforming reactor with flame heating. Process may further comprise stage wherein stream subjected to preliminary reforming interacts with third reforming catalyst disposed outside of furnace gas passage between preliminary reforming reactor outlet (in furnace gas passage) and inlet of steam reforming reactor with flame heating.

EFFECT: prolonged undisturbed process period.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The present invention relates to a process for catalytic reforming with water vapor hydrocarbons, particularly to a method of catalytic reforming with water vapor of hydrocarbons.

Pre-reforming of hydrocarbons for the production of synthesis gas is well known to specialists. Pre-reforming process is usually used in the case of a hydrocarbon feedstock containing higher hydrocarbons, or to improve the performance of existing installations reformer. The processed gas from hydrocarbons and water vapor when it is introduced into the reactor pre-reformer at temperatures of about 450-550°C. When the reaction of reforming with water vapor flowing in the reactor pre-reformer, the temperature of the processed gas generally decreases when the pre-reforming process is carried out in adiabatic conditions.

In industrial plants for production of synthesis gas recycle gas is then heated to the temperature desired at the inlet of the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating due to heat exchange with the hot flue gas exhaust from the reactor reformer with fire heating. The average temperature at the entrance to the industrial reactor reformer is between 600 and 700°C.

Known way catalytic reforming is and with water vapor hydrocarbons, includes stage

a) possible transmission of the processed gas from being pre-reforming of hydrocarbons through the first tubular reactor with a thin film of catalyst reforming with water vapor deposited on the walls of the reactor, under conditions of heat exchange with the hot flue gas exhaust located after the second tubular reactor reforming with water vapor;

b) passing the stream coming from the first tubular reactor, located after the second tubular reactor, equipped with a thin film of catalyst reforming with steam and heated by combustion of fuel, which get partially subjected to reforming with water vapor gas and the hot flue gas;

C) passing the stream leaving the second reactor, a fixed bed of the catalyst reforming with water vapor, and

g) removal of the fixed catalyst reforming with water vapor gas formed, which represents a gas enriched in hydrogen and carbon monoxide ( European patent application EP 0855366 A1, 01 3/38, 29.07.1998).

In the known method a large number of valuable heat of flue gas is transferred and absorbed by the processed gas through the endothermic reforming reaction with water vapor flowing in the catalyst, Nansen the m on the wall of the tubular coil reactor. The size of the coil tubular reactor and the quantity of catalyst are installed so as to increase the temperature of the partially subjected to the reformer recycle gas emerging from the heated coil with the catalyst to the desired temperature at the inlet of the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating.

The main disadvantage of this method is to decrease the activity of the catalyst long term heated coil, resulting in an outlet temperature of the coil exceeds the maximum allowable inlet temperature of the reformer reactor with water vapor with fire heating due to low absorption of heat in a reduced flow of reforming with water vapor in the gas. Then the catalyst should be reactivated or replaced with fresh its portion on the side of the coil. Replacement of the catalyst in the heated coil is difficult and expensive operation, when it is necessary to remove the coil from the flue gas.

The present invention is the extension of the term of smooth operation of the process of reforming with water vapor above type.

The problem is solved by the method of catalytic reforming with water vapor of hydrocarbons, including the pre-reforming of a mixture of hydrocarbons and water vapor in contact with the first catalyst reforming with water vapor, located in heated outside the reactor pre-reformer in the flue gas exhaust from the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating, and interaction subjected to preliminary reformer flow of exhaust from the pre-reformer, with a second reforming catalyst with steam in the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating, due to the fact that it further includes a step of interaction subjected to preliminary reformer stream with a third catalyst reformer, located outside the flue gas between the reactor outlet pre-reformer in the flue gas and the inlet of the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating.

According to the method according to the invention, the loss of activity in heated outside the reactor pre-reforming long term will be offset by the reactions of reforming with water vapor in the subject prior to the reforming flow occurring at the stage of interaction with the third reforming catalyst located between the exit of the reactor pre-reformer in the flue gas and the inlet of the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating. Then mentioned stage will be held, essentially, when the adiabatic condition is the conditions and to compensate for the decrease in the activity of the reforming with water vapor catalyst reforming with steam or catalytic means in heated outside the reactor pre-reformer, consequently, the temperature in the stream of exhaust from the reactor preliminary reformer is increased.

In addition to providing the desired temperature of the processed gas below the maximum inlet temperature of the reformer reactor with water vapor with fire heating at long term work, another advantage mentioned stage is placed outside of the flue gas. To compensate for the reduction of activity in the reactor pre-reforming process, which is described above, it is necessary to replace or reactivate lost the activity of the catalyst in place outside of the flue gas reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating. As mentioned above, replacement of the known method has lost the activity of the catalyst in the reactor pre-reformer inside of the flue gas, is time-consuming and costly.

When used according to the invention stage of the interaction with the third catalyst, located outside the flue gas, replacement of lost catalyst activity is greatly simplified.

In this stage of the interaction with the third catalyst may be installed outside of the flue gas in the pipe connecting the reactor pre-reforming reactor reformer with leading the output steam from the fire heating. The third catalyst may be in any form convenient for use in the reforming of hydrocarbons with steam. To reduce the pressure drop at this stage, the catalyst is preferably given the shape of the monolith, with direct channels. The size and activity of the third catalyst depends on the specific parameters of the method.

The proposed method is illustrated is shown in the drawing process diagram that shows

1 - line filing of the original mixture of hydrocarbons with water vapor,

2 - stage pre-reformer containing the first catalyst in the form of a thin film located on the wall of the reactor pre-reformer, heated outside

3 - channel flue gas heated outside the reactor reformer,

4 - reactor reformer, heated outside containing the second catalyst

5 - line discharge of product from the pre-reforming stage interaction subjected to preliminary reformer stream with a third catalyst

6 - stage interaction subjected to preliminary reformer stream with a third catalyst

7 - line discharge of product from the stage of interaction subjected to preliminary reformer stream with a third catalyst and feed it into the reactor reformer,

8 - line allocation p is oduct from the reactor reformer,

9 - line fuel supply for heating the reactor reforming process.

The proposed method is illustrated by the following example.

Example

Use a mixture of water vapor and methane ratio of steam/carbon, equal to 2.5. In tables 1 and 2 indicate the composition and temperature of gas mixtures at different process lines.

The reactor reforming with water vapor, heated outside fire, designed for the temperature of the incoming gas is not more than 650°C. the Source gas flow indicated in the following table 1 composition heated to a temperature of 446°served in heated outside the reactor pre-reformer containing a first catalyst, in which the methane conversion. The resulting gas mixture with a temperature of 649°serves on the stage of interaction with the third catalyst. With this phase in equilibrium conditions is given by the gas flow at the same temperature 649°With that and at the entrance to her that is acceptable to perform the reaction in the reformer reactor containing a second catalyst. In the reactor reforming of methane becomes next to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Exhaust product has a temperature of 900°C.

Table 1
The composition and temperature of gas mixtures at different the x lines of the process in the equilibrium conditions
Line with the positionTemperature, °Methane (dry, mol.%)Carbon dioxide (dry, mol.%)Hydrogen (dry, mol.%)Carbon monoxide (dry, mol.%)
144674,75,020,20,1
564938,010,449,12,5
764938,010,449,12,5
89006,76,871,614,9

After decreasing the activity of the first catalyst in the reactor pre-reforming process is a reduction in the degree of methane conversion. Consequently, the exhaust from the reactor pre-reforming gas mixture has a higher temperature (683° (C)than in the equilibrium conditions with fresh first catalyst. This is unacceptable in accordance with the requirement of a temperature not exceeding 650°at the entrance to the reactor reforming process. Therefore, at the stage of interaction with the third catalyst to carry out the conversion of the gas mixture, reducing the temperature to 649°C. Allocated to this stage, the gas mixture can be smoothly introduced into the reactor reformer with fire about the roar. Withdrawn from him the product has a temperature of 900°C.

Table 2
The composition and temperature of gas mixtures at various process lines in the case of a partially Deaktivierung first catalyst
Line with the positionTemperature, °Methane (dry, mol.%)Carbon dioxide (dry, mol.%)Hydrogen (dry, mol.%)Carbon monoxide (dry, mol.%)
144674,75,020,20,1
568342,0the 9.750,02.3
764938,010,449,12,5
89006,76,871,714,9

As can be seen from tables 1 and 2, in the case of reducing the activity of the first catalyst in the reactor pre-reformer 2, the gas mixture in line 5 has an unacceptably high temperature, and the gas mixture in line 7 corresponds to the requirements for carrying out the process. Thus, the presence of additional catalyst zone at stage 6 avoids difficult and orogastus replacement of the first catalyst, located in the reactor pre-reformer 2.

1. Method for catalytic reforming with water vapor of hydrocarbons, including the pre-reforming of a mixture of hydrocarbons and water vapor in contact with the first catalyst reforming with water vapor located within a heated outside the reactor pre-reformer in the flue gas exhaust from the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating, and interaction subjected to preliminary reformer flow of exhaust from the reactor pre-reformer, with a second reforming catalyst with steam in the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating, characterized in that it further includes a step of interaction subjected to preliminary reformer stream with the third reforming catalyst located out of the flue gas between the reactor outlet pre-reformer in the flue gas and the inlet of the reactor reforming with water vapor with fire heating.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first catalyst reforming with water vapor using a thin film of catalyst located on the wall of the reactor pre-reformer heated from the outside.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as retigo catalyst reforming with water vapor using a catalyst with a monolithic structure.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: gas and petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for decomposing and utilizing hydrogen sulfide and/or mercaptans, which methods can be used for production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide as well as for purification of gas mixtures polluted by hydrogen sulfide and/or mercaptans. Method comprises passing hydrogen sulfide and/or mercaptan-containing gas at temperature below 200°C through solid catalyst bed placed in liquid capable of dissolving reaction intermediates and/or sulfur arising on catalyst surface to release hydrogen and/or hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: lowered reaction temperature and eliminated need of frequent solid catalyst regeneration.

7 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; conducting non-adiabatic reactions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes the following stages: introducing first flow of reagents in parallel into first reaction zone and second flow of reagents into second reaction zone; interaction of first flow of reagents with catalyst in first reaction zone is effected under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium and interaction of second flow of reagents with catalyst is effected under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium; gases formed due to reforming with water vapor are evacuated; catalyst in first reaction zone is located inside tubular reactor under conditions of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium due to introduction of this medium into tubular heat exchange zone located around tubular reactor with first reaction zone and catalyst in second reaction zone is located on side of heat exchange zone envelope under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium.

EFFECT: enhanced compactness of reactors; reduced usage of expensive materials.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; conducting non-adiabatic reactions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes the following stages: introducing first flow of reagents in parallel into first reaction zone and second flow of reagents into second reaction zone; interaction of first flow of reagents with catalyst in first reaction zone is effected under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium and interaction of second flow of reagents with catalyst is effected under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium; gases formed due to reforming with water vapor are evacuated; catalyst in first reaction zone is located inside tubular reactor under conditions of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium due to introduction of this medium into tubular heat exchange zone located around tubular reactor with first reaction zone and catalyst in second reaction zone is located on side of heat exchange zone envelope under condition of indirect heat exchange with heat exchange medium.

EFFECT: enhanced compactness of reactors; reduced usage of expensive materials.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power industry, mechanical engineering and environmental control.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of high power industry, mechanical engineering and environmental control. In a explosion-proof chamber 1 with double-walls simultaneously feed a gaseous explosive mixture using pipeline 4 through channels 5 and inject hydrocarbons with the nucleuses of carbon crystallization using a pipeline 6 through an injector 7 with formation of a cone-shaped shell 8 with an inert cavity in the central zone. The shell 8 and the explosive mixture 9 form a cumulative charge. Conduct initiation of undermining of an explosive mixture 9, as a result of which the cumulative charge forms a cumulative spray 10 moving at a high speed along the axis of the cumulation. The gaseous products withdraw through pipeline 17. At collision of the cumulative spray 10 with a barrier having channels 11 of the cooling unit 2 the pressure and temperature there sharply increase ensuring growth of the formed crystals of diamond. Simultaneously conduct cooling with the help of pipelines 12 located in metal filings and granules 13. The atomized and cooled cumulative spray gets into the auxiliary chamber 3, where the diamonds 14 are separated, feed through the pipeline 15 to a power accumulator 16, in which they are settling. Separated hot hydrogen is removed for storing or utilization. The invention allows to magnify the sizes of dimensions crystals of diamond up to 800 microns and more, to decrease atmospheric injections, to reduce the net cost of the diamonds, to increase effectiveness of the device.

EFFECT: the invention ensures growth of sizes of diamonds crystals up to 800 microns and more, decrease of atmospheric injections, reduction of the net cost of the diamonds, increased effectiveness of the device.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: storage of gases in chemical, petrochemical ,and oil-refining industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed oxygen storage method includes partial reduction of λ-Al2O3 on specific surface area of 200 - 400 m3/g doped with up to 0.5 mass percent of Sn during synthesis and subjected to oxidizing treatment at 500 °C in oxygen stream. Reduction is made by activated molecular, hydrogen, or hydrogen-containing hydrocarbon gas at gas temperature of 100 - 750 °C, pressure of 1 - 10 at., and humidity of 10-5 - 10-1 volume percent followed by freezing water produced in the process; storage of partially reduced λ-Al2O3 in arbitrary-humidity atmosphere at up to 50 °C or in vacuum, or in inert gas atmosphere at temperature of up to 750 °C and humidity of up to 10-5 volume percent; and oxidation of partially reduced λ-Al2O3 with water vapors at temperature of 100 - 750 °C or in vacuum at humidity of 10-5 - 10-2 volume percent.

EFFECT: enhanced holding capacity of hydrogen store at enhanced safety and low cost of its storage.

1 cl, 87 ex

FIELD: power equipment; generation of hydrogen in stationary plants and on transport facilities.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrogen generator operates on reaction of hydrolysis with solid reagent granules; hydrogen generator includes reaction reservoir filled with solid reagent granules, hydrogen supply main, liquid reagent supply main and heat exchanger for removal of reaction heat. Generator is also provided with loading bin with hatch which is hermetically sealed during operation of generator; arranged inside loading bin are starting heater and heat-transfer agent main connected to heat exchange loop for removal of reaction heat at its outlet. Operation of hydrogen generator includes loading the solid reagent granules from loading bin into liquid reagent reaction reservoir, heating the reagents for starting the generator, cooling the reagents in stationary mode, draining the reaction products from reaction reservoir and repeating all above-mentioned operations. Prior to loading the solid reagent granules into reaction reservoir, they are heated in loading bin to temperature of reaction; after discharge of solid reagent granules into reaction reservoir, bin is filled with next portion of solid reagent granules which are heated with heat of reaction. Multi-purpose loading bin is used as important component of generator temperature control system.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; fast response due to reduced power requirements and starting time; enhanced compactness.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas, containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, for use in synthesis of gasoline, methanol, or dimethyl ether. Process includes following stages: removing solely hydrogen sulfide form natural gas; containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by passing natural gas through hydrogen sulfide-removal apparatus filled with hydrogen sulfide adsorbent; and adding carbon dioxide and water steam H2S-free natural gas thereby producing gas blend. Gas blend is then fed into reaction tube of reforming plant to carry out steam reforming reaction in gas blend. According to invention, natural gas is passed through convection section communicating with radiation combustion chamber of reforming plant to heat natural gas to temperature suitable to reaction between hydrogen sulfide (in natural gas) and hydrogen sulfide adsorbent.

EFFECT: enabled selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: nuclear power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes passage of flow of "light" and "heavy" water mixture under pressure through one or several holes of dielectric element, acting on this mixture by magnetic field and dividing it into three flows: two flows having different ions by electrical sign and chemical properties are electrically insulated, accelerated and directed to collimators. "Light" and "heavy" water mixture at specific resistance of about 109 ohms·m is taken at ratio required for control of nuclear reaction. Device proposed for realization of this method has housing which is dielectrically resistant to cavitation emission and is used for receiving the mixture. Insert mounted in housing is made from dielectric material liable to cavitation emission and provided with one or several holes for passage of mixture. Housing is also provided with electrically insulated branch pipes for receiving the ionized flows. Located in way of ionized flows are control electrodes and contactors; collimators with contactors are mounted at the end of ionized flow.

EFFECT: possibility of production hydrogen from "light" and "heavy" water mixture in amount sufficient for practical use.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: methods of production of hydrogen, electrical power and the hydraulically purified products out of hydrocarbon raw materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of hydrogen, electrical power and, at least, one hydraulically purified product out of the hydrocarbon raw material containing at least a fraction, which has the same range of boiling-out or higher, than the temperature range of boiling of a hydraulically purified product, which will be produced; this method includes the following operations: treatment of the hydrocarbon raw material with hydrogen at presence of the applied catalyst; at that hydrogen at least partially is produced from fraction of the hydraulically purified raw material having the temperature range of boiling different from the temperature range of boiling of the fraction of hydrocarbon raw material, from which will be produced a hydraulically purified product or at least from a part of the indicated product of the hydraulical purification; separation of the hydraulically purified product from the hydraulically purified raw material, when the hydraulically purified product is necessary to separate; a part or the whole rest hydraulically purified raw material and hydraulically purified product, if it will not be separated to produce hydrogen; a part or all hydrogen, which is not used for treatment of hydrocarbons, is subjected to processing with production of electrical power; or a part of the hydraulically purified raw material and the hydraulically purified product, if it will be not separated, is subjected to processing with production of an electrical power; and the rest is directed to processing with production of hydrogen. The invention allows to produce simultaneously hydrogen, electrical power, and at least one hydraulically purified hydrocarbon product.

EFFECT: the invention allows to produce simultaneously hydrogen, electrical power, and at least one hydraulically purified hydrocarbon product.

18 cl, 1 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: liquid-phase reforming.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to liquid-phase reforming of hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing compositions. The method is exercised by interaction of a hydrocarbon or an oxygen-containing organic composition with water using a pulse electrical discharge in a liquid containing the indicated hydrocarbon or a oxygen-containing organic composition and water. Such a method is exercised in the apparatus, that includes a reactor, electrodes positioned inside the pointed reactor, a direct-current source for feeding the direct current to the pointed electrodes and an outlet opening for withdrawal of produced as a result of it hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The given invention allows realization of the process at normal temperature and a pressure, and at that there is no necessity for an additional stage of separation of products of the unreacted substances. Moreover the by-products such as acetylene are dissolved and absorbed in the liquid and again interact with the following conversion into synthesis gas.

EFFECT: the invention allows realization of the process at normal temperature and a pressure, excluding necessity for an additional stage of separation of products of the unreacted substances.

16 cl, 5 dwg, 3 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.

EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.

9 cl

FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex

FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.

EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.

EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.

EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.

EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.

12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.

10 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.

EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

Up!