Method to prevent hydraulic structure dam failure

FIELD: building, particularly to protect dams.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming additional water spillaway channel including a number of self-flowing siphons passing over dam crest, wherein the siphons are assembled of prefabricated units which are delivered to dam when water in water pool reaches dangerous level; permanently installing short and long siphon necks are on the dam by positioning short neck of each siphon below water level in upper pool and by locating long neck thereof below water level in lower pool; assembling vacuum plant; connecting suction chamber of vacuum plant with uppermost siphon point by pipeline; evacuating the siphons and filling thereof with water.

EFFECT: provision of emergency water discharge over the dam and provision of water level reduction in water pool, prevention of scour creation and dam failure.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of construction and operation of dams, which enables integrated use of water resources for energy, irrigation, water supply, navigation, fishing, and protection of water sources from exhaustion, and is designed to protect these structures from destruction by erosion. The destruction of dams often leads to serious consequences: human casualties, destruction of houses and other economic facilities, and agricultural lands.

So, from the history of platystrophia known [1, 2] is one of the most devastating accidents that occurred in 1889 at the dam Out the Fork in the United States (the dam height of 21.5 m, the volume of the reservoir about 20 million m3).

The cause of the destruction of the dam was overflowing water through the crest due to heavy rains and inadequate capacity of the open shore spillway. This resulted in a gully, which had a width of 15.5 meters below and on top of about 130 meters Through this gully reservoir was emptied within 45 minutes the Flow of water, with waves as high as 10-12 m rushed in the underlying valley with a speed of 22 m/s were killed 2500 people were washed away all the bridges, railway embankments and road; the mountain ranges of mass of 60 tons moved the thread to a few hundred meters.

Despite the fact that BP is like this disaster has passed more than a hundred years, such events may be, only with fewer casualties occur regularly until recently, an example of this, for example, the flood of 2002 in the Krasnodar region. Like many disasters with human victims, in our opinion, are the most convincing evidence of the lack of means (technical solutions), any cardinal deciding this important to human life problem.

The main reasons for the destruction of dams as a result of overflow of water over the crest are:

- incorrect computation of flood flow, and therefore the throughput capacity of the spillway and waterways is insufficient;

- faulty condition of the culverts during the flood;

- failure of the dam, upstream.

In all these cases, the water level in the reservoir before the dam rises quickly (tens of centimeters per hour), reaching the crest of the dam within less than a day, so the traditional methods of protection dams, which are as follows: construction of additional spillway channel, increasing the height of the dam, creating betonirovannaa devices for the passage of flood waters to flow diagrams or Weir by filtering through rock placement, ineffecti the us, because their use requires not only large material and financial resources, but also considerable time to implement them. For example, the time to reach the concrete at least 50% strength amounts to many days. Thus, the last (temporary) limitation, as a rule, is the determining factor that reduces the effectiveness of the known solutions to the tasks to zero.

Of the following methods of protection dam overflow reservoir and the overflow of water through its crest should be considered as a method lies in the construction of additional spillway channel [1], if performed, of course, explosive way.

This solution [1, str] taken as the closest analogue of the claimed method.

The main disadvantage of the prototype are as follows:

- high probability of erosion of the riverbed additional channel with the consequences commensurate with the consequences of erosion of the dam body, due to the low soil strength;

- the impossibility of large-scale application of this method due to the possible failure of the other nearby buildings and structures;

- absence from the place of explosives and specialists to resolve this problem.

In connection with the above to protect the dam from breaking, avoid direct water overflow cher the W ridge offers the discharge of water from the reservoir to be realized by means of prefabricated tubular channels, as siphons [3], each of which is bent up pipe under vacuum, and the tribes of different lengths, with short knee down under the water level upstream, and long knee - under the water level downstream.

New in the claimed invention is the operation of creating an additional outlet channels in the form of multiple gravity siphons, bridges over the crest of the dam, and when a dangerous level of water in the reservoir at the dam crest deliver pre-prepared knots and collect from them siphons, with short knee of each siphon is lowered below the water level upstream, and long knee - under the water level downstream at the same time collect the vacuum installation, the suction chamber which are connected by pipeline with the highest point of the siphon, then siphon vacuum, filling them with water.

These new signs not identified the current level of technology that allows to make a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed invention, the criterion of "inventive step".

New features together allow us, without performing the traditional labor-intensive excavation and concrete works (without the construction of additional spillway excavation of canals and tunnels) to lower the water level in the reservoir and to prevent the formation of gullies, and so the transfer of the dam and thereby prevent numerous human casualties and huge economic losses which are often inevitable, unfortunately, when such disasters.

In proceedings of IX International Congress on large dams it is noted that when the dam material flood damage can range from 1 to 100 million to 1 km flooding or from 1 to 10 $ per 1 m3water broke in the lower reach. Emergency dam "Teton", the cost of which amounted to 39.5 million, the full damage was estimated at $ 400 million. [1].

The invention is illustrated by the following example of the device for implementing the proposed method (figure 1), which shows the dam 1, separating the reservoir 2 and the riverbed 3, which are connected by siphon 4, with short knee 5 and long knee 6. At the highest point of the siphon attached pipe vakuumnoi installation (vacuum pump). In this example, such a device presents the ejector (jet pump) 8 flexible conduits 9 and 10, having at the ends of the valves 11 and 12.

The claimed method is implemented as follows. When a dangerous level of water in the reservoir 2 to the crest of the dam 1 deliver and collect the siphon 4 of the pre-prepared sites. During this short 5 long and 6 of the tribe of the siphon may be stationary, as they do not interfere with traffic on the dam in normal operation. At the same time collect the vacuum installation - e is the sector 8 with flexible pipes 9 and 10 with latches 11 and 12, one of which must be closed, for example, the valve 12. The suction chamber of the ejector 8 is connected by a pipe 7 with the highest point of the siphon 4. Further, through the open valve 9 is filled with water flexible hoses 9 and 10, and the ejector 8. Then the valve 9 is closed, and flexible hoses 9 and 10 is lowered into the water, simultaneously opening the valves 11 and 12. Due to the difference in water levels in the reservoir 2 and the river 3 system: flexible hose 9, the ejector 8 and the flexible hose 10 will start the movement of water, which creates a vacuum in the ejector 8. Due to this vacuum through line 7 creates a vacuum in the siphon 4, water under atmospheric pressure fills the interior volume of the siphon 4 and begins to Shine full cross-section through the dam 1, lowering the water level in the reservoir 2, preventing unorganized poured it over the crest of the dam 1, formation of gullies and destruction of the latter.

The claimed technical solution allows you to organize emergency discharge of water through the dam almost unlimited performance by increasing the diameter siphons (theoretically up to 10 m) and their number. Simplicity, low labour intensity of the construction of the siphon discharge of water, especially when there are pre-made sites that allows them to put into action within a few hours, and small dams within tens of minutes.

p> The use of the claimed method in practice will help to avoid catastrophic loss of life and enormous material losses in the destruction of dams, hydraulic structures.

Sources of information

1. N.N. Rozanov. Dam of ground materials. M.: stroiizdat, 1983. 296 S. - prototype.

2. Hydraulic structures. M.: stroiizdat, 1978.

3. Frenkel N. 3. Hydraulics. M.-L. State energy publishing house, 1947.

1. The way to protect the dam hydraulic engineering structures from destruction, which consists in the creation of additional spillway channel, characterized in that the additional spillway channel are in the form of multiple gravity siphons, bridges over the crest of the dam, and when a dangerous level of water in the reservoir at the dam crest deliver pre-prepared knots and collect from them siphons, with short knee of each siphon is lowered below the water level upstream, and long knee - under the water level downstream at the same time collect the vacuum installation, the suction chamber which are connected by pipeline with the highest point of the siphon, then siphon vacuum, filling them water.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the short and long knee siphon stationary set.



 

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