Method for shaping hollow variable cross section body, method for making high-pressure metallic liner and apparatus for shaping hollow variable cross section body

FIELD: plastic metal working, namely shaping hollow variable cross section bodies.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of shaping in die having opening for introducing hollow body and profiled inner surface corresponding to desired profile of hollow body; creating on inner surface of die temperature gradient increased in direction of hollow body motion from minimum temperature near inlet opening of die to maximum temperature in zone of least cross section of body; setting maximum temperature according to condition of largest yielding of body material; setting minimum temperature according to condition of keeping stability of body and heating body till said maximum temperature during its motion in die. In order to make metallic liner of metal-plastic high-pressure vessel from tube blank, ends of tube blank are squeezed in die with profiled inner surface. Tube blank is guided into die along its lengthwise axis. On inner surface of die temperature gradient is created in such a way that it increases in direction of blank motion along lengthwise axis of die from minimum temperature at inlet of die till maximum temperature in zone of least cross section of liner. Maximum temperature is set according to condition of largest yielding of tube blank material; minimum temperature is set according to condition of keeping stability of blank and heating blank till said maximum temperature during its motion in die. Apparatus for shaping hollow variable cross section body includes die mounted on stationary support and having inner surface of preset profile and also having inlet opening for feeding hollow body. Apparatus also includes slide made with possibility of mounting on it hollow body moving along lengthwise axis of die. Die is provided with heating unit for creating on inner surface of die temperature gradient increased along lengthwise axis of die from its inlet opening.

EFFECT: improved quality of articles due to prevention of stability loss.

16 cl, 2 ex, 6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of metal forming, and in particular to methods of molding hollow bodies of variable cross-section, in particular of the billets, and can be used in gas, aviation, shipbuilding, automotive and related industries.

Primarily, the invention is intended for processing thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter from virtually any metal with respect to the wall thickness of the workpiece to its radius of less than 0.07 or 7%.

In particular, the invention can be used in the manufacture of metal lanero (namely for molding the heads and necks of lanero) composite high-pressure cylinders (VD), which is essential to minimize the specific material consumption (d) of the cylinder that represents the ratio of the mass (M) of the tank to its capacity (V):d=M/V.

Such plastic containers are used, for example, for the storage of liquefied and gaseous motor fuels in cars, portable oxygen breathing apparatus climbers, rescuers, in portable products cryogenic and fire-fighting equipment and other

Known designs of plastic bottles, in which the metal liner comprises a cylindrical part made of welded from direct orzowei shell, two bottom - neckline, welded around the perimeter to the ring, and fitting welded to one of the bottoms. To connect parts of the liner and weld, as a rule, use of electron-beam and (or) automatic laser welding.

(Automatic welding, No 9, 1995 B.E.Paton, Sci and other Design and manufacturing technology of lightweight welded cylinders of internal Affairs, testimony, GR No. 14065).

Also known plastic container VD containing forged-welded sealed steel liner (EN, C1 2077682).

Welded and forged-welded technology to produce steel laneri with fairly thin walls, thereby to provide a relatively low specific consumption (d.) cylinder VD. However, welded and forged-welded laneri have low resource by the number of cycles of loading an operating pressure that does not exceed several tens of hundreds.

Known metal gas cylinder, in which a cylindrical middle part is made of steel billets, and is bonded with the bottom threaded connection (Application No. 93013491/26, publication from 20.06. 1996).

However, the threaded connection requires thickening of the wall of the tubular billet plot threads and special training under the threaded end of the ends of tubular workpieces having large tolerances, which makes quite truroarchaeology making known metal cylinder and accordingly increased its value.

In addition, this technology is not applicable for the manufacture of thin-walled metal lanero due to the complexity of the execution of the threaded connections on the thin wall of the workpiece.

Known methods of crimping the ends of tubular workpieces in a specially profiled matrix, which can be used for forming the bottom and the mouth of the liner.

For example, there is a method of molding a hollow workpiece, in particular tubular workpieces, including a hot crimping of the workpiece in a specially shaped matrix (EN, A, No. 2136425, EN, A, No. 212291).

Hot crimping tubular billet of aluminum alloy is carried out at a temperature of 485°WITH (EN, A, No. 2136425), and billet magnesium alloy is at a temperature of 300 to 400°With (EN, A, No. 212291).

The disadvantage of this method of hot crimping is the impossibility of processing thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter (with respect to the wall thickness to the radius of the workpiece is less than 7%) as a result, in the molding process, buckling of this piece is in the zone of the power transmission - input matrix, preheated to a temperature of maximum pliability of the material of the workpiece.

The known method and device is crimping the ends of the pipes, which consists in pushing the pipe in a specially shaped matrix (RU, AND 2122914). To prevent buckling of the workpiece in areas which transfer forces to the external layer of grease.

However, this method and apparatus, as above described method of hot crimping, also not suitable for processing thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter.

The experiments conducted by the authors showed that for billets from virtually any metal, the presence of external pressure created with grease, not enough to prevent buckling of thin-walled workpiece of large diameter, which is used for the manufacture of lanero reinforced plastic pressure vessels. In addition, increases the likelihood of buckling inside the tubular billet.

A known method of manufacturing a liner of plastic high-pressure bladder of steel billets (patent RU No. 2175088, C1).

The workpiece in the form of a thick-walled cylindrical tube of aluminum alloy with an estimated geometric dimensions is heated at one end to a predetermined temperature to form the bottom one method of rolling, during which the workpiece rotates and support it given temperature warms up to precision 2°and simultaneously form the neck of the bottom, while the operation of forming the bottom of the neck is carried out in multiple passes to achieve the specified thickness.

However, this method, as described above, also is not suitable for processing thin-walled Tr the service of the workpiece of large diameter.

The present invention is the task to create a method of forming a hollow metal body with variable cross-section and a device for its implementation, in particular, the method of forming thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter in the manufacture of plastic liner cylinder high pressure, in order to prevent buckling of the body in the area of force transmission and thus ensure the formation of a hollow body of a given geometry, such as a liner.

The problem is solved in that in the method of forming a hollow metal body with variable cross-section, including the introduction of a hollow body in the matrix with a specially shaped inner surface, according to the invention, on the inner surface of the matrix to create a temperature gradient, increasing in the direction of movement of the body along the longitudinal axis of the matrix to the maximum temperature in the receiving area of the smallest cross-section of the body, which is established from the condition of maximum pliability of the material body, and the minimum temperature is set at the entrance to the matrix of conditions to ensure the stability of the material and ensure that in the process of moving the body in a matrix of heating to the maximum temperature.

Calculations and experiments conducted by the authors showed that trim is ansirovanie heating of the hollow body as it advances along the matrix avoids the loss of stability of the body and ensures the formation of a given geometry. Especially differential heating is required when processing thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter with a ratio of wall thickness to radius of less than 0.07.

It is advisable that at the entrance to the matrix body was cooled and maintained its temperature, which does not change the strength properties of the material.

The cooling hollow body at the entrance to the matrix prevents the formation of bumps on the body in the area of power transmission, which is the area in front of the entrance to the matrix. Especially cooling is required when processing thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter with a ratio of wall thickness to radius is less than 0,07.

Mainly the proposed method is suitable for manufacturing metal liner metal cylinder high pressure, characterized by the ratio of the wall thickness of the liner to the radius < 0.07.

When this task is solved in that in the method of manufacturing a metal liner reinforced plastic pressure vessel of tubular workpieces according to the invention, the ends of tubular workpieces compresses in the matrix with a specially shaped inner surface, while the tubular workpiece is introduced into the matrix along its longitudinal axis on the inner surface of the matrix creates a temperature gradient that increases the I in the direction of movement of the workpiece along the longitudinal axis of the matrix to the maximum temperature in the receiving area of the smallest cross-section of the liner, which is established from the condition of maximum pliability of the material of the billet, and the minimum temperature is set at the entrance to the matrix of conditions to ensure the stability of the material and ensure the process is moving in the matrix is heated to the maximum temperature.

For the formation of the bottom and the mouth of the liner inner surface of the matrix to perform a domed shape with a cylindrical channel in the top, which with a given clearance install the sliding mandrel, and the mandrel in the forming process move in the same direction with the tube material, but with greater speed.

Moving the mandrel facilitates the free bending of the wall of the workpiece at the gathering with a matrix in the area of the top of the dome.

To prevent buckling of the cylindrical part of the tubular workpiece and, as a consequence, the formation of bumps in the area of force transmission (input matrix) of the workpiece is cooled and maintain its temperature, which does not change the strength properties of the workpiece material.

The temperature generated on the inner surface of the matrix, depends primarily on the mass of the molded body and its physical-mechanical properties of the source and destination of the geometry and the feed speed of the body in the matrix, from thermophysical properties from the my matrix.

The experiments conducted by the authors showed that for billets with the ratio of wall thickness to radius < 0.07, made of aluminum alloy ADC, at the entrance to the matrix creates a temperature of 100+10°and near the top of the dome - 500° +10°C.

When this pulling force of the mandrel change in the molding process from 125 to 500 kgf.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the device for forming a hollow body with variable cross-section, comprising a slider made with the possibility of mounting it hollow body and create axial forces, and mounted on a fixed bearing matrix with the inner surface profile having an inlet for feeding hollow body according to the invention, the matrix is provided with a means of heating made with the possibility of creating a temperature gradient on the inner surface of the matrix, increasing along the longitudinal axis of the matrix from the inlet.

To prevent the formation of bumps in the area of force transmission (on the site of the hollow body before entering the matrix) it is advisable that before the inlet of the matrix was set to the cooling means.

For metal liner made from billet inner surface matrix has a dome-shaped, tapering from the inlet, in which atrice in the top of the dome is made of a cylindrical channel, in which with a given gap mounted for movement along the longitudinal axis of the mandrel. The channel with the mandrel designed for molding the neck and body fitting liner.

It is advisable that the heating means contained circular heating elements installed in the matrix along the dome-shaped surface, with the heating elements configured to create a temperature gradient, increasing from the inlet to the top of the dome.

In the manufacture of the liner of the billet with the ratio of wall thickness to radius < 0.07, made of aluminum alloy ADC, it is advisable that the heating elements were made with the possibility of creating a temperature gradient rising from 100+10°at the inlet to 500+10°From near the top of the dome, at the entrance to the channel.

Further, the invention will be disclosed in more detail with specific examples of its implementation with reference to the drawings, in which:

Figure 1 depicts a metal liner metal cylinder high pressure, longitudinal section;

Figure 2 is a device for molding hollow body;

Figure 3 - 6 - diagram of the process of forming the bottom and the mouth of the liner.

Mainly proposed method of molding hollow body with variable cross-section and device for its implementation is estline intended for the manufacture of billet metal liner metal cylinder high pressure, therefore, the invention will be described on the example of the method of manufacturing a liner of tubular workpieces, namely, the method of forming the bottom and the mouth of the liner and device for its implementation.

Figure 1 shows the liner 1 plastic pressure vessel containing a Central cylindrical part 2, passing through the ends of the ellipsoidal portion of the bottoms 3. The wall thickness of the bottom 3 gradually increases with decrease in the diameter and passes into the neck 4.

Shown in figure 2, the device for forming a hollow metal body with variable cross-section is preferred variant of the invention, and is intended for forming the bottom, neck and body fitting liner of the tubular workpiece 5.

The device includes a slider 6, made with the possibility of mounting it billet 5 and create axial forces. On the fixed bearing 7 matrix 8 with the inner surface 9 of the specified profile. Matrix 8 has an inlet opening 10 for the supply of billets 5 and provided with a means 11 heating made with the possibility of creating a temperature gradient on the inner surface 9 of the matrix, increasing from the inlet 10 of the matrix along its longitudinal axis 12.

In the device for manufacturing a liner of tubular workpieces, as shown in figure 2, the inner surface 9 of the Mat is Itza 8 has a dome-shaped form, tapering from the inlet 10. In the top of the dome is made of a cylindrical channel 13, in which, with a given clearance, mounted for movement along the longitudinal axis 12 of the mandrel 14. The diameter of the mandrel 14 corresponds to the inner diameter 15 (1) of the neck 4 of the liner 1, and the inner diameter of the channel 13 (2) - external diameter of 16 (Figure 1) neck 4 of the liner 1.

Depending on the given geometry being formed of the body can be different form the inner surface of the matrix. In addition, the channel and the mandrel may be missing.

The heating means 11 includes an annular heating elements 171-173set in a matrix of 8 along the dome-shaped inner surface 9.

The heating elements 17 can be performed in a known manner in the form of a coil of wire (for example, nichrome wire HN), placed in a pre-fabricated grooves (not shown) in the matrix. For isolation on the surface of the matrix is covered with a layer of aluminum oxide by spraying.

The heating elements 171-173made with the ability to create on the inner surface 9 of the matrix 8 of the temperature gradient, increasing from the inlet 10 of the matrix to the entrance of the channel 13. The maximum temperature is provided by the heating element 173minimum heating element 171 . The device is equipped with thermocouples 18, for controlling the operation of the heating elements 17. Possibly a different number of heating elements.

The maximum temperature create at the entrance to the channel 13 from the condition of maximum pliability of the material forming the body of billets 5), and the minimum temperature is created in the area of the inlet 10 of the matrix 8 - terms and conditions preserve the stability of billets 5 and support in the process of moving the workpiece 5 in the matrix of its heating to the maximum temperature.

A specific range of temperatures on the inner surface of the matrix depends primarily on the mass of the molded body and its physical-mechanical properties of the source and destination of the geometry and the feed speed of the body in the matrix, from thermophysical properties of the matrix.

In the manufacture of the liner from a billet of aluminum alloy ADC with the ratio of wall thickness to radius < 0.07, the heating elements 171-173made with the ability to create input matrix a temperature equal to (100+10°), and near the top of the dome -(500+10°)C.

The matrix 8 is isolated from the external environment by insulation 19 printed on its outer surface.

At the entrance to the matrix 8 is installed a cooling means 20, is arranged to maintain the temperature of Trubin the second workpiece 5, when changes in the strength properties of the workpiece material.

Modes of operation cooling means 20 and the heating elements 171-173are defined in the debugging process molding technology.

The device can be made on the basis of horizontal hydraulic press with the capacity of 250 kN (project S-00-01), providing the movement of the mandrel 14 and slider 6 with the given axial force.

The implementation of the method will be further illustrated by the example of the preferential embodiments of the present invention, the method of forming the bottom and the mouth of the liner in its manufacture of steel billets.

Figure 3 - 6 shows the diagram of the fabrication of the liner of the tubular workpiece 5.

In the initial position (Figure 3) billet 5 is fixed on the guide belt of the slide 6. The mandrel 14 is advanced in the extreme right position. The heating elements 171-173on the inner surface of the matrix creates a given temperature gradient, which depends primarily on the mass of the molded body and its physical-mechanical properties of the source and destination of the geometry and the feed speed of the body in the matrix, from thermophysical properties of the matrix. Given the temperature gradient is determined by the above parameters of the mathematical modeling and clarified experimentally./p>

The mode of operation of the heating elements 171-173for a given temperature gradient and the operation mode cooling medium 20 is determined in the process of debugging molding technology. The heating elements 171-173control thermocouples 18.

The authors found that for a billet of aluminum alloy AG with respect to the wall thickness of the workpiece to its radius < 0.07, the minimum temperature generated by the heating element 171the inlet 10 - (100+10)°C, the maximum temperature generated by the heating element 173at the entrance to the channel 12 - (500+10)°C.

Before molding for tubular workpiece 5, the inner surface 9 of the matrix 8 and the mandrel 14 is applied grease. As a lubricant for pipe billet can be applied cold copper plating in an aqueous solution of copper sulphate, which ensures a reliable separation of the contacting surfaces. On the inner surface 9 of the matrix 8 and the mandrel 14 is applied lubricant, for example, on the basis of molybdenum disulfide.

Tubular workpiece 5 is injected with the axial force in preheated matrix 8 along its longitudinal axis 12 (Fig.4 - 5). The thrust and the speed of movement of the workpiece 5 in the matrix depend on several parameters including geometrical and physical-mechanical parameters of just the Cai, and, as the temperature gradient on the inner surface of the matrix are determined by mathematical modeling refinement in the debugging process technology.

The authors found that during the manufacture of the liner from billet with a diameter of 300 mm, a wall thickness of 6 mm made of aluminum alloy AT axial force on the workpiece is 95-100 TC. When this tubular workpiece 5 is moved in the matrix at a speed of about v=3 mm/s

At the entrance to the matrix 8, the workpiece is cooled by the cooling means 20 (Fig 3).

The temperature of the workpiece 5 on the front of the matrix 8 is maintained at the level at which there are changes in the strength properties of the material, which prevents buckling of the workpiece and the formation of bumps.

Advancing billet 5 along the dome-shaped inner surface 9 of the matrix 8, preheated increasing in the direction of travel of the workpiece temperature gradient, the workpiece 5 is heated and the material becomes more susceptible to plastic deformation. Billet 5 changes its geometry in accordance with the internal surface 9 of the matrix 8. The reduction of diameter of the workpiece leads to the thickening of its walls(Fig.4 - 5).

The greatest flexibility to the plastic deformation of the workpiece material reaches the inlet channel 13, where the workpiece is in contact with the edit 14 (Figure 4).

From the moment of contact of the workpiece material 5 with the mandrel last 14 starts to move with a velocity greater than the speed of moving metal.

Next, the workpiece 5 moves with the mandrel 14 (Figure 5), which facilitates the free bending of the wall of the workpiece at the taking of the matrix 8.

The pulling force of the mandrel 14 also depends on several parameters, including the physical and mechanical properties of the workpiece, and is determined experimentally during the debugging process technology.

The authors found that for aluminum alloy AZST pulling force of the mandrel should be changed in the process of forming the cap from 125 to 500 kgf. Increase efforts pullback during the molding process due to the greater contact area of the workpiece with the matrix in the area of the dome and the cylindrical channel matrix.

Upon completion of the molding process off means 17, 20, heating and cooling, the mandrel 14 exits the workpiece 5, the slider 6 is returned to its rightmost position (Fig.6), the workpiece 5 is extracted from the matrix 8 and reinstalled for forming the second bottom and the mouth of the liner.

The examples above preferred embodiment of the invention, containing instructions on the individual cases run, do not exhaust the possible changes and additions, obvious to a person skilled in the art which do not affect the things the STV technical solutions characterized by the claims.

1. Method of forming hollow metal body with variable cross-section, comprising forming in a matrix having a hole for insertion of the hollow body and the profiled inner surface that corresponds to the given profile of the hollow body, characterized in that on the inner surface of the matrix to create a temperature gradient, increasing in the direction of movement of the body from the minimum temperature at the inlet of the matrix to the maximum temperature in the receiving area of the smallest cross-section of the body, while the maximum temperature is set from the condition of maximum pliability of the material body, and the minimum temperature conditions preserve the stability of the body and ensure the process in the matrix of the heating body to the maximum temperature.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for producing the metallic liner of the pressure vessel as a hollow body using a thin-walled tubular workpiece of large diameter with the ratio of wall thickness to radius < 0.07, the inner surface of the matrix to perform a domed shape with a cylindrical channel in the top of the moulding cap liner in the channel with a specified gap set the bending mandrel diameter close to the internal diameter of th is Lovina liner, when the mandrel is in the process of deformation is moved in one direction with the tube material, but with greater speed.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that use tubular billet of aluminum alloy AJST, with the inlet of the matrix creates a temperature equal to (100+10)°and near the top of the dome (500+10)°C.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the molding process, the pulling force of the mandrel increases.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the input matrix body cool and maintain the temperature at which a change of the strength properties of the material.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before the molding process is carried out by using copper plating hollow body, the inner surface of the die and the mandrel is applied based lubricant molybdenum disulfide.

7. A method of manufacturing a metal liner reinforced plastic pressure vessel of tubular workpieces, characterized in that the ends of tubular workpieces compresses in the matrix with a profiled inner surface, while the tubular workpiece is introduced into the matrix along its longitudinal axis on the inner surface of the matrix to create a temperature gradient, increasing in the direction of movement of the workpiece along the longitudinal axis of the matrix from the minimum temperature of the inlet of the matrix to the maximum temperature in the receiving area of the smallest cross-section of the liner, if this maximum temperature is set from the condition of maximum pliability of the material of the billet, and the minimum temperature of the storage conditions stability of the workpiece and ensure the process is moving in the matrix is heated to the maximum temperature.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the inner surface of the matrix to perform a domed shape with a cylindrical channel in the top of that with a given clearance install the sliding mandrel, and the mandrel in the process of deformation of the workpiece is moved in one direction with the tube material, but with greater speed.

9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that use tube together with the ratio of wall thickness to radius < 0.07, made of aluminum alloy AJST, while the input to the matrix creates a temperature equal to (100+10)°and near the top of the dome (500+10)°C.

10. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the pulling force of the mandrel change in the molding process from 125 to 500 kgf.

11. The method according to any of claims 7 to 10, characterized in that the input matrix, the workpiece is cooled and maintain its temperature, which does not change the strength properties of the material body.

12. Device for molding hollow body with variable cross-section, including mounted on a fixed parametric with the inner surface profile, having an inlet for supply of the hollow body, and a slide configured to mount thereon a hollow body and its movement along the longitudinal axis of the matrix, wherein the matrix is provided with a means of heating made with the possibility of creating a temperature gradient on the inner surface of the matrix, increasing along the longitudinal axis of the matrix from the inlet.

13. The device according to item 12, wherein the inner surface of the matrix has a dome-shaped, tapering from the inlet at the top of the dome is made of the hole, which with a given gap is set, the mandrel is made with the possibility of moving along the longitudinal axis of the matrix.

14. The device according to item 12, wherein the heating means includes an annular heating elements installed in the matrix along the dome-shaped surface, with the heating elements configured to create a temperature gradient, increasing from the inlet to the top of the dome.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that the heating elements configured to create a temperature gradient, increasing from (100+10)°at the inlet to (500+10)°in the area of the top of the dome.

16. Device according to any one of PP -15, characterized in that in front of the entrance hole m is tricy installed the cooling means.



 

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FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of high pressure vessels from recovered ammunition.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of producing blanks, subjecting them to hot deformation, hot molding of vessel mouths, mechanically working vessel mouths; subjecting articles to heat treatment for providing desired strength of vessels; using as blanks bodies of recovered artillery fragmentation type or high-explosive shells with removed collar; cutting each shell in joining zone of its ogival and cylindrical parts for preparing two blanks, namely cone blank with through opening and sleeve like blank with bottom. Heat treatment is realized according to preset mode.

EFFECT: lowered cost, improved factor of metal usage due to using recovered bodies of artillery fragmentation type high-explosive shells, enhanced quality of using shell steels.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 5 tbl

FIELD: pressure vessels.

SUBSTANCE: plastic-coating metallic vessel comprises outer load-bearing plastic shell and inner thin-walled welded steel shell whose intermediate section is cylindrical, two bottoms, and connecting pipe. The connecting pipe and at least one of the bottoms are made in block. The method comprises rolling out the rod from its one end thus defining the flange having flat circular surface from one side, working the unrolled section of the rod to form the outer surface and inner passage of the connecting pipe, rotating tension of the flange, moulding the bottom of a given shape, connecting the bottom to the intermediate cylindrical section, and welding the parts.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumption.

4 cl, 3 dwg

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